Kaithal Fort, which would have been from 1767-1843, the seat and residence of Royal family of Kaithal
|• Member of Parliament||Raj Kumar Saini|
|• Member of the Legislative Assembly||Ranjeep Singh Surjewala|
|Elevation||250 m (820 ft)|
|• Official||Hindi, Punjabi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||HR-08,HR-64(for commercial vehicles)|
|Sex ratio||880 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Kurukshetra|
Kaithal (Hindi: कैथल; Punjabi: ਕੈਥਲ) is a city and a municipal council in Kaithal district in the Indian state of Haryana. Kaithal was previously a part of Karnal District and later, Kurukshetra District until 1 November 1989, when it became the headquarters of the Kaithal District of Haryana. Kaithal shares common boundary with Patiala (Punjab), Kurukshetra, Jind and Karnal. Kaithal district is situated in the North-West of the Haryana state. Its North-West boundaries which include Guhla-Cheeka is attached to Punjab State.
Kaithal is located at  It has an average elevation of 220 metres (721 feet)..
The city is connected to the state capital Chandigarh by road. The city had a rail connection to Kurukshetra and Narwana which further went to Jind (local trains only) until 2014, when government started a rail service between Delhi and Kurukshetra via Kaithal. The move for this service was initiated and pushed by the Previous Member of Parliament from Kurukshetra, Naveen Jindal with an aim to give people a convenient mode of transport to reach the capital. Earlier they had to board trains at the Kurukshetra railway station.
Historically, it was known as Kapisthal, meaning "Abode of Kapi", another name of Lord Hanuman, and it is said to have been founded by the Pandav Emperor, Yudhisthira of Mahabharata. It is traditionally connected with Hanuman, and has a temple dedicated to Anjani, the mother of Hanuman. It is also said that it is the birthplace of Lord Hanumana and there is a temple constructed at that place known as "Anjani Tila" among the residents of Kaithal.
Timur stopped here in 1398, before attacking Delhi. Later, the city became a Muslim cultural centre, under the rule of Delhi Sultanate. Tombs of several Sufi saints dating from the 13th century can be found in the city today; most important among them is that of Sheikh Sala -ud-din of Bhalkh (1246 CE). The town was renovated and a fort was built during the rule of the Mughal Emperor, Akbar, and as per Ain-i-Akbari, it was a pargana, under the sarkar of Sirhind, and had developed into an agricultural centre 
Razia Sultana, the first woman ruler of India, reigned as the Sultana of Delhi Sultanate from 1236 to 1240. She fled Delhi with Malik Altúniya after they were defeated on the 24th of Rabí'u-l awwal A.H. 638 (Oct. 1240), and reached Kaithal the next day, where their remaining forces abandoned them, and they both fell into the hands of the Hindus and were killed on Nov. 13, 1240. Tomb of Rajia Begam is still found here. This aspect is still not well known outside Kaithal, but residents know about the mazaar of Razia Begum even generations later. The kaithal has many gates made by British rulers and used to control the entry of trade goods and other items.
In 1767, it fell into the hands of the Sikh chieftain, Bhai Desu Singh (d. 1781), who led a large Sikh force from his native village of Bhucho, In the Punjab. whose descendants, the bhais of Kaithal, ranked among the most powerful Cis-Sutlej states. The Sikh Chieftains of Kaithal, ruled from 1767 until Its fall, In 1843. By 1808, It came under British Influence. The state was ruled by the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire and paid tributes to the Marathas, until the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, after which the Marathas lost this territory to the British. Bhai Udey Singh ruled over Kaithal and proved as the last King. Bhai Udey Singh died on 14 March 1843. It became a municipality in 1867. In 1901, the town had a population of 14,408 and was the tehsil in the district of Karnal. The fort of the Bhais is still extant, and their title Bhai became common with the primary Sikh rulers. Peoples of Kaithal took active part in freedom struggle in 1857.
As of the 2011[update] India census, Total population of Kaithal is 9,45,631. The sex ratio is 887 (F/M) and 11.5% of the population is under six years of age. The effective literacy rate is 80.76%; male literacy is 87.65% and female literacy is 73.07%. Punjabi & Hindi are major languages. There are 277 villages and 253 Punchayats in Kaithal districts. Kaithal district consists of two sub-divisions two tehsils namely Kaithal & Guhla & five sub-tehsils namely Pundri, Rajaund, Dhand, Kalayat and Siwan. The name of Kaithal, Pundri, Pharal, Siwan and Kalayat show that the soil of Kaithal has been religious and cultural rich heritage.
Vaman Purana says :
"Kapisthaleti vikhyatam sarvapatakanashanam yasmina sthitaha swayam devovridha kedara samgjijitaha" (2)
(Translation: The destroyer of all devilish deeds, the famous Kapisthala sanctum is here because Lord Vridhakedara himself resides in it.) The Vridhakedara sanctum changed to "Vidkyara" as a result of the philological principle of "mukhasukha", or ease of speaking.
This Gurudwara is dedicated to the Ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji. He stopped here on his way from Anandpur Sahib to Delhi. Guruji stayed at the site of Gurudwara Manji Sahib. Early in the morning, Guruji came to this place. After taking a bath at the Thandar Tirth (also referred to as the Dandhar Tirth), Guru Sahib sat in meditation under a neem tree at this place. A large congregation of people who had heard of the Guru's arrival gathered there. One amongst them suffered from high fever. Guruji gave him the leaves of the neem tree and he was cured. This place then came to be known as Neem Sahib. All gurpurabs are celebrated here. A langar is organized every month on Sangrand (the first day of the month in the lunar calendar). A local committee appointed by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandhak Committee looks after the management of the Gurudwara.
