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Mom Smoking Raw King Size Joint
Mom Smoking Raw King Size Joint
Published: 2017/10/07
Channel: Nate420
Baked: How to Joint
Baked: How to Joint
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: Cut
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
How To Roll 5 Types of Joints (Basic, Tipped, Cone, Backrolled & Oversized): Cannabasics #49
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: RuffHouse Studios
10K CELEBRATION WITH A 14 GRAM JOINT !!
10K CELEBRATION WITH A 14 GRAM JOINT !!
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Nameless Stoners
The Artist Behind The World
The Artist Behind The World's Greatest Joints
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
How To Roll The Perfect Joint. Every Time.
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Vocativ
Making a JOINT PRACTICE frame - Part 2
Making a JOINT PRACTICE frame - Part 2
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: Matt Estlea - Furniture
1 Foot Weed Joint
1 Foot Weed Joint
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Loaded Up
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
$40 JOINT!!!!!!!!
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: CustomGrow420
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
A GIANT HALF POUND Jamaican Joint
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: urbanremo
CAN WE TAKE CURD IN URIC ACID, ARTHRITIS AND JOINT PAIN BY NITYANANDAM SHREE
CAN WE TAKE CURD IN URIC ACID, ARTHRITIS AND JOINT PAIN BY NITYANANDAM SHREE
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: Nityanandam Shree
100% KIEF JOINT
100% KIEF JOINT
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: LeaferBag
SMOKEABLES: How to Roll a Plumber
SMOKEABLES: How to Roll a Plumber's Joint
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: VICE
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
JOINT HOTBOX IN MY DADS TRUCK!
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Groovymac
Rolling With Rogen | HOW WE ROLL
Rolling With Rogen | HOW WE ROLL
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: MERRY JANE
How To Roll a 7g JOINT by Cannabis Frontier | ASK A BUDTENDER
How To Roll a 7g JOINT by Cannabis Frontier | ASK A BUDTENDER
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: CANNABIS FRONTIER Connecting the Cannabis Community
Smoking a Joint
Smoking a Joint
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: THCtemple
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
HOW TO ROLL A JOINT
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Holistic Buds
20 GRAMM JOINT | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
20 GRAMM JOINT | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Dein Chillhouse
Proper Joint of Electric Wire
Proper Joint of Electric Wire
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: EASY TECH
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
$2 Weed Joint vs $20 Weed Joint
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: That High Couple
HOW TO ROLL A BETTER JOINT
HOW TO ROLL A BETTER JOINT
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: John Choice
Slightly Stoopid - This Joint
Slightly Stoopid - This Joint
Published: 2008/04/22
Channel: teamsleep24
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
1 GRAM OIL JOINT!!!!!
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: CustomGrow420
Are Blunts Stronger Than Joints?? - (Weed Myths #4)
Are Blunts Stronger Than Joints?? - (Weed Myths #4)
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: StrainCentral (Cannabis Reviews and Smoke Sessions)
The Percocet & Stripper Joint
The Percocet & Stripper Joint
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: Future - Topic
1-Meter Joint | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
1-Meter Joint | Chillhouse - Der Headshop Deines Vertrauens
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Dein Chillhouse
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Der Joint | Vorteile / Nachteile und Wirkung
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Stuermer Cannabis Show und Aufklärung
JOINT- NO FUMES MARIHUANA
JOINT- NO FUMES MARIHUANA
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: loulogio
Big Los & 5050 - Saca El Joint
Big Los & 5050 - Saca El Joint
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Mercado Negro
Joints: Crash Course A&P #20
Joints: Crash Course A&P #20
Published: 2015/05/26
Channel: CrashCourse
【JOINT 013 REFINE】 teaser POTENTIAL MOVIE
【JOINT 013 REFINE】 teaser POTENTIAL MOVIE
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: jointcrew01
James Joint
James Joint
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Rihanna - Topic
Joint University Mass Dance 2017 - HKU station
Joint University Mass Dance 2017 - HKU station
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: hkucampustv
Cannabis Show | Dicken Königsmische Joint rauchen!
Cannabis Show | Dicken Königsmische Joint rauchen!
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: Stuermer Cannabis Show und Aufklärung
JOINT PIPE!
JOINT PIPE!
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: LeaferBag
learn how to roll a joint in 3 minutes [POV - 420Guide]
learn how to roll a joint in 3 minutes [POV - 420Guide]
Published: 2013/08/13
Channel: 420Guide
Natural Treatment For Knee Pains | Tips To Get Relief From Joint Pains | Health Facts Telugu
Natural Treatment For Knee Pains | Tips To Get Relief From Joint Pains | Health Facts Telugu
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: Health Facts Telugu
ROLLING A 5 GRAM JOINT
ROLLING A 5 GRAM JOINT
Published: 2016/03/19
Channel: Haley420
How To Roll A CROSS JOINT The Easiest Way Tutorial
How To Roll A CROSS JOINT The Easiest Way Tutorial
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: LeaferBag
How to make a Mortise and Tenon Joint - The Three Joints - | Paul Sellers
How to make a Mortise and Tenon Joint - The Three Joints - | Paul Sellers
Published: 2015/06/08
Channel: Paul Sellers
Seth Rogen, Snoop, Cross Joints & Chronic GGN
Seth Rogen, Snoop, Cross Joints & Chronic GGN
Published: 2014/06/10
Channel: westfesttv
【JOINT 014 INTERA】 teaser POTENTIAL MOVIE
【JOINT 014 INTERA】 teaser POTENTIAL MOVIE
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: jointcrew01
EXPERT JOINTS - THE BEST HOW TO ROLL A JOINT VIDEO EVER!
EXPERT JOINTS - THE BEST HOW TO ROLL A JOINT VIDEO EVER!
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: EXPERT JOINTS
Kylie Jenner & Khloe Kardashian Plan JOINT Birth?
Kylie Jenner & Khloe Kardashian Plan JOINT Birth?
Published: 2017/12/07
Channel: Clevver News
23 Ways To Get Rid Of Inflammation and Joint Pain - Saturday Strategy
23 Ways To Get Rid Of Inflammation and Joint Pain - Saturday Strategy
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: FitLifeTV
Wat vinden we van de elektronische joint?
Wat vinden we van de elektronische joint?
Published: 2014/07/01
Channel: FunX
Amnesia Haze Joint mit 1G Skuff / Kief
Amnesia Haze Joint mit 1G Skuff / Kief
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: Stuermer Cannabis Show und Aufklärung
I Smoke Two Joints
I Smoke Two Joints
Published: 2008/12/08
Channel: Arthur Hooge
Oops, Axle and Ball Joint Replacement - EricTheCarGuy
Oops, Axle and Ball Joint Replacement - EricTheCarGuy
Published: 2009/11/24
Channel: EricTheCarGuy
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Joint
Joint.svg
Diagram of a typical synovial joint
Gray298.png
Details
System Musculoskeletal system
Articular system
Identifiers
Latin Articulus
Junctura
Articulatio
TA A03.0.00.000
FMA 7490
Anatomical terminology

