Play Video
1
Kaplan Turbine Working and Design
Kaplan Turbine Working and Design
::2013/05/02::
Play Video
2
Comparison of Pelton, Francis & Kaplan Turbine
Comparison of Pelton, Francis & Kaplan Turbine
::2013/09/03::
Play Video
3
Kaplan turbine / Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity - How it works! (Animation)
Kaplan turbine / Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity - How it works! (Animation)
::2012/12/20::
Play Video
4
Flusskraftwerk / Kaplan-Turbine / Laufwasserkraftwerk - Funktion und Aufbau (3D-Animation)
Flusskraftwerk / Kaplan-Turbine / Laufwasserkraftwerk - Funktion und Aufbau (3D-Animation)
::2012/11/27::
Play Video
5
www.hydro-electricity.eu, SIAPRO Turn Key Project Mycro Hydro Plant, Kaplan Turbine, 310 kW
www.hydro-electricity.eu, SIAPRO Turn Key Project Mycro Hydro Plant, Kaplan Turbine, 310 kW
::2013/05/29::
Play Video
6
Rajdhani Engineering College Jaipur-  Kaplan Turbine
Rajdhani Engineering College Jaipur- Kaplan Turbine
::2013/11/28::
Play Video
7
Kaplan turbine rub problems
Kaplan turbine rub problems
::2013/03/28::
Play Video
8
Kaplan turbine
Kaplan turbine
::2013/05/15::
Play Video
9
www.hydro-electricity.eu, SIAPRO Design and Manufacturig Kaplan Turbine, Simulation, hydro@siapro si
www.hydro-electricity.eu, SIAPRO Design and Manufacturig Kaplan Turbine, Simulation, hydro@siapro si
::2014/06/02::
Play Video
10
kaplan hydro turbine installation demo
kaplan hydro turbine installation demo
::2013/11/06::
Play Video
11
Axial Kaplan turbine model test
Axial Kaplan turbine model test
::2011/05/04::
Play Video
12
Kaplan Turbine Test Rig TLG204VE @ IIT Bombay
Kaplan Turbine Test Rig TLG204VE @ IIT Bombay
::2014/07/19::
Play Video
13
Cribbing up the kaplan turbine
Cribbing up the kaplan turbine
::2013/03/25::
Play Video
14
Kaplan Turbine Fabrication
Kaplan Turbine Fabrication
::2014/05/22::
Play Video
15
hydro@siapro si; SIAPRO Kaplan Turbine Pressure simulation; www hydro electricity eu
hydro@siapro si; SIAPRO Kaplan Turbine Pressure simulation; www hydro electricity eu
::2014/06/02::
Play Video
16
Kaplan turbine  by  PHY Belgique
Kaplan turbine by PHY Belgique
::2013/06/09::
Play Video
17
Kaplan turbine pit
Kaplan turbine pit
::2013/03/12::
Play Video
18
hydro@siapro si; SIAPRO Design and Manufacturing Kaplan Turbine Velocity Simulation
hydro@siapro si; SIAPRO Design and Manufacturing Kaplan Turbine Velocity Simulation
::2014/06/02::
Play Video
19
Kaplan turbine nose cone install
Kaplan turbine nose cone install
::2013/03/28::
Play Video
20
Kaplan Turbine part 3
Kaplan Turbine part 3
::2014/03/21::
Play Video
21
mematvo.at - KW 40 - 100 Jahre Viktor Kaplan Turbine
mematvo.at - KW 40 - 100 Jahre Viktor Kaplan Turbine
::2013/10/04::
Play Video
22
금성E&C, 워터터빈
금성E&C, 워터터빈 'Kaplan Turbine' 소개
::2012/09/18::
Play Video
23
Kaplan Turbine COZMAT Ltd
Kaplan Turbine COZMAT Ltd
