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Israel's Judiciary Launders the Government's Racism
Published: 2013/04/18
Channel: David Sheen
Judicial Review: Crash Course Government and Politics #21
Judicial Review: Crash Course Government and Politics #21
Published: 2015/06/27
Channel: CrashCourse
Sekulow: "Victory in Court for Israel" Ep. 447
Sekulow: "Victory in Court for Israel" Ep. 447
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: OfficialACLJ
Structure of the Court System: Crash Course Government and Politics #19
Structure of the Court System: Crash Course Government and Politics #19
Published: 2015/06/05
Channel: CrashCourse
Is the UN Fair to Israel?
Is the UN Fair to Israel?
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: PragerU
Polish President
Polish President's Judiciary Law Veto Sparks Outcry
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: Bloomberg TV Markets and Finance
Inside How the Federalist Society & Koch Brothers Are Pushing for Trump to Reshape Federal Judiciary
Inside How the Federalist Society & Koch Brothers Are Pushing for Trump to Reshape Federal Judiciary
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: Democracy Now!
International Judiciary working for Israel and U.S.-Sahar Urdu TV News December 10 2010 Tehran Iran
International Judiciary working for Israel and U.S.-Sahar Urdu TV News December 10 2010 Tehran Iran
Published: 2010/12/10
Channel: SaharUrdu
ZAYC Program, Judiciary
ZAYC Program, Judiciary
Published: 2012/10/26
Channel: Chelanie Israel
How will Trump reshape the judiciary?
How will Trump reshape the judiciary?
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Fox Business
Judiciary about the protest leaders & sentence of Israeli spy
Judiciary about the protest leaders & sentence of Israeli spy
Published: 2010/12/27
Channel: Agaahi
Iran
Iran's judiciary announces 10-year sentence for American citizen
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: CBS News
Who Is The Judiciary?
Who Is The Judiciary?
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: Ask Question
Poland
Poland's lower house passes controversial judiciary reform bill
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: euronews (in English)
Neither Force nor Will: The Politicization of the Judicial Branch
Neither Force nor Will: The Politicization of the Judicial Branch
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: Hillsdale College
Mark Levin interviews Dore Gold about the history of Israel and Jerusalem (May 22 2017)
Mark Levin interviews Dore Gold about the history of Israel and Jerusalem (May 22 2017)
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: American Patriot [Mark Levin audio clips]
Judicial Decisions: Crash Course Government and Politics #22
Judicial Decisions: Crash Course Government and Politics #22
Published: 2015/07/10
Channel: CrashCourse
LAW121 - Colonial Judicial decisions
LAW121 - Colonial Judicial decisions
Published: 2011/08/15
Channel: mohsenalattar1
Jay Sekulow
Jay Sekulow's UN Address: "Stand With Israel" - FULL SPEECH
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: OfficialACLJ
Despite what head of judiciary said ,  German minister signed agreements with minister of finance
Despite what head of judiciary said , German minister signed agreements with minister of finance
Published: 2016/10/03
Channel: Manuchehr lenziran
Israel Palestine Conflict क्या है ?- पूरा इतिहास जानिये -UPSC/IAS/PSC
Israel Palestine Conflict क्या है ?- पूरा इतिहास जानिये -UPSC/IAS/PSC
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Study IQ education
Legal System Basics: Crash Course Government and Politics #18
Legal System Basics: Crash Course Government and Politics #18
Published: 2015/05/30
Channel: CrashCourse
Leader: Judiciary should declare position on intl. affairs
Leader: Judiciary should declare position on intl. affairs
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: PressTV News Videos
SIMPLE AMAZING: President Trump FANTASTIC Speech at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem 5/23/2017
SIMPLE AMAZING: President Trump FANTASTIC Speech at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem 5/23/2017
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: DONALD TRUMP SPEECHES & PRESS CONFERENCE
Gohmert in Judiciary: You
Gohmert in Judiciary: You're Playing God With The Internet
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: GohmertTX01
US Senate Pushing Bill To Criminalize Boycott Of Israel
US Senate Pushing Bill To Criminalize Boycott Of Israel
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: CONTENT
The end of judicial independence in Poland? | DW English
The end of judicial independence in Poland? | DW English
