1
Hansa-News KW 26
Hansa-News KW 26
DATE: 2015/07/03::
2
Neue Kino Trailer 2015 Deutsch German KW 26 | Hitman | Sicario | DatingQueen | Fantastic Four
Neue Kino Trailer 2015 Deutsch German KW 26 | Hitman | Sicario | DatingQueen | Fantastic Four
DATE: 2015/06/28::
3
DJZ NEWS 2015 KW26
DJZ NEWS 2015 KW26
DATE: 2015/06/24::
4
Webinar Frühstück mit der Ballkönigin KW 26/2015
Webinar Frühstück mit der Ballkönigin KW 26/2015
DATE: 2015/06/24::
5
VIVA Top 100 mit Sami Slimani - Charts der KW 26/2015
VIVA Top 100 mit Sami Slimani - Charts der KW 26/2015
DATE: 2015/06/26::
6
ZebraVision KW26 YouTube
ZebraVision KW26 YouTube
DATE: 2015/06/29::
7
Techniknews KW26 2015 [118] Windows 10 kostenlos, AMD Fury X, Intel Skylake Refresh
Techniknews KW26 2015 [118] Windows 10 kostenlos, AMD Fury X, Intel Skylake Refresh
DATE: 2015/06/27::
8
Felix Kröcher LIVE 24.06.2015 @ sunshine live (KW26)
Felix Kröcher LIVE 24.06.2015 @ sunshine live (KW26)
DATE: 2015/06/24::
9
SPORTARENA KW 26 - LM Springreiten beim Pferdehof Bösch
SPORTARENA KW 26 - LM Springreiten beim Pferdehof Bösch
DATE: 2015/06/22::
10
myREGIO.TV  MAGAZIN: Sendung der KW 26/27 - 2015
myREGIO.TV MAGAZIN: Sendung der KW 26/27 - 2015
DATE: 2015/06/20::
11
Wir in Esslingen 2015. Sendung KW 26
Wir in Esslingen 2015. Sendung KW 26
DATE: 2015/06/25::
12
Shoulder workout | Kw26  | Marcel Herz
Shoulder workout | Kw26 | Marcel Herz
DATE: 2015/06/22::
13
MEMA TV - KW 26 - Fussball: Relegationsspiel Rapid Kapfenberg gegen Unzmarkt
MEMA TV - KW 26 - Fussball: Relegationsspiel Rapid Kapfenberg gegen Unzmarkt
DATE: 2015/06/22::
14
HiWay TV Sendung KW26 2015
HiWay TV Sendung KW26 2015
DATE: 2015/06/26::
15
MEMA TV - KW 26 - Fussball: SC Parschlug gegen UFC St.Georgen-Judenburg
MEMA TV - KW 26 - Fussball: SC Parschlug gegen UFC St.Georgen-Judenburg
DATE: 2015/06/18::
16
Boulder der Woche KW 26
Boulder der Woche KW 26
DATE: 2015/06/21::
17
Neues für Gera und Umgebung (KW 26/2015)
Neues für Gera und Umgebung (KW 26/2015)
DATE: 2015/06/24::
18
H.a.a.S. Fachnachrichten KW 26/2015 in 100 Sekunden
H.a.a.S. Fachnachrichten KW 26/2015 in 100 Sekunden
DATE: 2015/06/23::
19
KW26- Turracher Kultursommer
KW26- Turracher Kultursommer
DATE: 2012/06/22::
20
Angst um Bezahlung, Weitere Entlassung, Stephanie befördert [WWE NEWS - KW 26/2014]
Angst um Bezahlung, Weitere Entlassung, Stephanie befördert [WWE NEWS - KW 26/2014]
DATE: 2014/07/01::
21
Spar - KW 26 Grillsaison
Spar - KW 26 Grillsaison
DATE: 2015/06/21::
22
ENERGY VLOG S3/E5/KW26 SPECIAL "ENERGY in the Park 2012" Teil 2
ENERGY VLOG S3/E5/KW26 SPECIAL "ENERGY in the Park 2012" Teil 2
DATE: 2012/07/05::
23
MEMA TV  - KW 26 - Panorama
MEMA TV - KW 26 - Panorama
DATE: 2015/06/24::
24
Kinotipps KW 26 Beste Mädelsabend aufm Sauacker
Kinotipps KW 26 Beste Mädelsabend aufm Sauacker
DATE: 2014/06/24::
25
CS:GO Newsflash | KW26 | Gfinity Finals - mousesports zur CEVO - Zonixx Stand In