::2014/07/20::
Play Video
24
Kaplan turbine blade repair
Kaplan turbine blade repair
::2013/03/27::
Play Video
25
Kaplan turbine rebuild
Kaplan turbine rebuild
::2013/03/27::
Play Video
26
Kaplan-Turbine Baujahr 2010 Riedmuehle   1 (2)
Kaplan-Turbine Baujahr 2010 Riedmuehle 1 (2)
::2011/04/14::
Play Video
27
Paints on the kaplan turbine top hat!!
Paints on the kaplan turbine top hat!!
::2013/02/22::
Play Video
28
Kaplan-Turbine Baujahr 2010 Riedmuehle   2 (2)
Kaplan-Turbine Baujahr 2010 Riedmuehle 2 (2)
::2011/04/14::
Play Video
29
Kaplan turbine
Kaplan turbine
::2012/10/28::
Play Video
30
Kaplan Turbine part 2
Kaplan Turbine part 2
::2014/03/17::
Play Video
31
Governing of Kaplan Turbine
Governing of Kaplan Turbine
::2014/02/01::
Play Video
32
Dynamic balancing, Kaplan turbine, HYDRO-HIT d.o.o., Slovenia, Europe, www.hydro-hit.si
Dynamic balancing, Kaplan turbine, HYDRO-HIT d.o.o., Slovenia, Europe, www.hydro-hit.si
::2014/06/12::
Play Video
33
kaplan turbine runner machining
kaplan turbine runner machining
::2013/11/05::
Play Video
34
when I
when I'm not on my bike I'm working Kaplan turbines
::2013/11/05::
Play Video
35
3 Virtual Turbines: Pelton, Francis and Kaplan
3 Virtual Turbines: Pelton, Francis and Kaplan
::2008/01/13::
Play Video
36
Kaplan Turbine part 2
Kaplan Turbine part 2
::2014/03/18::
Play Video
37
Kaplan Turbine NEU.
Kaplan Turbine NEU.
::2011/02/14::
Play Video
38
คาปลาน  เทอร์ไบน์  ( Kaplan  Turbine )
คาปลาน เทอร์ไบน์ ( Kaplan Turbine )
::2011/01/28::
Play Video
39
hydro@siapro si; SIAPRO Kaplan Turbine Designing Simulation
hydro@siapro si; SIAPRO Kaplan Turbine Designing Simulation
::2014/06/02::
Play Video
40
Kaplan Turbine COZMAT Ltd
Kaplan Turbine COZMAT Ltd
::2014/07/20::
Play Video
41
Kaplan Turbine
Kaplan Turbine
::2013/12/30::
Play Video
42
Kaplan turbine all strapped up and ready to go
Kaplan turbine all strapped up and ready to go
::2013/04/02::
Play Video
43
Kaplan turbine, mechanical eng univ of SUMUT
Kaplan turbine, mechanical eng univ of SUMUT
::2014/07/19::
Play Video
44
Impulse & reaction, Inward & Outward Flow reaction Turbines, Francis and Kaplan Turbines
Impulse & reaction, Inward & Outward Flow reaction Turbines, Francis and Kaplan Turbines
::2014/02/01::
Play Video
45
Lec-11 Basic Concept of Turbine, Velocity Diagram
Lec-11 Basic Concept of Turbine, Velocity Diagram
::2010/04/07::
Play Video
46
Kaplan turbine delivery
Kaplan turbine delivery
::2011/05/05::
Play Video
47
Kaplan turbine blade install
Kaplan turbine blade install
::2013/02/18::
Play Video
48
Kaplan turbine on the move
Kaplan turbine on the move
::2013/04/03::
Play Video
49
Inside a kaplan turbine
Inside a kaplan turbine
::2014/02/23::
Play Video
50
Kaplan Turbine Output
Kaplan Turbine Output
::2013/11/28::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A Bonneville Dam Kaplan turbine after 61 years of service