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: DW English
Senate Judiciary Hearing on the Foreign Agents Registration Act - 07/26/2017
Senate Judiciary Hearing on the Foreign Agents Registration Act - 07/26/2017
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: IRmep Stream
EGYPT JUDICIARY MEETING
EGYPT JUDICIARY MEETING
Published: 2013/04/25
Channel: CGTN Africa
SYND 11 10 78 PRESIDENT SADAT ADDRESSES SUPREME JUDICIARY COUNCIL
SYND 11 10 78 PRESIDENT SADAT ADDRESSES SUPREME JUDICIARY COUNCIL
Published: 2015/07/24
Channel: AP Archive
How Judges Decide Cases: Inside the Judicial Decision-Making Process - Lawyers & Jury Trials (1990)
How Judges Decide Cases: Inside the Judicial Decision-Making Process - Lawyers & Jury Trials (1990)
Published: 2014/02/12
Channel: The Film Archives
Poland approves bill giving parliament powers over judiciary
Poland approves bill giving parliament powers over judiciary
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Trump attacks on judiciary raise concerns
Trump attacks on judiciary raise concerns
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: CBS News
THE DEBATE - Polish democracy under threat? EU warns Warsaw over judicial independence
THE DEBATE - Polish democracy under threat? EU warns Warsaw over judicial independence
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Karen Eltis and Yigal Mersel – Cyberintimidation and Judicial Expression in the Digital Age
Karen Eltis and Yigal Mersel – Cyberintimidation and Judicial Expression in the Digital Age
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: CITP Princeton
House open to talks with judiciary over
House open to talks with judiciary over 'Ilocos Norte 6': Umali
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: ABS-CBN News
Clare Daly Condemns Israel
Clare Daly Condemns Israel's Ongoing Massacre of Palestinians in Gaza
Published: 2014/07/17
Channel: Representative Press ☞
Read Scripture: Judges
Read Scripture: Judges
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: The Bible Project
Judiciary Rules
Judiciary Rules
Published: 2013/01/30
Channel: LaRouchePAC Videos
Sen. Ted Cruz Opening Statement in Judiciary Subcommittee Hearing on
Sen. Ted Cruz Opening Statement in Judiciary Subcommittee Hearing on 'Stand Your Ground' Laws
Published: 2013/10/29
Channel: SenTedCruz
Sen. Cruz Confronts Chuck Hagel With Old Audio on Israel in Heated Confirmation Hearing Exchange
Sen. Cruz Confronts Chuck Hagel With Old Audio on Israel in Heated Confirmation Hearing Exchange
Published: 2013/02/01
Channel: IPAddress
Jay Sekulow Speaking Before Judiciary Hearing:
Jay Sekulow Speaking Before Judiciary Hearing:
Published: 2014/12/09
Channel: OfficialACLJ
Petitioner seeks removal of Judiciary Chief Registrar
Petitioner seeks removal of Judiciary Chief Registrar
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Kenya NTV
Is Trump rethinking approach with Israel?
Is Trump rethinking approach with Israel?
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: CBS News
Poland demos over judiciary bill | World
Poland demos over judiciary bill | World
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: Financial Times
5 Landmark Cases That Changed India
5 Landmark Cases That Changed India's Governance: Golaknath, Keshvananda Bharti, etc. [UPSC CSE/IAS]
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Unacademy
PART 2: James Comey Testifies FBI Oversight Hearing on 2016 ELECTION Senate Judiciary Committee 2017
PART 2: James Comey Testifies FBI Oversight Hearing on 2016 ELECTION Senate Judiciary Committee 2017
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP NEWS & LIVE SPEECH 2017
Strait Talk: Is Turkey’s judiciary independent while the country is in a state of emergency?
Strait Talk: Is Turkey’s judiciary independent while the country is in a state of emergency?
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: TRT World
EXCLUSIVE Former CA Superior Court Judge "Deann Salcido"  Blows Whistle On Corrupt Family Law System
EXCLUSIVE Former CA Superior Court Judge "Deann Salcido" Blows Whistle On Corrupt Family Law System
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Victurus Libertas VL
FULL: Senate Judiciary Committee Votes on Neil Gorsuch (FNN)
FULL: Senate Judiciary Committee Votes on Neil Gorsuch (FNN)
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: FOX 10 Phoenix
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The judicial system of Israel consists of secular courts and religious courts. The law courts constitute a separate and independent unit of Israel's Ministry of Justice. The system is headed by the President of the Supreme Court and the Minister of Justice.[1]