CS:GO Newsflash | KW26 | Gfinity Finals - mousesports zur CEVO - Zonixx Stand In
DATE: 2015/06/29::
26
LTV Wochenmagazin KW 26/2015
LTV Wochenmagazin KW 26/2015
DATE: 2015/06/22::
27
Wochenwetter Achensee vom 23. bis 29. Juni 2015 (KW 26)
Wochenwetter Achensee vom 23. bis 29. Juni 2015 (KW 26)
DATE: 2015/06/22::
28
FIFA 13 - Tore der Woche - KW 26
FIFA 13 - Tore der Woche - KW 26
DATE: 2013/06/29::
29
service genset Krisbow kw26 08
service genset Krisbow kw26 08
DATE: 2014/05/25::
30
Meine Woche mit Büchern - KW 26
Meine Woche mit Büchern - KW 26
DATE: 2014/06/28::
31
TRUCKMO TV Vorschau KW 26 Lkw-Modelle
TRUCKMO TV Vorschau KW 26 Lkw-Modelle
DATE: 2015/06/19::
32
Wochenvorschau für die KW 26
Wochenvorschau für die KW 26
DATE: 2015/06/21::
33
MEMA TV - KW 26 - The Sundays beim Heurigen im SC Treff auf der Murinsel
MEMA TV - KW 26 - The Sundays beim Heurigen im SC Treff auf der Murinsel
DATE: 2015/06/24::
34
KW26- Toni
KW26- Toni's Freilandeier mit innovativer Junghahn Mast
DATE: 2012/06/22::
35
Felix Kröcher LIVE 26.06.2014 @ sunshine live (KW26)
Felix Kröcher LIVE 26.06.2014 @ sunshine live (KW26)
DATE: 2014/06/27::
36
RTV Vorarlberg RZ KW26
RTV Vorarlberg RZ KW26
DATE: 2015/06/24::
37
MEMA TV - Benefizfußballmatch in Leoben KW 26
MEMA TV - Benefizfußballmatch in Leoben KW 26
DATE: 2011/06/30::
38
AMD Comeback | PNY GTX | BeQuiet überflüssig? - TECHTREND #6 KW26
AMD Comeback | PNY GTX | BeQuiet überflüssig? - TECHTREND #6 KW26
DATE: 2014/06/30::
39
Wochenrückblick KW 26/2015
Wochenrückblick KW 26/2015
DATE: 2015/06/27::
40
Deutsche Top 25 Electro Charts [KW 26 2012]
Deutsche Top 25 Electro Charts [KW 26 2012]
DATE: 2012/06/29::
41
MEMA TV - KW 26 - Jubiläum der Mürztaler
MEMA TV - KW 26 - Jubiläum der Mürztaler
DATE: 2014/06/26::
42
Destiny - Urrox - Gefängnis der Alten (34) BOSS KW26 - Deutsch
Destiny - Urrox - Gefängnis der Alten (34) BOSS KW26 - Deutsch
DATE: 2015/06/23::
43
Sunday Briefing KW26/VW12
Sunday Briefing KW26/VW12
DATE: 2015/06/28::
44
Techniknews #KW26 2014 [72] R9 295x, iPhone 6, CPU´s aus Russland
Techniknews #KW26 2014 [72] R9 295x, iPhone 6, CPU´s aus Russland
DATE: 2014/06/28::
45
LT Tipp KW26   2014
LT Tipp KW26 2014
DATE: 2014/10/13::
46
myREGIO.TV - Sendung der KW 26/27
myREGIO.TV - Sendung der KW 26/27
DATE: 2013/06/22::
47
Xpress Trends Wochenausblick KW 26
Xpress Trends Wochenausblick KW 26
DATE: 2015/06/22::
48
TippsTrendsNews N24-Spot KW 26
TippsTrendsNews N24-Spot KW 26
DATE: 2015/06/18::
49
LIVESTREAM-ANKÜNDIGUNG - KW 26 - Batman Arkham Knight und 60Seconds!
LIVESTREAM-ANKÜNDIGUNG - KW 26 - Batman Arkham Knight und 60Seconds!
DATE: 2015/06/22::
50
Ländle TV Wochenhighlights KW 26
Ländle TV Wochenhighlights KW 26
DATE: 2014/06/28::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
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An array of KW-26s

