1
Justice in Time: applying TOC to the law courts system in Israel - Shimeon Pass @ @ PSE 2013 Vilnius
Justice in Time: applying TOC to the law courts system in Israel - Shimeon Pass @ @ PSE 2013 Vilnius
DATE: 2013/11/07::
2
Supreme Court of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel
DATE: 2013/04/03::
3
Israel violating human rights of detainees
Israel violating human rights of detainees
DATE: 2012/11/16::
4
Open access to courts in Israel
Open access to courts in Israel
DATE: 2009/09/12::
5
Lowell interviews Dr. Michel Calvo on "Designing Just Legal Systems"
Lowell interviews Dr. Michel Calvo on "Designing Just Legal Systems"
DATE: 2014/12/15::
6
Israeli Arabs 2:  Sports & Judicial  عرب اسرائيل القانون والرياضة
Israeli Arabs 2: Sports & Judicial عرب اسرائيل القانون والرياضة
DATE: 2010/11/01::
7
SATANIC ROTHSCHILD ISRAELI SUPREME COURT
SATANIC ROTHSCHILD ISRAELI SUPREME COURT
DATE: 2012/08/02::
8
Contempt of Court! Police Illegally Prevent Jewish Prayer on Temple Mount
Contempt of Court! Police Illegally Prevent Jewish Prayer on Temple Mount
DATE: 2015/04/22::
9
Is All Criticism of Israel Anti-Semitic?
Is All Criticism of Israel Anti-Semitic?
DATE: 2011/05/20::
10
Q&A:  Military Justice? Palestinians in Israeli Courts
Q&A: Military Justice? Palestinians in Israeli Courts
DATE: 2013/01/24::
11
H.O.I. : The Court & Prison System
H.O.I. : The Court & Prison System
DATE: 2014/11/09::
12
Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Elected Judges (HBO)
Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Elected Judges (HBO)
DATE: 2015/02/23::
13
Military Justice? Palestinians in Israeli Courts
Military Justice? Palestinians in Israeli Courts
DATE: 2013/01/24::
14
Israel Gags News on Extra-Judicial Killings
Israel Gags News on Extra-Judicial Killings
DATE: 2010/04/09::
15
CORRIE KILLING: ISRAELI COURT finds MILITARY not GUILTY for DEATH of Palestinian RIGHTS PROTESTER
CORRIE KILLING: ISRAELI COURT finds MILITARY not GUILTY for DEATH of Palestinian RIGHTS PROTESTER
DATE: 2012/08/30::
16
ISIS, CIA, Saudi & Israel Connections with Wayne Madsen
ISIS, CIA, Saudi & Israel Connections with Wayne Madsen
DATE: 2015/04/10::
17
The Unrighteous Judicial System Of The Wicked !
The Unrighteous Judicial System Of The Wicked !
DATE: 2014/01/23::
18
Justice Joubran Part 1
Justice Joubran Part 1
DATE: 2011/05/06::
19
Rothschild Designed and Built Israel
Rothschild Designed and Built Israel's Masonic Supreme Court Building!
DATE: 2011/01/02::
20
Dear People of Uganda and Rwanda
Dear People of Uganda and Rwanda
DATE: 2015/04/05::
21
UN calls on Israel to end administrative detention against Palestinians
UN calls on Israel to end administrative detention against Palestinians
DATE: 2015/04/14::
22
'Israeli military courts condone torture'
DATE: 2011/08/16::
23
Bil
Bil'in - Legal proceedings in Quebec - Canada (appeal) - 20/10/2009
DATE: 2009/10/20::
24
Pete Santilli Episode #954: Marc Stevens -  Taking On A Corrupt Legal System
Pete Santilli Episode #954: Marc Stevens - Taking On A Corrupt Legal System
DATE: 2015/04/13::
25
Doron Almog on Universal Jurisdiction 2008
Doron Almog on Universal Jurisdiction 2008
DATE: 2008/12/22::
26
FOX NEWS: Journalists in Gaza claim Israel targeted them as militants
FOX NEWS: Journalists in Gaza claim Israel targeted them as militants
DATE: 2012/11/28::
27
FREE GuyShamir 20120824  Israel fathers rights protest
FREE GuyShamir 20120824 Israel fathers rights protest
DATE: 2012/09/03::
28
IN YOUR NAME Teaser 4 - judicial system
IN YOUR NAME Teaser 4 - judicial system
