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Katorga - Streams Of Silence 2017
Katorga - Streams Of Silence 2017
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: theintolerableweight
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
Published: 2014/02/23
Channel: faiz bek
Katorga przez 4 lata mojego życia (czyta: D&W)
Katorga przez 4 lata mojego życia (czyta: D&W)
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Wyznania do wysłuchania
KATorga - odcinek 7.
KATorga - odcinek 7.
Published: 2010/12/17
Channel: Mikołaj Poloch
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
Published: 2014/03/31
Channel: Tomasz Adamski
[Katorga-12] Ep.1 - Ztroskotání
[Katorga-12] Ep.1 - Ztroskotání
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: WhiterMovies
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
Published: 2014/02/28
Channel: your evil twin
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
Published: 2014/03/19
Channel: Nigel Fowler Sutton
KATORGA FULL SET (@ THE FOREST IN LONGBEACH
KATORGA FULL SET (@ THE FOREST IN LONGBEACH
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: SUNNYSIDE STUDIOS
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
Published: 2014/03/17
Channel: Tomasz Adamski
Fenekra.pl REWORK - Eq mrozu ... katorga! | Dagger - Shinsoo! | Konkursy SM!!! CO 15 LAPEK
Fenekra.pl REWORK - Eq mrozu ... katorga! | Dagger - Shinsoo! | Konkursy SM!!! CO 15 LAPEK
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Auran
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
Published: 2010/11/26
Channel: TheKaDoKiTV
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
Published: 2014/02/19
Channel: Tomasz Adamski
GOPR0170 katorga
GOPR0170 katorga
Published: 2016/09/28
Channel: Krzysztof Broż
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
Published: 2014/04/07
Channel: Tomasz Adamski
Ilze Vazdika.Saldā katorga
Ilze Vazdika.Saldā katorga
Published: 2013/12/09
Channel: multinews lv
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: Tomasz Adamski
Ruina - Katorga
Ruina - Katorga
Published: 2016/09/18
Channel: RUINA
Каторга - "Каторга" / Katorga - "Katorga"
Каторга - "Каторга" / Katorga - "Katorga"
Published: 2011/08/15
Channel: Katorga9
Kuchenna katorga
Kuchenna katorga
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Marco Arent
OZET: Katorga [section 1]
OZET: Katorga [section 1]
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: Aaron Meicht
Katorga Plock. Zespol Skafander
Katorga Plock. Zespol Skafander
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: GWPlock
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: Tomasz Adamski
Bieg terenowy „Dokudowska Katorga”
Bieg terenowy „Dokudowska Katorga”
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: MM Projekt Biper TV
Katorga w trasie - intro
Katorga w trasie - intro
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: Katorga
KATORGA-streams of silence(LIVE @FIVESTAR BAR)
KATORGA-streams of silence(LIVE @FIVESTAR BAR)
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: SUNNYSIDE STUDIOS
Katorga - Góry Izerskie
Katorga - Góry Izerskie
Published: 2015/08/26
Channel: colinSTi
Papandreo - Kiedy odejść (Katorga 2006, Płock)
Papandreo - Kiedy odejść (Katorga 2006, Płock)
Published: 2007/11/12
Channel: ewierzbicki
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque'a - The Suffering: Zniewolony #9 - The End - Czwartkowe Horrojki
Published: 2013/01/17
Channel: ROJSON
Katorga The Games – transmisja na żywo
Katorga The Games – transmisja na żywo
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Katorga The Games
Katorga 12
Katorga 12' ye Geri Dönüyoruz - Haber İçin Teşekkürler Tayfun Erkan
Published: 2015/03/24
Channel: oguzsasi
KATorga - odcinek 5.
KATorga - odcinek 5.
Published: 2010/11/30
Channel: Mikołaj Poloch
raznotravie-katorga.mp4; разнотравие-каторга
raznotravie-katorga.mp4; разнотравие-каторга
Published: 2012/04/02
Channel: Михаил Посадский
KATorga - odcinek 8.
KATorga - odcinek 8.
Published: 2011/04/11
Channel: Mikołaj Poloch
katorga
katorga
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: pawel jaracz
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
Published: 2014/03/03
Channel: Tomasz Adamski
Dostoyevsky served four years of exile with hard labour at a katorga prison camp in Omsk, Siberia
Dostoyevsky served four years of exile with hard labour at a katorga prison camp in Omsk, Siberia
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: BEOWULF RU
cùng chơi singularity #1 hòn đảo Katorga-12 kì lạ và học được nguyên tố mới :)))
cùng chơi singularity #1 hòn đảo Katorga-12 kì lạ và học được nguyên tố mới :)))
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: layder Dương
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
Published: 2013/04/04
Channel: Strahulec Tzeentcha
logo for heavy ,death metal band ,katorga,logo designer london
logo for heavy ,death metal band ,katorga,logo designer london
Published: 2012/01/16
Channel: visualrevolt
KATorga - odcinek 10
KATorga - odcinek 10
Published: 2012/04/15
Channel: Mikołaj Poloch
Olga Orlovskaya as a Katerina - Lady MacBeth of Mtzensk - Katorga
Olga Orlovskaya as a Katerina - Lady MacBeth of Mtzensk - Katorga
Published: 2011/09/18
Channel: Leonid Suvorov
Zagrajmy w Singularity cz. 1. "Katorga-12 wita"
Zagrajmy w Singularity cz. 1. "Katorga-12 wita"
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Dragotrim
Singularity [Playthrough] - Arrivo su Katorga 12
Singularity [Playthrough] - Arrivo su Katorga 12
Published: 2016/05/20
Channel: TrueGamers Movies
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
Published: 2013/07/14
Channel: Aaron Meicht
Katarzyna Jezierska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Katarzyna Jezierska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: Wizjer PWSZ
Katorga The Games – transmisja na żywo
Katorga The Games – transmisja na żywo
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Katorga The Games
Intro For | Katorga
Intro For | Katorga
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: NexRsv
OZET: Katorga [section 2]
OZET: Katorga [section 2]
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: Aaron Meicht
KATorga - odcinek 4.
KATorga - odcinek 4.
Published: 2010/11/30
Channel: Mikołaj Poloch
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Aleksander Sochaczewski's painting depicting the applying of shackles in the Siberian katorga camps.

