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RAW KING SIZE JOINT WITH MOM
RAW KING SIZE JOINT WITH MOM
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Channel: Nathaniel Hall
Baked: How to Joint
Baked: How to Joint
Published: 2015/04/16
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10K CELEBRATION WITH A 14 GRAM JOINT !!
10K CELEBRATION WITH A 14 GRAM JOINT !!
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Channel: Nameless Stoners
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: RuffHouse Studios
The Artist Behind The World
The Artist Behind The World's Greatest Joints
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
US, South Korea launch joint military drills
US, South Korea launch joint military drills
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Fox News
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
South Korea-U.S. joint drills to begin Monday... upping pressure on North Korea
South Korea-U.S. joint drills to begin Monday... upping pressure on North Korea
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
1 Foot Weed Joint
1 Foot Weed Joint
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Channel: Loaded Up
20 GRAMM JOINT | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
20 GRAMM JOINT | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Dein Chillhouse
Smoking a Joint
Smoking a Joint
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: THCtemple
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: CustomGrow420
U.S. and South Korea conduct joint Navy drills
U.S. and South Korea conduct joint Navy drills
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Times of Oman
Mitch McConnell ATTACKS Steve Bannon During Joint Presser with Trump
Mitch McConnell ATTACKS Steve Bannon During Joint Presser with Trump
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Martin Brodel
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: urbanremo
SUPER SBIRES SAGA #05 - MASKOU SE JOINT A NOUS
SUPER SBIRES SAGA #05 - MASKOU SE JOINT A NOUS
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: KirbendoWorld
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Groovymac
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Holistic Buds
HOW TO ROLL A BETTER JOINT
HOW TO ROLL A BETTER JOINT
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: John Choice
SXTN - Eskalation wegen Joint! ZUM GOLDENEN V @splash! 2017
SXTN - Eskalation wegen Joint! ZUM GOLDENEN V @splash! 2017
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: Visa Vie
Rolling With Rogen | HOW WE ROLL
Rolling With Rogen | HOW WE ROLL
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: MERRY JANE
100% KIEF JOINT
100% KIEF JOINT
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: LeaferBag
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: That High Couple
How To Roll a 7g JOINT by Cannabis Frontier | ASK A BUDTENDER
How To Roll a 7g JOINT by Cannabis Frontier | ASK A BUDTENDER
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: CANNABIS FRONTIER Connecting the Cannabis Community
Joint Human and Alien Underground Bases
Joint Human and Alien Underground Bases
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: kinninigan
S. Korea, U.S. kick off joint military drills, remain on alert on provocations from N. Korea
S. Korea, U.S. kick off joint military drills, remain on alert on provocations from N. Korea
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
The Morning Joint - The Lord
The Morning Joint - The Lord's Day Spark
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Joey Diaz
ROLLING & SMOKING A TWAX JOINT
ROLLING & SMOKING A TWAX JOINT
Published: 2017/03/13
Channel: RawOG420
1-Meter Joint | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
1-Meter Joint | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Dein Chillhouse
Are Blunts Stronger Than Joints?? - (Weed Myths #4)
Are Blunts Stronger Than Joints?? - (Weed Myths #4)
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: StrainCentral (Cannabis Reviews and Smoke Sessions)
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Stuermer Cannabis Show und Aufklärung
How To: Roll A Joint
How To: Roll A Joint
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: The Budd
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: CustomGrow420
Compressor Joint Leak
Compressor Joint Leak
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Powlas Enterprises Heating & Air Conditioning
SMOKING A 9 GRAM JOINT FOR 7000 SUBSCRIBERS!!!
SMOKING A 9 GRAM JOINT FOR 7000 SUBSCRIBERS!!!
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: OREGON MARIJUANA (JAKE)
S. Korea and U.S. kick off joint military drills, remain on alert on provocations from N. Korea
S. Korea and U.S. kick off joint military drills, remain on alert on provocations from N. Korea
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
SMOKEABLES: How to Roll a Plumber
SMOKEABLES: How to Roll a Plumber's Joint
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: VICE
South Korea-U.S. joint drills to begin Monday... upping pressure on North Korea
South Korea-U.S. joint drills to begin Monday... upping pressure on North Korea
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
$75 DOLLAR JOINT HOTBOX | LeaferBox
$75 DOLLAR JOINT HOTBOX | LeaferBox
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: LeaferBag
US and South Korea begin joint military drills in Korean peninsula as tensions rise
US and South Korea begin joint military drills in Korean peninsula as tensions rise
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: News U.S Today
learn how to roll a joint in 3 minutes [POV - 420Guide]
learn how to roll a joint in 3 minutes [POV - 420Guide]
Published: 2013/08/13
Channel: 420Guide
JOINT ROLLING COMPETITION | LeaferBag VS Cale
JOINT ROLLING COMPETITION | LeaferBag VS Cale
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: LeaferBag
How to make a Housing Dado Joint - The Three Joints - | Paul Sellers
How to make a Housing Dado Joint - The Three Joints - | Paul Sellers
Published: 2015/03/18
Channel: Paul Sellers
How To Roll Marijuana with a Joint Rolling Machine: Cannabasics #39
How To Roll Marijuana with a Joint Rolling Machine: Cannabasics #39
Published: 2017/01/31
Channel: RuffHouse Studios
JOINT PIPE!
JOINT PIPE!
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: LeaferBag
Sublime - Smoke Two Joints
Sublime - Smoke Two Joints
Published: 2008/04/28
Channel: Scott Lauer
Joint Bauen
Joint Bauen
Published: 2016/12/24
Channel: MrFumuFumu
SONA: Panayam kay Col. Romeo Brawner Jr., Deputy Commander, Joint Task Force Ranao
SONA: Panayam kay Col. Romeo Brawner Jr., Deputy Commander, Joint Task Force Ranao
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: GMA News
DE ALLERGROOTSTE JOINT GEMAAKT TER WERELD!!! MET SIDNEY SCHMELTZ - DE RECORDSHOW #6
DE ALLERGROOTSTE JOINT GEMAAKT TER WERELD!!! MET SIDNEY SCHMELTZ - DE RECORDSHOW #6
Published: 2016/05/02
Channel: Jeroen & Co.
ROK-US conduct joint naval drill in waters around Korean Peninsula
ROK-US conduct joint naval drill in waters around Korean Peninsula
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: CGTN
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Joint
Joint.svg
Diagram of a typical synovial joint
Gray298.png
Details
System Musculoskeletal system
Articular system
Identifiers
Latin Articulus
Junctura
Articulatio
TA A03.0.00.000
FMA 7490
Anatomical terminology