Religious courts include Jewish beth din, Muslim and Druze courts, and courts for ten recognized Christian communities.

Secular courts[edit]

Supreme Court[edit]

Located in Jerusalem, the Supreme Court[2] acts as a further appellate court, hearing both criminal and civil cases. The Supreme Court re-evaluates decisions by the lower, district courts. Sitting as the High Court of Justice, it acts as a court of first instance, often in matters concerning the legality of decisions regarding state authorities. The High Court of Justice or otherwise the Israeli Supreme Court acts sometimes not as an appellate body to the district court but as an overseer of justice against the lower courts.

District courts[edit]

Tel Aviv District Court

The District Courts constitute the middle level courts of the judicial system, and have jurisdiction in any matter not within the sole jurisdiction of another court. In criminal matters, the courts have jurisdiction over cases where the accused faces a penalty of at least seven years imprisonment. In civil cases, they have jurisdiction over cases in which more than two and a half million shekels are in dispute. District courts also hear appeals of judgments of the magistrate courts, as well as cases involving companies and partnership, arbitration, prisoners petitions, and appeals on tax matters.[3] Sitting as courts for administrative matters, they can hear petitions against arms of the government. One also sits as the court of admiralty, hearing all cases involving shipping commerce, accidents on the sea and the like. Most cases are heard by a single judge, though the court president can choose to appoint a three-judge panel. Cases where the accused is charged with an offense punishable by at least ten years in prison and appeals from magistrate courts are heard by three-judge panels. There are six such courts,[4] one in each district of Israel.

Magistrate courts[edit]

The Magistrate courts serve as basic trial courts. In criminal matters, they hear cases where the accused faces up to seven years imprisonment, and in civil cases, have jurisdiction over matters up to two and a half million shekels. They also have jurisdiction over the use and possession of real property. The courts also act as traffic courts, municipal courts and family courts.[3] Sitting as small-claims courts, they have jurisdiction over cases involving claims up to 30,000 shekels. Rather than following standard evidentiary rules, they require extensive pleadings and documentation upon filing of a formally written complaint. Verdicts are expected seven days from trial. Cases are heard by a single judge unless the court president decides to appoint a three-judge panel. There are 30 magistrate courts.[4]

Labor courts[edit]

National Labor Court, Jerusalem

There are five Regional Labor Courts in Israel as a tribunal of first instance, and one National labor court in Jerusalem hearing appeals and few cases of national importance, as first tier. They are vested with exclusive jurisdiction over cases involving employer-employee relationship, pre-employment, post-employment strikes and labor union disputes, as well as labor related complaints against the National Insurance Institute, and claims under the National Health Insurance Law.

The Labor Courts Law sets forth those matters within the jurisdiction of the Labor Court. Substantially all causes of action arising from the employer-employee relationship are within the court's jurisdiction.

In civil matters, the Labor Courts are not bound by the rules of evidence. Most cases are heard by a panel of three, including a Judge, a representative on behalf of employees and a representative on behalf of employers.

Military courts[edit]

The Military Court of Appeals is the highest judicial body in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). The land, air and naval branches of the IDF, each of its military districts, the General Staff and the Home Front Command maintain their own special military courts. Military courts are used to try soldiers charged with military offenses, and deal with most criminal and security cases in the Israeli-occupied territories.

Criminal procedure[edit]

Israel is unusual among Common-law derived systems due to the absence of juries in its legal system. All criminal and civil trials in Israel are conducted before either one judge or, more often, a three-judge panel.