Katorga (Russian: ка́торга; IPA: [ˈkatərgə]; from medieval Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire[1] and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union). Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia and Russian Far East where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers. The prisoners had to perform forced labor under harsh conditions.

History[edit]

Prisoners at an Amur Cart Road camp, between 1908 and 1913.
Bashkirs conducting convicts to Siberia, painted by William Allan, 1814

Katorga, a category of punishment within the judicial system of the Russian Empire, had many of the features associated with labor-camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually involving hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work.

Katorga camps were established in the 17th century in underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East - regions that had few towns or food sources. Despite the isolated conditions, a few prisoners successfully escaped to populated areas. From these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment, which was further enhanced by the Soviet gulag system.

After the change in Russian penal law in 1847, exile and katorga became common punishment for participants in national uprisings within the Russian Empire. This led to increasing numbers of Poles sent to Siberia for katorga. These people have become known in Poland as Sybiraks ("Siberians"). Some of them remained there, forming a Polish minority in Siberia.

The most common occupations in katorga camps were mining and timber work. A notable example involved the construction of the Amur Cart Road (Амурская колесная дорога), praised[by whom?] as a success in the organisation of penal labor.

In 1891 Anton Chekhov, the Russian writer and playwright, visited the katorga settlements on Sakhalin island in the Russian Far East and wrote about the conditions there in his book Sakhalin Island. He criticized the short-sightedness and incompetence of the officials in charge that led to poor living-standards, waste of government funds, and decreased productivity. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his book about the Soviet-era labor camps, Gulag Archipelago, quoted Chekhov extensively to illustrate the enormous deterioration of living conditions for inmates and the huge increase in the number of people sent there in the Soviet era, compared to the katorga system of Chekhov's time.

Peter Kropotkin, while aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia in the 1860s, was appointed to inspect the state of the prison system in the area; he later described his findings in his book In Russian and French Prisons (1887).

Notable katorgas[edit]

Famous katorga convicts[edit]

Fyodor Doestoevsky

Georgian[edit]

Russian[edit]

Polish[edit]

Farewell to Europe, by Aleksander Sochaczewski

Ukrainian[edit]

Soviet times[edit]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Russian penal system was taken over by the Bolsheviks, who eventually transformed the katorga into the Gulag labor camps.

In 1943 the "katorga labor" (каторжные работы) as a special, severe type of punishment was reintroduced. It was initially intended for Nazi collaborators, but other categories of political prisoners (for example, members of deported peoples who fled from exile) were also sentenced to "katorga labor". Prisoners sentenced to "katorga labor" were sent to gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime, and many of them died.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russian History, Bucknell University, 2008.
  2. ^ "ГУЛАГ: общие сведения | Репрессии и пенитенциарная система в СССР" [Gulag: general information | Repression and the prison system in the USSR]. Archived from the original on 2009-04-19. 
  • P.Kropotkin, In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey; 1887.

Further reading[edit]

  • Daly, Jonathan W. Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866–1905 (1998).

External links[edit]

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