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.[1][2][3] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.[3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.[3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally.[4]

Classification[edit]

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.

Clinical, numerical classification[edit]

  • monoarticular – concerning one joint
  • oligoarticular or pauciarticular – concerning 2–4 joints
  • polyarticular – concerning 5 or more joints

Structural classification (binding tissue)[edit]

Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other.[1] There are three structural classifications of joints:[5]

Functional classification (movement)[edit]

Joints can also be classified functionally according to the type and degree of movement they allow:[1][9] Joint movements are described with reference to the basic anatomical planes.[3]

Joints can also be classified, according to the number of axes of movement they allow, into nonaxial (gliding, as between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius), monoaxial (uniaxial), biaxial and multiaxial.[13] Another classification is according to the degrees of freedom allowed, and distinguished between joints with one, two or three degrees of freedom.[13] A further classification is according to the number and shapes of the articular surfaces: flat, concave and convex surfaces.[13] Types of articular surfaces include trochlear surfaces.[14]

Biomechanical classification[edit]

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[15]

  1. Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex joint: two or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint)

Anatomical[edit]

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. Joints of hand
  2. Elbow joints
  3. Wrist joints
  4. Axillary articulations
  5. Sternoclavicular joints
  6. Vertebral articulations
  7. Temporomandibular joints
  8. Sacroiliac joints
  9. Hip joints
  10. Knee joints
  11. Articulations of foot

Clinical significance[edit]

Damaging the cartilage of joints (articular cartilage) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint dislocations and osteoarthritis. Swimming is a great way to exercise the joints with minimal damage.[3]

A joint disorder is termed arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called arthritis. Most joint disorders involve arthritis, but joint damage by external physical trauma is typically not termed arthritis.

Arthropathies are called polyarticular (multiarticular) when involving many joints and monoarticular when involving only a single joint.

Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.

Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ) involves the jaw joints and can cause facial pain, clicking sounds in the jaw, or limitation of jaw movement, to name a few symptoms. It is caused by psychological tension and misalignment of the jaw (malocclusion), and may be affecting as many as 75 million Americans.[3]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The English word joint is a past participle of the verb join, and can be read as joined.[16] Joint is derived from Latin iunctus,[16] past participle of the Latin verb iungere, join together, unite, connect, attach.[17]

The English term articulation is derived from Latin articulatio.[16]

Humans have also developed lighter, more fragile joint bones over time due to the decrease in physical activity compared to thousands of years ago.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Whiting, William Charles and RuggDynatomy, Stuart (2006) Dynamic Human Anatomy, Volume 10 p.40
  2. ^ "Articulation definition". eMedicine Dictionary. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Connect. Web. p.274
  4. ^ Standring, ed.-in-chief Susan (2006). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (39th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. p. 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3. 
  5. ^ "Introduction to Joints (3) – Joints – Classification by Tissue Joining Bones". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  6. ^ a b Principles of Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Tortora & Derrickson, Pub: Wiley & Sons
  7. ^ "Articular Facet". Medilexicon – Medical Dictionary. Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Foundational Model of Anatomy". Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "Introduction to Joints (2) – Joints – Classification by Movement". anatomy.med.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  10. ^ Samuel George Morton (1849) An Illustrated System of Human Anatomy p.119
  11. ^ Henry Gray (1859) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.136
  12. ^ Henry Gray (1887) Anatomy, descriptive and surgical p.220
  13. ^ a b c Platzer, Werner (2008) Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Volume 1, p.28
  14. ^ Armen S Kelikian, Shahan Sarrafian Sarrafian's Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle: Descriptive, Topographic, Functional p. 94
  15. ^ "Introductory Anatomy: Joints". Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  16. ^ a b c Klein, E. (1971). A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Dealing with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustration the history of civilization and culture. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
  17. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  18. ^ Thompson, Helen. "Switching to Farming Made Human Joint Bones Lighter". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian, 22 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2016.

External links[edit]

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