The TSEC/KW-26, code named ROMULUS,(in 1966 the machine based encryption system was not code-named "Romulus, rather the code-name was Orion, at least in the US Army's variant) was an encryption system used by the U.S. Government and, later, by NATO countries. It was developed in the 1950s by the National Security Agency (NSA) to secure fixed teleprinter circuits that operated 24 hours a day. It used vacuum tubes and magnetic core logic, replacing older systems, like SIGABA and the British 5-UCO, that used rotors and electromechanical relays.

A KW-26 system (transmitter or receiver) contained over 800 cores and approximately 50 vacuum-tube driver circuits, occupying slightly more than one half of a standard 19-inch rack. Most of the space in the rack and most of the 1 kW input power were required for the special-purpose vacuum tube circuits needed to provide compatibility with multiple input and output circuit configurations. The military services' requirements for numerous modes and speeds significantly increased costs and delayed delivery. NSA says it is doubtful that more than three or four of the possible configurations were ever used.

The KW-26 used an NSA-developed encryption algorithm based on shift registers. The algorithm produced a continuous stream of bits that were xored with the five bit Baudot teleprinter code to produce ciphertext on the transmitting end and plaintext on the receiving end. In NSA terminology, this stream of bits is called the key. The information needed to initialize the algorithm, what most cryptographers today would call the key, NSA calls a cryptovariable. Typically each KW-26 was given a new cryptovariable once a day.

KW-26 model C; the receiver is at the top, the transmitter at the bottom. Card reader is in upper right of each unit.

NSA designed a common fill device (CFD), for loading the cryptovariable. It used a Remington Rand (UNIVAC) format punched card (45 columns, round holes). The operator inserted the daily key card into the CFD and closed the door securely, locking the card in place. Decks of cards were created by NSA and sent by courier. The cards were strictly accounted for.

Because the KW-26 used a stream cipher, if the same key card was ever used twice, the encryption could be broken. To prevent re-use, the card was automatically cut in half upon reopening the CFD. As the units aged, the card reader contacts became less dependable, and operators resorted to various tricks, such as hitting the card reader cover with a screwdriver, to get them to work properly. Card readers were cleaned and the spring loading of the contacts checked as part of the routine maintenance of the device.

Because the KW-26 sent a continuous stream of bits, it offered traffic-flow security. Someone intercepting the ciphertext stream had no way to judge how many real messages were being sent, making traffic analysis impossible. One problem with the KW-26 was the need to keep the receiver and transmitter units synchronized. The crystal controlled clock in the KW-26 was capable of keeping both ends of the circuit in sync for many hours, even when physical contact was lost between the sending and receiving units. This capability made the KW-26 ideally suited for use on unreliable HF radio circuits. However, when the units did get out of sync, a new key card had to be inserted at each end. The benefit of traffic-flow security was lost each time new cards were inserted. In practice, operational protocol led to the cards being replaced more often than was desirable to maintain maximum security of the circuit. This was especially so on radio circuits, where operators often changed the cards many times each day in response to a loss of radio connectivity. In any case, it was necessary to change the cards at least once per day to prevent the cypher pattern from repeating.

Early KW-26 units protected the CRITICOMM network, used to protect communications circuits used to coordinate signals intelligence gathering. The initial production order for this application, awarded to Burroughs in 1957, was for 1500 units. Other services demanded KW-26's and some 14000 units were eventually built, beginning in the early 1960s, for the U.S. Navy, Army, Air Force, Defense Communications Agency, State Department and the CIA. It was provided to U.S. allies as well.

When the USS Pueblo was captured by North Korea in 1968, KW-26's were on board. In response, the NSA had modifications made to other units in the field, presumably changing the crypto algorithm in some way, perhaps by changing the shift register feedback taps. Starting in the mid-1980s, the KW-26 system was decommissioned by NSA, being replaced by the more advanced solid-state data encryptor, TSEC/KG-84.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

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