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10K CELEBRATION WITH A 14 GRAM JOINT !!
10K CELEBRATION WITH A 14 GRAM JOINT !!
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Nameless Stoners
Baked: How to Joint
Baked: How to Joint
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: WatchCut Video
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: RuffHouse Studios
Joint military drills to begin with U.S., South Korea
Joint military drills to begin with U.S., South Korea
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: PBS NewsHour
The Artist Behind The World
The Artist Behind The World's Greatest Joints
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
Smoking a Joint
Smoking a Joint
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: THCtemple
Sail Life - Hatch frame, toe rail and the dang joint (deck-cabin top) - DIY sailboat refit
Sail Life - Hatch frame, toe rail and the dang joint (deck-cabin top) - DIY sailboat refit
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Sail Life
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
1 Foot Weed Joint
1 Foot Weed Joint
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Loaded Up
ISSA CHILL JOINT SESH (MY FIRST JOINT IN 5 MONTHS!!!)
ISSA CHILL JOINT SESH (MY FIRST JOINT IN 5 MONTHS!!!)
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Kendrick Grady
Immediate Relief From Joint Pain || ఒక్క గ్లాస్ త్రాగితే కీళ్ల నొప్పులుమటుమాయం
Immediate Relief From Joint Pain || ఒక్క గ్లాస్ త్రాగితే కీళ్ల నొప్పులుమటుమాయం
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Natural HealthCare
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: CustomGrow420
Arma 3 Star Wars: 327th and 212th Joint Operation - Beach Assault!
Arma 3 Star Wars: 327th and 212th Joint Operation - Beach Assault!
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: ChiefMufasa
Vlog14 Make Finger joint jig الفلوق ١٤ - صنع
Vlog14 Make Finger joint jig الفلوق ١٤ - صنع
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: ArabWoodWorking
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Groovymac
S. Korea-U.S. to kick off 10-day joint military drill starting Monday
S. Korea-U.S. to kick off 10-day joint military drill starting Monday
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
J. Cole and Kendrick Lamar
J. Cole and Kendrick Lamar's Joint Album Will Probably Never Come Out...
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Diverse Mentality
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Holistic Buds
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: urbanremo
Andy Joint / Sueña Hasta Las Estrellas (5-27 Legacy)
Andy Joint / Sueña Hasta Las Estrellas (5-27 Legacy)
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: La Etnnia 5-27
COMPRINHAS GRINGAS NA BEAUTY JOINT
COMPRINHAS GRINGAS NA BEAUTY JOINT
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Rosana Amador
Rolling With Rogen
Rolling With Rogen
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: MERRY JANE
Top U.S. commanders visit S. Korea to observe joint military exercises
Top U.S. commanders visit S. Korea to observe joint military exercises
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
[ NEW LYRIC VIDEO ] NEW JOINT! 💸 钱程似锦 : Vinida 万妮达 💸
[ NEW LYRIC VIDEO ] NEW JOINT! 💸 钱程似锦 : Vinida 万妮达 💸
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: ZHONG.TV
HOW TO ROLL A BETTER JOINT
HOW TO ROLL A BETTER JOINT
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: John Choice
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Stuermer Cannabis Show und Aufklärung
$75 DOLLAR JOINT HOTBOX | LeaferBox
$75 DOLLAR JOINT HOTBOX | LeaferBox
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: LeaferBag
Cut a Rule Joint with a Router
Cut a Rule Joint with a Router
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Popular Woodworking
Our Local Ramen Joint!
Our Local Ramen Joint!
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Kyde and Eric
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: That High Couple
Broncos wrap up joint practices with the 49ers
Broncos wrap up joint practices with the 49ers
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Denver Broncos
S. Korea-U.S. to kick off 10-day joint military drill starting Monday
S. Korea-U.S. to kick off 10-day joint military drill starting Monday
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
Congress to organise joint protests against BJP-RSS | Mathrubhumi News
Congress to organise joint protests against BJP-RSS | Mathrubhumi News
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Mathrubhumi News
Nichtraucherin versucht Joint zu drehen
Nichtraucherin versucht Joint zu drehen
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: So Geht Das
Joint Bauen
Joint Bauen
Published: 2016/12/24
Channel: MrFumuFumu
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: CustomGrow420
RIP SLYME - JOINT
RIP SLYME - JOINT
Published: 2011/02/08
Channel: Warner Music Japan
Business Nightly: Chinese professor lays out
Business Nightly: Chinese professor lays out 'principles' for joint sea exploration
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: ABS-CBN News
DX Exclusive: DJ Quik Working On Joint EP With Scarface & “BlaqKout” Follow-Up With Kurupt
DX Exclusive: DJ Quik Working On Joint EP With Scarface & “BlaqKout” Follow-Up With Kurupt
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: HipHopDX
How to make a Mortise and Tenon Joint - The Three Joints - | Paul Sellers
How to make a Mortise and Tenon Joint - The Three Joints - | Paul Sellers
Published: 2015/06/08
Channel: Paul Sellers
The ULTIMATE Guide to Rolling a Joint Perfectly
The ULTIMATE Guide to Rolling a Joint Perfectly
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: hrm
Subaru - Ball Joint Replacement
Subaru - Ball Joint Replacement
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: South Main Auto Repair
SMOKING A 9 GRAM JOINT FOR 7000 SUBSCRIBERS!!!
SMOKING A 9 GRAM JOINT FOR 7000 SUBSCRIBERS!!!
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: OREGON MARIJUANA (JAKE)
JOINT- NO FUMES MARIHUANA
JOINT- NO FUMES MARIHUANA
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: loulogio
DE ALLERGROOTSTE JOINT GEMAAKT TER WERELD!!! MET SIDNEY SCHMELTZ - DE RECORDSHOW #6
DE ALLERGROOTSTE JOINT GEMAAKT TER WERELD!!! MET SIDNEY SCHMELTZ - DE RECORDSHOW #6
Published: 2016/05/02
Channel: Jeroen & Co.
SMOKING A BIG RAW JOINT WITH RECLAIM ON IT
SMOKING A BIG RAW JOINT WITH RECLAIM ON IT
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: OREGON MARIJUANA (JAKE)
Joint practice No. 1: What went down?
Joint practice No. 1: What went down?
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Carolina Panthers
Make a Half-Blind Tongue-in-Groove Joint for Small Drawers
Make a Half-Blind Tongue-in-Groove Joint for Small Drawers
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Popular Woodworking
Comment réussir les joints de carrelage ? Leroy Merlin
Comment réussir les joints de carrelage ? Leroy Merlin
Published: 2013/02/25
Channel: leroymerlinfr
BONGS vs. JOINTS
BONGS vs. JOINTS
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: StrainCentral (Cannabis Reviews and Smoke Sessions)
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Joint
Joint.svg
Diagram of a typical synovial joint
Gray298.png
Details
System Musculoskeletal system
Articular system
Identifiers
Latin Articulus
Junctura
Articulatio
TA A03.0.00.000
FMA 7490
Anatomical terminology

