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1
Dominant Caste and Territory in South India
Dominant Caste and Territory in South India
::2013/11/13::
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2
CM KKR face criticism for favoring Kamma caste - Tv9
CM KKR face criticism for favoring Kamma caste - Tv9
::2012/01/21::
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3
32 Years Reddy
32 Years Reddy's Reign, 16 Years Kamma's Reign - High Caste Politics Ruined the State - Rajakeeyam
::2013/11/23::
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4
Vijayawada Students Caste Madness
Vijayawada Students Caste Madness
::2012/05/09::
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5
What is the rank of the kammas and velmas cast in india?
What is the rank of the kammas and velmas cast in india?
::2013/12/28::
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6
Caste and Dowry - Arranged Marriages - 01
Caste and Dowry - Arranged Marriages - 01
::2012/02/26::
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7
kamma sangam
kamma sangam
::2012/07/11::
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8
Karamchedu, Chunduru but Lakshmipeta will continue?
Karamchedu, Chunduru but Lakshmipeta will continue?
::2012/07/06::
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9
Will TDP lose Kamma caste vote bank? - Tv9
Will TDP lose Kamma caste vote bank? - Tv9
::2012/05/01::
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10
Kamma Animutyalu Created by Murali - 1
Kamma Animutyalu Created by Murali - 1
::2010/07/06::
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11
KAMMA TEJALU
KAMMA TEJALU
::2009/02/01::
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12
M KAMMA PKV 8 HEADS
M KAMMA PKV 8 HEADS
::2014/02/17::
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13
The Law of Kamma : Case Study - Crossing the realm The Law of Kamma Sub English
The Law of Kamma : Case Study - Crossing the realm The Law of Kamma Sub English
::2014/03/18::
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14
Kamma Kazi - Update
Kamma Kazi - Update
::2013/12/23::
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15
kamma vaari diggajalu.wmv
kamma vaari diggajalu.wmv
::2010/09/22::
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16
Kamma Kazi - The Crown
Kamma Kazi - The Crown
::2013/11/19::
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17
T R KAMMA RATANGARH 3
T R KAMMA RATANGARH 3
::2014/03/21::
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18
The Law of Kamma : Case Study - A Different Point of Views sub English
The Law of Kamma : Case Study - A Different Point of Views sub English
::2014/03/18::
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19
KAMMA 2
KAMMA 2
::2012/12/15::
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20
T R KAMMA RATANGARH 2
T R KAMMA RATANGARH 2
::2014/03/21::
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21
Supatchai kamma
Supatchai kamma
::2014/02/19::
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22
Kamma Møller - To minutter
Kamma Møller - To minutter
::2013/03/19::
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23
Caste and Dowry - Arranged Marriages - 02
Caste and Dowry - Arranged Marriages - 02
::2012/02/26::
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24
What Kamma Play?
What Kamma Play?
::2012/10/26::
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25
Kamma*Kazi " The  River " ft. Gotti Lanez
Kamma*Kazi " The River " ft. Gotti Lanez
::2013/04/22::
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26
KICK out caste based rumorers ..... those filthy ROGUES SHOULD HAVE NO PLACE
KICK out caste based rumorers ..... those filthy ROGUES SHOULD HAVE NO PLACE
::2014/02/24::
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27
Tv9 - Kamma Guda natives lack basic development - Part 2
Tv9 - Kamma Guda natives lack basic development - Part 2
::2011/01/17::
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28
Caste violence on Madiga
Caste violence on Madiga's in rampally village. (Telugu complete narration)
::2013/05/13::
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29
Run For caste free India ABN Andhrajyothy
Run For caste free India ABN Andhrajyothy
::2012/04/06::
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30
kamma tejalu part1
kamma tejalu part1
::2009/07/10::
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31
M KAMMA PKV WASHABLE 3HEADS
M KAMMA PKV WASHABLE 3HEADS
::2014/03/14::
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32
Kamma Sangam Ugadi Puraskaralu Presented at Ameerpet Video 4
Kamma Sangam Ugadi Puraskaralu Presented at Ameerpet Video 4
::2012/03/27::
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33
Krazy Kammas
Krazy Kammas
::2012/02/19::
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34
What is Karma/Kamma? My life
What is Karma/Kamma? My life's journey and experience of Karma.
::2014/03/01::
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35
Two Shades Of Leaders - Rajakeeyam
Two Shades Of Leaders - Rajakeeyam
::2013/12/01::
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36
Kamma Kazi - G.O.A.T
Kamma Kazi - G.O.A.T
::2013/11/08::
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37
Speech Video at Telugu Mythological Film Festival at Kamma Samgham
Speech Video at Telugu Mythological Film Festival at Kamma Samgham
::2011/10/22::
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38
lavell kamma ... try to keep yourself uptight
lavell kamma ... try to keep yourself uptight
::2012/08/30::
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39
Styles N Weaves expo kicked off at kamma sangam
Styles N Weaves expo kicked off at kamma sangam
::2013/12/30::
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40
kamma Esther superstar
kamma Esther superstar
::2013/04/19::
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41
kamma vari prabha
kamma vari prabha
::2013/03/10::
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42
Jagan Sketch For Kamma Voters
Jagan Sketch For Kamma Voters
::2012/07/11::
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43
Kamma Kazi - Paid off
Kamma Kazi - Paid off
::2013/11/01::
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44
TV9 Discussion: Sri Krishnadevaraya Caste Controversy:
TV9 Discussion: Sri Krishnadevaraya Caste Controversy: 'Deva Deva' - Full
::2012/10/11::
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45
DMC Law Of Kamma 47
DMC Law Of Kamma 47
::2012/07/16::
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46
Kamma viljandifolk09
Kamma viljandifolk09
::2009/08/05::
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47
kamma film D
kamma film D
::2011/03/22::
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48
Mr.Kamma Part 3
Mr.Kamma Part 3
::2007/04/27::
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49
vijayawada KAMMA YUVATHA rally.......
vijayawada KAMMA YUVATHA rally.......
::2012/02/09::
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50
www.Tupaki.com - Jeevitha  Kamma?  ..Kaapa?
www.Tupaki.com - Jeevitha Kamma? ..Kaapa?
::2010/08/17::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Kamma
Religions Hinduism
Languages
Country
Region
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Karnataka
Subdivisions
  • ChowdaryCoastal Andhra Pradesh
  • Rao, RayuduAndhra Pradesh
  • NayakaMedieval Andhra Pradesh, Medieval Karnataka
  • NaiduSouth Andhra Pradesh, North & West Tamil Nadu
  • NaickerSouth Tamil Nadu