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.[1][2][3] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.[3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.[3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally.[4]

Classification[edit]

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.

Clinical, numerical classification[edit]

  • monoarticular – concerning one joint
  • oligoarticular or pauciarticular – concerning 2–4 joints
  • polyarticular – concerning 5 or more joints

Structural classification (binding tissue)[edit]

Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other.[1] There are three structural classifications of joints:[5]

Functional classification (movement)[edit]

Joints can also be classified functionally according to the type and degree of movement they allow:[1][9] Joint movements are described with reference to the basic anatomical planes.[3]

Joints can also be classified, according to the number of axes of movement they allow, into nonaxial (gliding, as between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius), monoaxial (uniaxial), biaxial and multiaxial.[13] Another classification is according to the degrees of freedom allowed, and distinguished between joints with one, two or three degrees of freedom.[13] A further classification is according to the number and shapes of the articular surfaces: flat, concave and convex surfaces.[13] Types of articular surfaces include trochlear surfaces.[14]

Biomechanical classification[edit]

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[15]

  1. Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex joint: two or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint)

Anatomical[edit]

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. Joints of hand
  2. Elbow joints
  3. Wrist joints
  4. Axillary articulations
  5. Sternoclavicular joints
  6. Vertebral articulations
  7. Temporomandibular joints
  8. Sacroiliac joints
  9. Hip joints
  10. Knee joints
  11. Articulations of foot

Clinical significance[edit]

Damaging the cartilage of joints (articular cartilage) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint dislocations and osteoarthritis. Swimming is a great way to exercise the joints with minimal damage.[3]

A joint disorder is termed arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called arthritis. Most joint disorders involve arthritis, but joint damage by external physical trauma is typically not termed arthritis.

Arthropathies are called polyarticular (multiarticular) when involving many joints and monoarticular when involving only a single joint.

Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.

Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ) involves the jaw joints and can cause facial pain, clicking sounds in the jaw, or limitation of jaw movement, to name a few symptoms. It is caused by psychological tension and misalignment of the jaw (malocclusion), and may be affecting as many as 75 million Americans.[3]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The English word joint is a past participle of the verb join, and can be read as joined.[16] Joint is derived from Latin iunctus,[16] past participle of the Latin verb iungere, join together, unite, connect, attach.[17]

The English term articulation is derived from Latin articulatio.[16]

Human's have also developed lighter, more fragile joint bones over time due to the decrease in physical activity compared to thousands of years ago.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Whiting, William Charles and RuggDynatomy, Stuart (2006) Dynamic Human Anatomy, Volume 10 p.40
  2. ^ "Articulation definition". eMedicine Dictionary. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Connect. Web. p.274
  4. ^ Standring, ed.-in-chief Susan (2006). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice. (39th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. p. 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "isbn0-443-07168-3" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  5. ^ "Introduction to Joints (3) – Joints – Classification by Tissue Joining Bones". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  6. ^ a b Principles of Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Tortora & Derrickson, Pub: Wiley & Sons
  7. ^ "Articular Facet". Medilexicon – Medical Dictionary. Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Foundational Model of Anatomy". Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "Introduction to Joints (2) – Joints – Classification by Movement". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  10. ^ Samuel George Morton (1849) An Illustrated System of Human Anatomy p.119
  11. ^ Henry Gray (1859) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.136
  12. ^ Henry Gray (1887) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.220
  13. ^ a b c Platzer, Werner (2008) Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Volume 1, p.28
  14. ^ Armen S Kelikian, Shahan Sarrafian Sarrafian's Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle: Descriptive, Topographic, Functional p. 94
  15. ^ "Introductory Anatomy: Joints". Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  16. ^ a b c Klein, E. (1971). A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Dealing with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustration the history of civilization and culture. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
  17. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  18. ^ Thompson, Helen. "Switching to Farming Made Human Joint Bones Lighter". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian, 22 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2016. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Thompson2014" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).

External links[edit]

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