DATE: 2015/04/20::
29
Charles Koch Believes Justice System Needs Reform After He Has Faced Charges
Charles Koch Believes Justice System Needs Reform After He Has Faced Charges
DATE: 2015/01/04::
30
G4S Amach! (G4S Out!) Campaign in Galway University, 20-2-2015
G4S Amach! (G4S Out!) Campaign in Galway University, 20-2-2015
DATE: 2015/02/20::
31
How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful: Noam Chomsky & Glenn Gre
How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful: Noam Chomsky & Glenn Gre
DATE: 2014/05/31::
32
Israeli Border Police arresting Palestinian children
Israeli Border Police arresting Palestinian children
DATE: 2014/04/04::
33
StratPost.com: Israeli Rafael
StratPost.com: Israeli Rafael's Indian promo
DATE: 2009/02/25::
34
Is Japan
Is Japan's Criminal Justice System Very Efficient or Deeply Flawed?
DATE: 2008/01/08::
35
Mustafa Barghouti vs. Rabbi Arthur Waskow. (Boycotting Israel)
Mustafa Barghouti vs. Rabbi Arthur Waskow. (Boycotting Israel)
DATE: 2012/03/27::
36
Shariah & Islamic Statecraft - Past & Present - Abdal Hakim Murad
Shariah & Islamic Statecraft - Past & Present - Abdal Hakim Murad
DATE: 2012/05/09::
37
Palestinian U.N. ambassador cries while speaking on Gaza
Palestinian U.N. ambassador cries while speaking on Gaza
DATE: 2014/07/19::
38
Justice Denied: Death in Custody (UK’s justice system the scene of corruption and injustice)
Justice Denied: Death in Custody (UK’s justice system the scene of corruption and injustice)
DATE: 2014/11/25::
39
Racial Inequalities in the Justice System (short documentary)
Racial Inequalities in the Justice System (short documentary)
DATE: 2013/05/15::
40
Pakistani Media Making Fun Of Their Own Judiciary System
Pakistani Media Making Fun Of Their Own Judiciary System
DATE: 2015/05/10::
41
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances: Crash Course Government and Politics #3
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances: Crash Course Government and Politics #3
DATE: 2015/02/06::
42
Glenn Greenwald on Two-Tiered US Justice System, Obama
Glenn Greenwald on Two-Tiered US Justice System, Obama's Assassination Program, Arab Spring
DATE: 2011/10/26::
43
Marc Lamont Hill Fails Holding Back Tears on CNN Air Live for Half of Black People being Arrested
Marc Lamont Hill Fails Holding Back Tears on CNN Air Live for Half of Black People being Arrested
DATE: 2014/01/21::
44
World Wide Corruption, 2013 Worst Offenders:Police,Judges,Public Officials, Political Parties, Banks
World Wide Corruption, 2013 Worst Offenders:Police,Judges,Public Officials, Political Parties, Banks
DATE: 2013/07/12::
45
Report: Entire UK criminal justice system infiltrated by crime gangs
Report: Entire UK criminal justice system infiltrated by crime gangs
DATE: 2014/01/11::
46
Emily Schaeffer
Emily Schaeffer's presentation Russell Tribunal Cape Town
DATE: 2011/12/25::
47
Joseph Prince - Justin Prince (2 years old)—Identifying the Map of Israel
Joseph Prince - Justin Prince (2 years old)—Identifying the Map of Israel
DATE: 2015/04/28::
48
Report: Canada
Report: Canada's Justice System "Broken" - PRESS TV
DATE: 2013/08/21::
49
Episode 214: High Conflict Divorce with Dr. Richard Warshak
Episode 214: High Conflict Divorce with Dr. Richard Warshak
DATE: 2013/06/25::
50
14-04-04 PALESTINE: Youth against Settlement,- Tel Rumeida
14-04-04 PALESTINE: Youth against Settlement,- Tel Rumeida
DATE: 2014/04/04::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
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Israeli Supreme Court at night

