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Baked: How to Joint
Baked: How to Joint
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: WatchCut Video
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: RuffHouse Studios
The Artist Behind The World
The Artist Behind The World's Greatest Joints
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
Smoking a Joint
Smoking a Joint
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: THCtemple
1 Foot Weed Joint
1 Foot Weed Joint
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Loaded Up
Modi-Trump likely to make joint strategy against terrorism
Modi-Trump likely to make joint strategy against terrorism
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Zee News
How to Roll a Fatass Twax Joint - Rolling with Dutch
How to Roll a Fatass Twax Joint - Rolling with Dutch
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Matthias710WRX
PM Narendra Modi arrives at Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC on the second leg of his thr
PM Narendra Modi arrives at Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC on the second leg of his thr
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: ABP NEWS
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: CustomGrow420
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
XCOM 2: Marbs & Odd - JOINT FINAL MISSION - Part 70 - Legend Co-op Campaign
XCOM 2: Marbs & Odd - JOINT FINAL MISSION - Part 70 - Legend Co-op Campaign
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Marbozir
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Groovymac
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Holistic Buds
THE BLUNT vs. JOINT HOT BOX!!! - Crutch
THE BLUNT vs. JOINT HOT BOX!!! - Crutch
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Crutch 420
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Stuermer Cannabis Show und Aufklärung
100% KIEF JOINT
100% KIEF JOINT
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: LeaferBag
PM Modi arrives at Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC
PM Modi arrives at Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: IndiaTV
Indians gather at Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC to welcome PM Narendra Modi
Indians gather at Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC to welcome PM Narendra Modi
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: IndiaTV
SMOKEABLES: How to Roll a Plumber
SMOKEABLES: How to Roll a Plumber's Joint
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: VICE
Rolling and Smoking a 24K Gold Joint! // Smoke Sesh
Rolling and Smoking a 24K Gold Joint! // Smoke Sesh
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: SilencedHippie
ROLLING & SMOKING A TWAX JOINT
ROLLING & SMOKING A TWAX JOINT
Published: 2017/03/13
Channel: RawOG420
HOW TO ROLL dA BETTER JOINT
HOW TO ROLL dA BETTER JOINT
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: John Choice
అటుకులు తో ఇలా చేస్తే కీళ్ల నొప్పులు రమన్న రావు  || Natural knee joint pain treatment
అటుకులు తో ఇలా చేస్తే కీళ్ల నొప్పులు రమన్న రావు || Natural knee joint pain treatment
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Natural HealthCare
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: urbanremo
Rolling With Rogen
Rolling With Rogen
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: MERRY JANE
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: High Hipsters
Avoid These 10 Foods To Avoid Worse Joint Pain - Health Tips
Avoid These 10 Foods To Avoid Worse Joint Pain - Health Tips
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: Healthy Lifestyle
Cannabis Show | Amnesia Haze Joint und peinliche Story
Cannabis Show | Amnesia Haze Joint und peinliche Story
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Stuermer Cannabis Show und Aufklärung
PM Modi meets people from Indian community at the Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC
PM Modi meets people from Indian community at the Joint Base Andrews, Washington DC
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: IndiaTV
How To Roll Marijuana with a Joint Rolling Machine: Cannabasics #39
How To Roll Marijuana with a Joint Rolling Machine: Cannabasics #39
Published: 2017/01/31
Channel: RuffHouse Studios
FRIED DAY Supercharged Lift Expo Joint 2017
FRIED DAY Supercharged Lift Expo Joint 2017
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: urbanremo
THE BOSS JOINT
THE BOSS JOINT
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: LeaferBag
Nichtraucherin versucht Joint zu drehen
Nichtraucherin versucht Joint zu drehen
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: So Geht Das
ROLLING A 5 GRAM JOINT
ROLLING A 5 GRAM JOINT
Published: 2016/03/19
Channel: Haley420
Rim
Rim'K apprend à Baloo à rouler un joint
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: L'oeilDuNet
JOINT DREHEN BAUEN / 30cm Drehmaschine von RAW
JOINT DREHEN BAUEN / 30cm Drehmaschine von RAW
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: Stoner
PM Modi at the Joint Press Statements with PM of Portugal António Costa in Portugal
PM Modi at the Joint Press Statements with PM of Portugal António Costa in Portugal
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: Narendra Modi
Modi-Trump likely to make a joint strategy against terrorism | ट्रम्प-मोदी की पहली मुलाकात कल
Modi-Trump likely to make a joint strategy against terrorism | ट्रम्प-मोदी की पहली मुलाकात कल
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: ZeeBusiness
ಮಂಡಿನೋವಾ? ಮನೆಯಲ್ಲೇ Pain Killer ತಯಾರಿಸಿ | joint pain killer
ಮಂಡಿನೋವಾ? ಮನೆಯಲ್ಲೇ Pain Killer ತಯಾರಿಸಿ | joint pain killer
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: KANNADA GK MISSION
Joint Bauen
Joint Bauen
Published: 2016/12/24
Channel: MrFumuFumu
JOINT- NO FUMES MARIHUANA
JOINT- NO FUMES MARIHUANA
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: loulogio
GROOTSTE JOINT OOIT GEMAAKT!!! MET SIDNEY SCHMELTZ - DE RECORDSHOW #6
GROOTSTE JOINT OOIT GEMAAKT!!! MET SIDNEY SCHMELTZ - DE RECORDSHOW #6
Published: 2016/05/02
Channel: Jeroen & Co.
DJ Alpha - Joint
DJ Alpha - Joint
Published: 2013/02/08
Channel: JumpUpDubz
Disney Pixar Cars 3 Joint Union McQueen Red Mater Dinoco Francesco Car&Truck Transformation
Disney Pixar Cars 3 Joint Union McQueen Red Mater Dinoco Francesco Car&Truck Transformation
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Transformers ToySpace토이스페이스
Islamabad: Foreign Adviser Sartaj Aziz and Chinese FM joint News Conference
Islamabad: Foreign Adviser Sartaj Aziz and Chinese FM joint News Conference
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Abbtakk News
PM Modi
PM Modi's Speech at Joint Press Statements with PM of Portugal António Costa in Portugal
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: PMO India
How To Roll A Perfect Joint
How To Roll A Perfect Joint
Published: 2016/12/10
Channel: SmokerParadise
MC Ron & Speechless - Joint ft. Mikee Mykanic | MUSIC VIDEO |
MC Ron & Speechless - Joint ft. Mikee Mykanic | MUSIC VIDEO |
Published: 2013/08/03
Channel: AfroBeatzCrew
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: CustomGrow420
REPLAY - Watch Macron
REPLAY - Watch Macron's and Merkel's joint press conference at Brussels EU Summit
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Joint
Joint.svg
Diagram of a typical synovial joint
Gray298.png
Details
System Musculoskeletal system
Articular system
Identifiers
Latin Articulus
Junctura
Articulatio
TA A03.0.00.000
FMA 7490
Anatomical terminology