Kamma or the Kammavaru is a social group found largely in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Starting from the 1960s, a sizable number have emigrated to other parts of the world, particularly to the Canada, United States, United Kingdom and Australia.[1]

Kammas are one of the Kshatriya groups of Lunar race, related to Maharashtra Kurmis.[2]


Medieval history[edit]

Kakatiya period[edit]

In prolonged battles with Muslims between 1296 and 1323 CE. thousands of Kamma Nayakas perished along with others, in the defense of Warangal.[citation needed] A group of nobles formed in opposition to Muslim rule and were led by a Kamma called Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka, although details of the circumstances surrounding his rise are uncertain. Also uncertain are the methods used that enabled some limited amount of success for the venture, which saw the rebels defeating the Muslim armies in some battles and disrupting their cohesion in the region. The nobles were able to assert control in the Godavari area, over which Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka became ruler from 1325 until his death in 1333. He left no children and was succeeded by a cousin, Kapaya Nayaka, who governed until 1368 and attempted further to expand the Hindu rule. He took control of Warangal from Malik Maqbul in 1336 and thus also of a wider swathe of eastern Telangana that was governed from there. He also tried to support other rebels in surrounding areas, although in the case of aid given to Jaffar Khan — also known as Alauddin Baharnan Shah — the outcome was that his ambitious, unscrupulous and emboldened fellow rebel turned on him. Several military engagements with Khan followed over a period of years, during which Kapaya Nayaka had to cede various forts and territories. His weakened position was exploited by the Reddis and the Velamas, the latter of whom caused his death in battle at Bhimavaram and ended the period of Kamma rule.[3][4]

Vijayanagara period[edit]

After the death of Kapaya Nayaka, many Kammas migrated to the Vijayanagara kingdom. During the reign of Sri Krishnadevaraya Kammas belonging to thirty seven gotras were living in the city of Vijayanagar.[5][page needed] Kamma Nayaks formed the bulwark of Vijayanagara army and were appointed as governors in many areas of Tamil Nadu.[6] Their role in protecting the last great Hindu kingdom of India was significant.[7]

Golkonda period[edit]

The Kammas were largely reduced by the status of peasants in the post-Kakatiya period.[8] The Vijayanagara kingdom underwent very difficult times after the battle of Tallikota in 1565. Pemmasani Nayaks, Ravella Nayaks and Sayapaneni Nayaks steadfastly helped the Araviti kings in keeping the Muslims at bay. It took another 90 years to consolidate the Muslim power in Andhra country with the capture of Gandikota in 1652. Kamma nayaks migrated in large numbers to the Tamil region. During the Golkonda period, the Sayapaneni Nayaks (1626–1802) ruled Dupadu region as vassals of the Golkonda sultans.[9]

The British gained control of Andhra by 1788 from Golkonda Nawabs. Another Kamma principality during Golkonda period was Devarakota with Challapalli as its capital. Its ruler, Yarlagadda Guruvarayudu was subdued by Abdullah Qutb Shah in 1576. His successors ruled as vassals of Golkonda till the French took over in 1751 and later the British in 1765.[citation needed]

Modern history[edit]

Kamma landholdings were consolidated, and their influence consequently increased, by the introduction of the ryotwari system as a replacement for the zamindari system in the 19th century.[10]