The judicial system of Israel consists of secular courts and religious courts. The law courts constitute a separate and independent unit of Israel's Ministry of Justice. The system is headed by the President of the Supreme Court and the Minister of Justice.[1]

Secular courts[edit]

Supreme Court[edit]

Located in Jerusalem, the Supreme Court[2] acts as a further appellate court, hearing both criminal and civil cases. The Supreme Court re-evaluates decisions by the lower, district courts. Sitting as the High Court of Justice, it acts as a court of first instance, often in matters concerning the legality of decisions regarding state authorities. The High Court of Justice or otherwise the Israeli Supreme Court acts sometimes not as an appellate body to the district court but as on over-seer of justice against the lower courts.

District courts[edit]

Tel Aviv District Court

The District Courts constitute the middle level courts of the judicial system, and have jurisdiction in any matter not within the sole jurisdiction of another court. In criminal matters, the courts have jurisdiction over cases where the accused faces a penalty of at least seven years imprisonment. In civil cases, they have jurisdiction over cases in which more than two and a half million shekels are in dispute. District courts also hear appeals of judgments of the magistrate courts, as well as cases involving companies and partnership, arbitration, prisoners petitions, and appeals on tax matters.[3] Sitting as courts for administrative matters, they can hear petitions against arms of the government. One also sits as the court of admiralty, hearing all cases involving shipping commerce, accidents on the sea and the like. Most cases are heard by a single judge, though the court president can choose to appoint a three-judge panel. Cases where the accused is charged with an offense punishable by at least ten years in prison and appeals from magistrate courts are heard by three-judge panels. There are six such courts,[4] one in each district of Israel.

Magistrate courts[edit]

The Magistrate courts serve as basic trial courts. In criminal matters, they hear cases where the accused faces up to seven years imprisonment, and in civil cases, have jurisdiction over matters up to two and a half million shekels. They also have jurisdiction over the use and possession of real property. The courts also act as traffic courts, municipal courts and family courts.[3] Sitting as small-claims courts, they have jurisdiction over cases involving claims up to 30,000 shekels. Rather than following standard evidentiary rules, they require extensive pleadings and documentation upon filing of a formally written complaint. Verdicts are expected seven days from trial. Cases are heard by a single judge unless the court president decides to appoint a three-judge panel. There are 30 magistrate courts.[4]

Labor courts[edit]

National Labor Court, Jerusalem

There are five Regional Labor Courts in Israel as a tribunal of first instance, and one National labor court in Jerusalem hearing appeals and few cases of national importance, as first tier. They are vested with exclusive jurisdiction over cases involving employer-employee relationship, pre-employment, post-employment strikes and labor union disputes, as well as labor related complaints against the National Insurance Institute, and claims under the National Health Insurance Law.

The Labor Courts Law sets forth those matters within the jurisdiction of the Labor Court. Substantially all causes of action arising from the employer-employee relationship are within the court's jurisdiction.

In civil matters, the Labor Courts are not bound by the rules of evidence. Most cases are heard by a panel of three, including a Judge, a representative on behalf of employees and a representative on behalf of employers.

Military courts[edit]

The Military Court of Appeals is the highest judicial body in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). The land, air and naval branches of the IDF, each of its military districts, the General Staff and the Home Front Command maintain their own special military courts. Military courts are used to try soldiers charged with military offenses, and deal with most criminal and security cases in the Israeli-occupied territories.

Criminal procedure[edit]

Israel is unusual among Common-law derived systems due to the absence of juries in its legal system. Rather, all trials are conducted before either one judge or a three-judge panel.