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.[1][2][3] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.[3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.[3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally.[4]

Classification[edit]

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.

Clinical, numerical classification[edit]

  • monoarticular – concerning one joint
  • oligoarticular or pauciarticular – concerning 2–4 joints
  • polyarticular – concerning 5 or more joints

Structural classification (binding tissue)[edit]

Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other.[1] There are three structural classifications of joints:[5]

  • fibrous joint – joined by dense regular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers [6]
  • cartilaginous joint – joined by cartilage
  • synovial joint – not directly joined – the bones have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue that forms the articular capsule that is normally associated with accessory ligaments.[6]
  • facet joint – joint between two articular processes between two vertebrae.[7][8]

Functional classification (movement)[edit]

Joints can also be classified functionally according to the type and degree of movement they allow:[1][9] Joint movements are described with reference to the basic anatomical planes.[3]

Joints can also be classified, according to the number of axes of movement they allow, into nonaxial (gliding, as between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius), monoaxial (uniaxial), biaxial and multiaxial.[13] Another classification is according to the degrees of freedom allowed, and distinguished between joints with one, two or three degrees of freedom.[13] A further classification is according to the number and shapes of the articular surfaces: flat, concave and convex surfaces.[13] Types of articular surfaces include trochlear surfaces.[14]

Biomechanical classification[edit]

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[15]

  1. Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex joint: two or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint)

Anatomical[edit]

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. Joints of hand
  2. Elbow joints
  3. Wrist joints
  4. Axillary articulations
  5. Sternoclavicular joints
  6. Vertebral articulations
  7. Temporomandibular joints
  8. Sacroiliac joints
  9. Hip joints
  10. Knee joints
  11. Articulations of foot

Clinical significance[edit]

Damaging the cartilage of joints (articular cartilage) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint dislocations and osteoarthritis. Swimming is a great way to exercise the joints with minimal damage.[3]

A joint disorder is termed arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called arthritis. Most joint disorders involve arthritis, but joint damage by external physical trauma is typically not termed arthritis.

Arthropathies are called polyarticular (multiarticular) when involving many joints and monoarticular when involving only a single joint.

Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.

Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ) involves the jaw joints and can cause facial pain, clicking sounds in the jaw, or limitation of jaw movement, to name a few symptoms. It is caused by psychological tension and misalignment of the jaw (malocclusion), and may be affecting as many as 75 million Americans.[3]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The English word joint is a past participle of the verb join, and can be read as joined.[16] Joint is derived from Latin iunctus,[16] past participle of the Latin verb iungere, join together, unite, connect, attach.[17]

The English term articulation is derived from Latin articulatio.[16]

Human's have also developed lighter, more fragile joint bones over time due to the decrease in physical activity compared to thousands of years ago.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Whiting, William Charles and RuggDynatomy, Stuart (2006) Dynamic Human Anatomy, Volume 10 p.40
  2. ^ "Articulation definition". eMedicine Dictionary. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Connect. Web. p.274
  4. ^ Standring, ed.-in-chief Susan (2006). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice. (39th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. p. 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "isbn0-443-07168-3" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  5. ^ "Introduction to Joints (3) – Joints – Classification by Tissue Joining Bones". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  6. ^ a b Principles of Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Tortora & Derrickson, Pub: Wiley & Sons
  7. ^ "Articular Facet". Medilexicon – Medical Dictionary. Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Foundational Model of Anatomy". Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "Introduction to Joints (2) – Joints – Classification by Movement". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  10. ^ Samuel George Morton (1849) An Illustrated System of Human Anatomy p.119
  11. ^ Henry Gray (1859) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.136
  12. ^ Henry Gray (1887) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.220
  13. ^ a b c Platzer, Werner (2008) Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Volume 1, p.28
  14. ^ Armen S Kelikian, Shahan Sarrafian Sarrafian's Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle: Descriptive, Topographic, Functional p. 94
  15. ^ "Introductory Anatomy: Joints". Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  16. ^ a b c Klein, E. (1971). A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Dealing with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustration the history of civilization and culture. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
  17. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  18. ^ Thompson, Helen. "Switching to Farming Made Human Joint Bones Lighter". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian, 22 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2016. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Thompson2014" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).

External links[edit]

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