A suspect arrested in Israel is typically interrogated by police. Though police are allowed to lie to a suspect during interrogation, anyone facing police interrogation has the right to consult a lawyer beforehand, and an interrogating officer must warn a suspect that he or she does not have to say anything self-incriminating, and that anything said might be used against them in court.

Everyone accused of a criminal offense has the right to be represented by an attorney, and if the accused cannot afford a private attorney, one is assigned to them from the Public Defender's Office. Prosecutions are handled by the State Attorney's Office, which consists of a central bureau and eight regional offices.[5]

Even if the suspect confesses to his or her crime and pleads guilty at their court arraignment, they will still receive a trial to determine the penalty to be imposed upon them. Following a verdict, the defense or prosecution has the right to appeal to a higher court. Israeli law also provides for the possibility to ask the Supreme Court for a new trial, though it is very rare to be granted a retrial. Between 1948 and 2012, only 21 criminal cases were granted a retrial, about half of which ended in reconfirmation of a defendant's guilt.[6]

Administrative detention and closed trials are allowed in cases involving security and illegal immigration. Anyone subjected to administrative detention and a possible closed trial has the right to be represented by an attorney, and may appeal their detention to the Supreme Court. The burden of proof rests on the prosecution to prove that closed proceedings are necessary.[7]

The vast majority of criminal cases investigated by police and considered for indictment are closed due to lack of evidence or lack of public interest.[8] Of those cases that do go to court, over 85% end with a plea bargain. Though accepting a plea bargain is considered a de facto guilty plea, it also leads to a lighter sentence. Of the cases that do go to trial, 71.5% end with a conviction on some of the charges and acquittal on others, 21.6% with a conviction on all charges, and 0.3% with a full acquittal. Another 2.1% of cases are dismissed after the defendant is found incompetent to stand trial, 1.2% are dismissed over technicalities, and in 0.9% of cases the charges are dropped.[9]

Judicial selection[edit]

Judges who serve on the Supreme Court, as well as the district and magistrate courts, are appointed by the Judicial Selection Committee, which consists of nine members: the Minister of Justice and another cabinet member, two Knesset members, two members of the Israel Bar Association, and the President of the Supreme Court and two other Supreme Court justices. The committee is chaired by the Minister of Justice.

Religious courts[edit]

Jewish religious courts[edit]

The Jewish religious courts, known as Rabbinic Courts, whose dayanim ("judges") are selected by a committee headed by the Minister of Justice, have jurisdiction regarding marital issues of Jews (especially divorce). Divorce of a Jewish couple can only be obtained at the Rabbinical Batei Din. However, if a petition for ancillary matrimonial reliefs, such as custody, support or equitable distribution of property is filed with the Civil Courts before a case for divorce is opened at the Batei Din, then all other marital issues may also be taken by Magistrate Courts sitting as Family Courts. Otherwise, if one spouse opens some sort of an action with the Batei Din, (including asking the couple for reconciliation), the Batei Din assume that all ancillary relief is aggregated into the main complaint, and the spouses may find themselves facing judicial determination pursuant to Halakha (Jewish religious law), and not pursuant to the secular law. Thus, spouses may lose the equal protection and anti gender discrimination protections of the secular civil law.

The Supreme Rabbinic Court acts as the court of last resort for cases brought before the rabbinic courts.

Non-Jewish religious courts[edit]

The Muslim, legally recognized Christian communities, and Druze have their own religious courts which have similar jurisdiction over their followers, although Muslim religious courts have more control over family affairs. They are supervised by their own official religious establishments (although the Muslim and Druze kaddis judges are also elected by the Knesset). This is the maintenance of an agreement reached with the British Mandatory Authorities before the State of Israel's establishment in 1948.

The ten recognized Christian communities are the Greek Orthodox, Latin Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Chaldean Catholic, Melkite Greek Catholic, Maronite, Syrian Orthodox and Evangelical Episcopalian communities.

Legal practice[edit]

As of 2012, there are 52,142 active lawyers in Israel, making it the country with the highest number of active lawyers per capita in the world.[10] Law schools produce new graduates at the rate of 2,000 new lawyers a year. This creates a tight and highly competitive market.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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