A suspect arrested in Israel is typically interrogated by police. Though police are allowed to lie to a suspect during interrogation, anyone facing police interrogation has the right to consult a lawyer beforehand, and an interrogating officer must warn a suspect that he or she does not have to say anything self-incriminating, and that anything said might be used against them in court.

Everyone accused of a criminal offense has the right to be represented by an attorney, and if the accused cannot afford a private attorney, one is assigned to them from the Public Defender's Office. Prosecutions are handled by the State Attorney's Office, which consists of a central bureau and eight regional offices.[5]

Following a verdict, the defense or prosecution has the right to appeal to a higher court. Israeli law also provides for the possibility to ask the Supreme Court for a new trial, though it is very rare to be granted a retrial. Between 1948 and 2012, only 21 cases were granted a retrial, about half of which ended in reconfirmation of a defendant's guilt.[6]

Administrative detention and closed trials are allowed in cases involving security and illegal immigration. Anyone subjected to administrative detention and a possible closed trial has the right to be represented by an attorney, and may appeal their detention to the Supreme Court. The burden of proof rests on the prosecution to prove that closed proceedings are necessary.[7]

The vast majority of criminal cases investigated by police and considered for indictment are closed due to lack of evidence or lack of public interest.[8] Of those cases that do go to court, over 85% end with a plea bargain. Though accepting a plea bargain is considered a de facto guilty plea, it also leads to a lighter sentence. Of the cases that do go to trial, 71.5% end with a conviction on some of the charges and acquittal on others, 21.6% with a conviction on all charges, and 0.3% with a full acquittal. Another 2.1% of cases are dismissed after the defendant is found incompetent to stand trial, 1.2% are dismissed over technicalities, and in 0.9% of cases the charges are dropped.[9]

Judicial selection[edit]

Judges who serve on the Supreme Court, as well as the district and magistrate courts, are appointed by the Judicial Selection Committee, which consists of nine members: the Minister of Justice and another cabinet member, two Knesset members, two members of the Israel Bar Association, and the President of the Supreme Court and two other Supreme Court justices. The committee is chaired by the Minister of Justice.

Religious courts[edit]

Jewish religious courts[edit]

The Jewish religious courts, known as Rabbinic Courts, whose dayanim ("judges") are selected by a committee headed by the Minister of Justice, have jurisdiction regarding marital issues of Jews (especially divorce). Divorce of a Jewish couple can only be obtained at the Rabbinical Batei Din. However, if a petition for ancillary matrimonial reliefs, such as custody, support or equitable distribution of property is filed with the Civil Courts before a case for divorce is opened at the Batei Din, then all other marital issues may also be taken by Magistrate Courts sitting as Family Courts. Otherwise, if one spouse opens some sort of an action with the Batei Din, (including asking the couple for reconciliation), the Batei Din assume that all ancillary relief is aggregated into the main complaint, and the spouses may find themselves facing judicial deermination pursuant to Halakha (Jewish religious law), and not pursuant to the secular law. Thus, spouses may lose the equal protection and anti gender discrimination protections of the secular civil law.

The Supreme Rabbinic Court acts as the court of last resort for cases brought before the rabbinic courts.

Non-Jewish religious courts[edit]

The Muslim, legally recognized Christian communities, and Druze have their own religious courts which have similar jurisdiction over their followers, although Muslim religious courts have more control over family affairs. They are supervised by their own official religious establishments (although the Muslim and Druze kaddis judges are also elected by the Knesset). This is the maintenance of an agreement reached with the British Mandatory Authorities before the State of Israel's establishment in 1948.

The ten recognized Christian communities are the Greek Orthodox, Latin Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Chaldean Catholic, Melkite Greek Catholic, Maronite, Syrian Orthodox and Evangelical Episcopalian communities.

Legal practice[edit]

As of 2012, there are 52,142 active lawyers in Israel, making it the country with the highest number of active lawyers per capita in the world.[10] Law schools produce new graduates at the rate of 2,000 new lawyers a year. This creates a tight and highly competitive market.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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