The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has adjustable blades. It was developed in 1913 by the Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan, who combined automatically adjusted propeller blades with automatically adjusted wicket gates to achieve efficiency over a wide range of flow and water level.

The Kaplan turbine was an evolution of the Francis turbine. Its invention allowed efficient power production in low-head applications that was not possible with Francis turbines. The head ranges from 10–70 meters and the output from 5 to 200 MW. Runner diameters are between 2 and 11 meters. The range of the turbine rotation is from 79 to 429 rpm. The Kaplan turbine installation believed to generate the most power from its nominal head of 34.65m is as of 2013 the Tocoma Power Plant (Venezuela) Kaplan turbine generating 235MW with each of ten 4.8m diameter runners.[1]

Kaplan turbines are now widely used throughout the world in high-flow, low-head power production.

On this Kaplan runner the pivots at the base of the blade are visible; these allow the angle of the blades to be changed while running. The hub contains hydraulic cylinders for adjusting the angle.

Development[edit]

Viktor Kaplan living in Brno, Czech Republic, obtained his first patent for an adjustable blade propeller turbine in 1912. But the development of a commercially successful machine would take another decade. Kaplan struggled with cavitation problems, and in 1922 abandoned his research for health reasons.

In 1919 Kaplan installed a demonstration unit at Poděbrady, Czechoslovakia. In 1922 Voith introduced an 1100 HP (about 800 kW) Kaplan turbine for use mainly on rivers. In 1924 an 8 MW unit went on line at Lilla Edet, Sweden. This marked the commercial success and widespread acceptance of Kaplan turbines.

Theory of operation[edit]

Vertical Kaplan Turbine (courtesy Voith-Siemens).

The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. Power is recovered from both the hydrostatic head and from the kinetic energy of the flowing water. The design combines features of radial and axial turbines.

The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin.

The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy.

The turbine does not need to be at the lowest point of water flow as long as the draft tube remains full of water. A higher turbine location, however, increases the suction that is imparted on the turbine blades by the draft tube. The resulting pressure drop may lead to cavitation.

Variable geometry of the wicket gate and turbine blades allow efficient operation for a range of flow conditions. Kaplan turbine efficiencies are typically over 90%, but may be lower in very low head applications.[2]

Current areas of research include CFD driven efficiency improvements and new designs that raise survival rates of fish passing through.

Because the propeller blades are rotated on high-pressure hydraulic oil bearings, a critical element of Kaplan design is to maintain a positive seal to prevent emission of oil into the waterway. Discharge of oil into rivers is not desirable because of the waste of resources and resulting ecological damage.

Applications[edit]

Viktor Kaplan Turbine Technisches Museum Wien

Kaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world for electrical power production. They cover the lowest head hydro sites and are especially suited for high flow conditions.

Inexpensive micro turbines on the Kaplan turbine model are manufactured for individual power production with as little as two feet of head.

Large Kaplan turbines are individually designed for each site to operate at the highest possible efficiency, typically over 90%. They are very expensive to design, manufacture and install, but operate for decades.

They have recently found a new home in offshore wave energy generation, see Wave Dragon.

Variations[edit]

The Kaplan turbine is the most widely used of the propeller-type turbines, but several other variations exist:

  • Propeller turbines have non-adjustable propeller vanes. They are used in where the range of flow / power is not large. Commercial products exist for producing several hundred watts from only a few feet of head. Larger propeller turbines produce more than 100 MW. At the La Grande-1 generating station in northern Quebec, 12 propeller turbines generate 1368 MW.[3]
  • Bulb or tubular turbines are designed into the water delivery tube. A large bulb is centered in the water pipe which holds the generator, wicket gate and runner. Tubular turbines are a fully axial design, whereas Kaplan turbines have a radial wicket gate.
  • Pit turbines are bulb turbines with a gear box. This allows for a smaller generator and bulb.
  • Straflo turbines are axial turbines with the generator outside of the water channel, connected to the periphery of the runner.
  • S-turbines eliminate the need for a bulb housing by placing the generator outside of the water channel. This is accomplished with a jog in the water channel and a shaft connecting the runner and generator.
  • The VLH turbine an open flow, very low head "kaplan" turbine slanted at an angle to the water flow. It has a large diameter >3.55m, is low speed using a directly connected shaft mounted permanent magnet alternator with electronic power regulation and is very fish friendly (<5% mortality).[4]
  • Tyson turbines are a fixed propeller turbine designed to be immersed in a fast flowing river, either permanently anchored in the river bed, or attached to a boat or barge.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hydropower project Tocoma". IMPSA. http://www.impsa.com/en/downloads/HYDRO/TOCOMA.pdf.
  2. ^ Grant Ingram (30 January 2007). "Very Simple Kaplan Turbine Design". 
  3. ^ Société d'énergie de la Baie James (1996). Le complexe hydroélectrique de La Grande Rivière : Réalisation de la deuxième phase (in French). Montreal: Société d'énergie de la Baie James. p. 397. ISBN 2-921077-27-2. 
  4. ^ VLH Turbine

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014