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.[1][2][3] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.[3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.[3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally.[4]

Classification[edit]

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.

Clinical, numerical classification[edit]

  • monoarticular – concerning one joint
  • oligoarticular or pauciarticular – concerning 2–4 joints
  • polyarticular – concerning 5 or more joints

Structural classification (binding tissue)[edit]

Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other.[1] There are three structural classifications of joints:[5]

  • fibrous joint – joined by dense regular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers [6]
  • cartilaginous joint – joined by cartilage
  • synovial joint – not directly joined – the bones have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue that forms the articular capsule that is normally associated with accessory ligaments.[6]
  • facet joint – joint between two articular processes between two vertebrae.[7][8]

Functional classification (movement)[edit]

Joints can also be classified functionally according to the type and degree of movement they allow:[1][9] Joint movements are described with reference to the basic anatomical planes.[3]

Joints can also be classified, according to the number of axes of movement they allow, into nonaxial (gliding, as between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius), monoaxial (uniaxial), biaxial and multiaxial.[13] Another classification is according to the degrees of freedom allowed, and distinguished between joints with one, two or three degrees of freedom.[13] A further classification is according to the number and shapes of the articular surfaces: flat, concave and convex surfaces.[13] Types of articular surfaces include trochlear surfaces.[14]

Biomechanical classification[edit]

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[15]

  1. Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex joint: two or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint)

Anatomical[edit]

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. Joints of hand
  2. Elbow joints
  3. Wrist joints
  4. Axillary articulations
  5. Sternoclavicular joints
  6. Vertebral articulations
  7. Temporomandibular joints
  8. Sacroiliac joints
  9. Hip joints
  10. Knee joints
  11. Articulations of foot

Clinical significance[edit]

Damaging the cartilage of joints (articular cartilage) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint dislocations and osteoarthritis. Swimming is a great way to exercise the joints with minimal damage.[3]

A joint disorder is termed arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called arthritis. Most joint disorders involve arthritis, but joint damage by external physical trauma is typically not termed arthritis.

Arthropathies are called polyarticular (multiarticular) when involving many joints and monoarticular when involving only a single joint.

Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.

Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ) involves the jaw joints and can cause facial pain, clicking sounds in the jaw, or limitation of jaw movement, to name a few symptoms. It is caused by psychological tension and misalignment of the jaw (malocclusion), and may be affecting as many as 75 million Americans.[3]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The English word joint is a past participle of the verb join, and can be read as joined.[16] Joint is derived from Latin iunctus,[16] past participle of the Latin verb iungere, join together, unite, connect, attach.[17]

The English term articulation is derived from Latin articulatio.[16]

Human's have also developed lighter, more fragile joint bones over time due to the decrease in physical activity compared to thousands of years ago.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Whiting, William Charles and RuggDynatomy, Stuart (2006) Dynamic Human Anatomy, Volume 10 p.40
  2. ^ "Articulation definition". eMedicine Dictionary. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Connect. Web. p.274
  4. ^ Standring, ed.-in-chief Susan (2006). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice. (39th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. p. 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "isbn0-443-07168-3" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  5. ^ "Introduction to Joints (3) – Joints – Classification by Tissue Joining Bones". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  6. ^ a b Principles of Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Tortora & Derrickson, Pub: Wiley & Sons
  7. ^ "Articular Facet". Medilexicon – Medical Dictionary. Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Foundational Model of Anatomy". Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "Introduction to Joints (2) – Joints – Classification by Movement". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  10. ^ Samuel George Morton (1849) An Illustrated System of Human Anatomy p.119
  11. ^ Henry Gray (1859) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.136
  12. ^ Henry Gray (1887) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.220
  13. ^ a b c Platzer, Werner (2008) Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Volume 1, p.28
  14. ^ Armen S Kelikian, Shahan Sarrafian Sarrafian's Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle: Descriptive, Topographic, Functional p. 94
  15. ^ "Introductory Anatomy: Joints". Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  16. ^ a b c Klein, E. (1971). A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Dealing with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustration the history of civilization and culture. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
  17. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  18. ^ Thompson, Helen. "Switching to Farming Made Human Joint Bones Lighter". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian, 22 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2016. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Thompson2014" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).

External links[edit]

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