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1
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
::2014/03/31::
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2
BIBLIA - KSIĘGA NIENAWIŚCI | KATORGA #9
BIBLIA - KSIĘGA NIENAWIŚCI | KATORGA #9
::2014/05/06::
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3
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
::2014/04/07::
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4
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
::2014/02/19::
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5
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
::2014/03/03::
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6
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
::2014/04/14::
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7
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
::2014/05/12::
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8
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
::2014/02/22::
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9
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
::2014/03/24::
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10
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
::2014/03/17::
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11
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
::2014/02/28::
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12
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
::2014/03/10::
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13
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
::2014/03/02::
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14
KATorga - odcinek 10
KATorga - odcinek 10
::2012/04/15::
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15
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 04
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 04
::2014/03/10::
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16
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
::2013/04/04::
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17
Zwariowane przygody(Minecraft z modami)#2:Kolejna katorga z lucky blokami
Zwariowane przygody(Minecraft z modami)#2:Kolejna katorga z lucky blokami
::2014/04/12::
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18
Singularity - Wyspa Katorga 12 i pierwiastek E99 w rytmie UMC [Longshort gameplay]
Singularity - Wyspa Katorga 12 i pierwiastek E99 w rytmie UMC [Longshort gameplay]
::2014/09/06::
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19
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
::2012/04/20::
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20
Dragon Age Początek #1 Katorga (+18)
Dragon Age Początek #1 Katorga (+18)
::2012/05/02::
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21
Kanciasta Katorga odc.1
Kanciasta Katorga odc.1
::2012/10/13::
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22
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 03
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 03
::2014/03/05::
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23
Invoria.pl EQ na duży lvl to istna katorga XD #odc10 S2
Invoria.pl EQ na duży lvl to istna katorga XD #odc10 S2
::2014/07/24::
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24
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque'a - The Suffering: Zniewolony #9 - The End - Czwartkowe Horrojki
::2013/01/17::
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25
Spintires (Wybrzeże) #6 "Zilacz+drzewo=katorga"
Spintires (Wybrzeże) #6 "Zilacz+drzewo=katorga"
::2014/09/13::
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26
Singularity | Parte 1 | Bienvenido a Katorga-12
Singularity | Parte 1 | Bienvenido a Katorga-12
::2014/06/25::
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27
Katorga Retraction Holiday
Katorga Retraction Holiday
::2013/07/11::
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28
Singularity - Katorga 12
Singularity - Katorga 12
::2014/09/12::
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29
Singularity - [FR][HD] - épisode 1 :  Bienvenue sur Katorga 12 !
Singularity - [FR][HD] - épisode 1 : Bienvenue sur Katorga 12 !
::2013/10/28::
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30
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
::2013/07/14::
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31
Singularity Gameplay walkthrought - katorga 12 - Parte 1 (xbox/ps3/pc)
Singularity Gameplay walkthrought - katorga 12 - Parte 1 (xbox/ps3/pc)
::2012/12/17::
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32
Katorga-12 vs Rapture
Katorga-12 vs Rapture
::2010/06/24::
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33
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
::2014/03/19::
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34
Let´s Play - Singularity (Singularidad) - Parte 1 - Bienvenidos a Katorga-12
Let´s Play - Singularity (Singularidad) - Parte 1 - Bienvenidos a Katorga-12
::2013/07/03::
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35
Singularity - Capitulo 1 - Bienvenidos a Katorga-12
Singularity - Capitulo 1 - Bienvenidos a Katorga-12
::2013/12/16::
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36
net4game.com ll [*] Nowy radiowóz, katorga i koniec
net4game.com ll [*] Nowy radiowóz, katorga i koniec
::2014/10/29::
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37
KATorga - odcinek 1
KATorga - odcinek 1
::2010/11/29::
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38
KATORGA 11
KATORGA 11
::2012/12/29::
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39
Kapitan Katorga REMIX - Spaces Faces - "Śnij się"
Kapitan Katorga REMIX - Spaces Faces - "Śnij się"
::2013/07/04::
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40
Katorga-12 Rift Teleportation Experiment
Katorga-12 Rift Teleportation Experiment
::2013/04/08::
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41
Singularity Part-01 CHEGAMOS EM KATORGA 12
Singularity Part-01 CHEGAMOS EM KATORGA 12
::2014/01/22::
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42
Let´s Play - Singularity Folge 1 "Absturz auf Katorga 12" [German | HD | Bare Gaming LP]
Let´s Play - Singularity Folge 1 "Absturz auf Katorga 12" [German | HD | Bare Gaming LP]
::2014/08/10::
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43
Return to Katorga-12 (Singularity Montage #2)
Return to Katorga-12 (Singularity Montage #2)
::2014/05/22::
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44
Dragon Age: Początek #1 - Tworzenie postaci (maga) i Katorga
Dragon Age: Początek #1 - Tworzenie postaci (maga) i Katorga
::2014/09/17::
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45
zagrajmy w singularity part1-Katorga 12
zagrajmy w singularity part1-Katorga 12
::2012/06/12::
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46
SINGULARITY #01 "Willkommen auf Katorga-12" [FACECAM/Let
SINGULARITY #01 "Willkommen auf Katorga-12" [FACECAM/Let's Play/German/HD]
::2014/07/21::
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47
Stare gry: Zagrajmy w Kingdom Under Fire - Katorga [#6]
Stare gry: Zagrajmy w Kingdom Under Fire - Katorga [#6]
::2013/06/17::
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48
Welcome Comitee on Katorga-12 - Singularity
Welcome Comitee on Katorga-12 - Singularity
::2010/07/01::
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49
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
::2010/11/26::
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50
Katorga 12 Chcemy prawdy
Katorga 12 Chcemy prawdy
::2012/09/29::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the concept in the Soviet Union, see Katorga labor (Soviet Union).
Aleksander Sochaczewski's painting depicting the applying of handcuffs in the Siberian katorga camps