Construction of dams and barrages and establishment of an irrigation system in Godavari and Krishna River deltas by Arthur Cotton was a great boon to the Kamma farmers. Availability of water and the natural propensity for hard work made the Kammas wealthy and prosperous.[11] The money was put to good use by establishing numerous schools and libraries and encouraging their children to take up modern education.[12]

The Kammas of Southern Tamil Nadu have also excelled in the cultivation of black cotton soils and later diversified into various industrial enterprises, particularly in Coimbatore and Kovilpatti.[13][14]

Classification[edit]

Classification of social groups in the Andhra region is particularly complex and has changed frequently as the various communities jostle for status.[15] During the British Raj, the Kammas were considered to be "upper Shudra", along with the Reddy and Velama castes, under the varna system of Brahmanic ritual ranking.[16][17]

Selig Harrison said in 1956 that

Kamma lore nurtures the image of a once-proud warrior clan reduced by Reddi chicanery to its present peasant status. Reddi duplicity, recounted by Kamma historian K. Bhavaiah Choudary, was first apparent in 1323 AD at the downfall of Andhra's Kakatiya dynasty. Reciting voluminous records to prove that Kammas dominated the Kakatiya court, Chaudary suggests that the Reddis, also influential militarists at the time, struck a deal at Kamma expense with the Moslem conquerors of the Kakatiya regime. The Kammas lost their noble rank and were forced into farming.[8]

The Kammas have sought recognition as an Other Backward Class in India's system of positive discrimination.[15]

Politics[edit]

In the present day, the Kammas and the Reddys are politically and economically dominant in the state.[18]

During the 1980s, they played a key role in state and national politics with the inception of the Telugu Desam Party by its then President Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao also called as NTR.[19] Nara Chandrababu Naidu gave a progressive direction to Andhra Pradesh and won global recognition to the state.[20]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ G. Oonk, Global Indian Diasporas, 2007, Amsterdam University Press, p. 89, ISBN 978-90-5356-035-8
  2. ^ India. Office of the Registrar General. 'Census of India, 1961, Volume 2, Part 6, Issue 21'. p. 13. 
  3. ^ Prasad, J. Durga (1988). History of the Andhras up to 1565 AD. P. G. Publishers. pp. 168–172. 
  4. ^ Talbot, Cynthia (2001). Pre-colonial India in Practice: Society, Region, and Identity in Medieval Andhra: Society, Region, and Identity in Medieval Andhra. Oxford University Press. pp. 177–182. ISBN 9780198031239. 
  5. ^ Further Sources of Vijayanagara History, K. A. Nilakanta Sastry, 1946.
  6. ^ Kamma Commanders of the Vijayanagara Empire, K. I. Dutt, In: Journal of the Andhra Historical Society, 1926, Vol. X, p. 223
  7. ^ Vijayanagara Voices by William Jackson, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p.124, ISBN 0-7546-3950-9
  8. ^ a b Harrison, Selig S. (June 1956). "Caste and the Andhra Communists". The American Political Science Review 50 (2): 378–404. JSTOR 1951675.  (subscription required)
  9. ^ Textures of Time: Writing History in South India, V. Narayanarau, D. D. Shulman and S. Subrahmanyam, 2003, Other Press LLC, p. 264, ISBN 1-59051-044-5
  10. ^ Kumar, P. Pratap (2013). "Andhra Pradesh: Economic and social relations". In Berger, Peter; Heidemann, Frank. The Modern Anthropology of India: Ethnography, Themes and Theory. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 9781134061112. 
  11. ^ Murty, K. R. (2001). Parties, Elections and Mobilisation. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. p. 20. 
  12. ^ Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (2002). Education and the disprivileged: nineteenth and twentieth century India. Orient Blackswan. p. 58. ISBN 978-81-250-2192-6. 
  13. ^ Stein, Burton (1989). Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-521-26693-9. 
  14. ^ Chari, Sharad (2004). Fraternal Capital. Stanford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-8047-4873-X. 
  15. ^ a b Kumar, P. Pratap (2013). "Andhra Pradesh: Economic and social relations". In Berger, Peter; Heidemann, Frank. The Modern Anthropology of India: Ethnography, Themes and Theory. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781134061112. 
  16. ^ Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (2002). Education and the disprivileged: nineteenth and twentieth century India. Orient Blackswan. p. 17. ISBN 978-81-250-2192-6. 
  17. ^ Ayres, Alyssa; Oldenburg, Philip (2002). India briefing: quickening the pace of change. M. E. Sharpe. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7656-0813-0. 
  18. ^ Srinivasulu, K. (September 2002). "Caste, Class and Social Articulation in Andhra Pradesh: Mapping Differential Regional Trajectories". London: Overseas Development Institute. p. 3. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  19. ^ Political Parties in South Asia, S. K. Mitra and M. Enskat, 2004, Praeger/Greenwood, p.115, ISBN 0-275-96832-4
  20. ^ The Impact of Asian Powers on Global Developments, E. Reiter and P. Hazdra, 2004, Springer, p. 125, ISBN 3-7908-0092-9

Further reading[edit]

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