This Gurudwara is dedicated to the Ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji. Guru Tegh Bahadur, after emancipating the sangat of the Malwa region, arrived here from Baher Sahib. The Guru told a carpenter from Bahir, named Malla, that he wanted to go to Kaithal and asked if there was any Sikh devotee there. Malla replied that there were two houses belonging to Banias and one to a Sikh there. On reaching Kaithal, Malla asked Guru ji whose house he would like to go to first. Guru Sahib replied the one that is nearest. Malla took Guru ji to the house of a fellow carpenter, also named Malla, who served the Guru with great devotion. Pleased with his devotion, the Guru told him to light a lamp for 40 days in honor of the Guru's darbar and he would be blessed with a son. The carpenter was blessed with a son in due course and he donated this place to the Gurudwara. On the request of the banias, Guru ji visited their house for lunch. He blessed the spot by saying that kirtan (singing of devotional songs) would be the norm here. This is the site of the Gurudwaras Manji Sahib. Guru ji spent three days preaching the tenets of Sikhism here and then left for village Barne. The birth anniversaries of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Gobind Singh Ji are celebrated with great fervour here.
Guru Tegh Bahadur came here while he was going to Delhi. When Kashmiri Pandits came to Guru ji in Anandpur Sahib and requested to save them from Aurangzeb. Accepting there request Guru ji to sacrifice his life to save them Guru ji while going to Delhi Via Patiala, GURU SAHIB came here to Bhai Galora ji Masand. He was Jathedar of Hansi to Hisar. There were follower along with Guru ji. Who wanted to come along with Guru ji to Delhi but Guru ji stopped them and asked them to go back. Followers requested that they will not be able to live without them. Then Guru Tegh Bahadur told them visiting this place will give them result of having darshan of Guru Tegh Bahadur. Who so ever will visit this place with devotions his/her wishes will be fulfilled.
Country highest flag is hoisted in Kaithal. The 22-metre-wide, 14.6-metre-high national flag is hoisted 63 metres above the ground in Hanuman Vatika in Haryana’s Kaithal town, about 200 km from the national capital.
Vedas are one of the most ancient scriptures still known, although the precise date of the Rigvedas' creation and writing are still somewhat in doubt. These treasure-troves of knowledge are the oldest source available for information on the culture of that location at that time.
Rock edicts and engravings indicate that the pre-Harappan and Saraswata civilisations originated more than ten thousand years ago. Kaithal was an important town along the Saraswati river, and thus may be presumed to have begun ten thousand years ago or more. In this context, it must be kept in mind that the "Apaya" river, a sub-river of Saraswati has been referred in the third Mandala of Rigveda.
As per the verse this rainy-seasonal river is one mile east of Manusa sanctum, which is close to Maheshwara Deva in Asthipura. The "Apaya" river, one mile from Manusa sanctum, near Kaithal is very true because near west of Kaithal, the location of Apaya and Apaga and Manusa Tirtha has been recognised by `Mahabharata' and `Vamana Purana' both respectively.
In Ist Mandala also reference of `Apana' and `Manusha' comes. Drisadvatyama manusha apayayama saraswatyam sevadagne didiha.
In this part of the hymn, a Vedic saint establishes "Agni" (Fire) in `Manusa' sanctum situated on the bank of `Apaya', so `Kapisthala' writing place of Kathasamhita, Kaithal or its nearest area, exists here only. The "Samkhya Darshana" (Philosophical Samkhya thought) propounded by Saint Kapila was written here.
There is some indication that the Taittiriya Samhita and Taittiriya Upanishads were also written in Titram village near Kaithal. Scholars say that this Samhita was written 4000–6000 years B.C., while the Taittiriya Akanyaka and Taittiriya Upanishad were compiled 2000 years B.C. The Puranas mention the Kathaka people as Madhyadeshiya or Madhyama, indicating that they were residing at Madhyadesha, although other scholars express the possibility that the Kathaka people moved into the Anavristi or Brahmavasta area of Kaithal-Pehowa-Kurukshetra, which is today Kithana or Kathayana. In the Puranas, we find references to of "Shri Tirtha" situated on the tributary of Saraswati near the village Kasan in Kaithal. The residences of Brahaman community belonging to Katha gotra can be found in the adjacent areas. According to grammarian Patanjali, the Kathasamhita teaching was prevalent in every village. "Grame Grame kathakam Kalapakam cha prochyate" - Mahabhasaya. Panini says that its writing was done by the Brahmans of Kapisthala gotra. Durgacharya in his Nirukta Commentary contemplates that the authors of this Samhita are Kapisthala Vashistha-Aham cha Kapisthalo Vasisthaha-Nirukta tika. Several scholars are of the view that this name refers to a specific place. This samhita was edited by Dr. Keith. His theory is that Kapisthala village represents modern Kaithal village, situated in Kurukshetra, close to the Saraswati river. Kashika and Varahmihira also refer to this village in Brihata Samhita. Apparently, the Taittiriya Brahmana and Katha Samhita was produced in Kaithal.
The time honoured and influential works, Taittiriya Katha and Kapisthala Katha Samhitas, were written in Kaithal, which was also the place where the Katha Samhita, Taittiriya upanisada and Kathopanisada, propounding the principles of Samkhya philosophy.