Katorga (Russian: ка́торга; IPA: [ˈkatərgə]; from medieval Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in Russian Empire.[1] Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia and Russian Far East where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers. The prisoners had to perform forced labor under harsh conditions.

History[edit]

Prisoners at an Amur Cart Road camp

Katorga was category of punishment within the judicial system of the Russian Empire. It had many of the features associated with labor camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually connected with hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work.

Katorga camps were established in the 17th century in underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East, regions that had few towns or food sources. Despite the isolated conditions, a few prisoners successfully escaped to populated areas. From these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment, which was further enhanced by the Soviet GULAG system.

After the change in Russian penal law in 1847, exile and katorga became common punishment to participants of national uprisings within the Russian Empire. This led to increasing numbers of Poles sent to Siberia for katorga. There people have become known in Poland as Sybiraks ( "Siberians"). Some of them remained there, forming a Polish minority in Siberia.

The most common occupations in katorga camps were mining and timber work. A notable example was the construction of the Amur Cart Road (Амурская колесная дорога), praised as a success in the organisation of penal labor.

In 1891 Anton Chekhov, the Russian writer and playwright, visited the katorga settlements in Sakhalin island in the Russian Far East and wrote about the conditions there in his book Sakhalin Island. He criticized the shortsightedness and incompetence of the officials in charge that led to poor living standards, waste of government funds, and decreased productivity. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his book about the Soviet-era labor camps, Gulag Archipelago, quoted Chekhov extensively to illustrate the enormous deterioration of living conditions for inmates in the Soviet era, compared to those of the katorga inmates of Chekhov's time.

Peter Kropotkin, while aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia, was appointed to inspect the state of the prison system in the area, and later described the findings in his book In Russian and French Prisons.

Notable katorgas[edit]

Famous katorga convicts[edit]

Russian[edit]

Polish[edit]

Farewell to Europe, by Aleksander Sochaczewski
Main article: Sybirak

Ukrainian[edit]

Soviet times[edit]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Russian penal system was taken over by the Bolsheviks, who eventually transformed the katorga into the Gulag labor camps.

In 1943 the "katorga labor" (каторжные работы) as a special, severe type of punishment was reintroduced. It was initially intended for Nazi collaborators, but other categories of political prisoners (for example, members of deported peoples who fled from exile) were also sentenced to "katorga labor". Prisoners sentenced to "katorga labor" were sent to gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime, and many of them died.[2]

References[edit]

  • P.Kropotkin, In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey; 1887.

Further reading[edit]

  • Daly, Jonathan W. Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866-1905 (1998)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

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