1
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
DATE: 2014/02/22::
2
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
DATE: 2014/03/31::
3
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
DATE: 2014/04/14::
4
BIBLIA - KSIĘGA NIENAWIŚCI | KATORGA #9
BIBLIA - KSIĘGA NIENAWIŚCI | KATORGA #9
DATE: 2014/05/06::
5
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
DATE: 2014/02/19::
6
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
DATE: 2014/03/10::
7
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
DATE: 2014/02/28::
8
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
DATE: 2014/03/24::
9
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
DATE: 2014/04/07::
10
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
DATE: 2014/03/03::
11
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
DATE: 2014/03/02::
12
Czarna Pantera - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Czarna Pantera - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
13
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
DATE: 2014/03/17::
14
Katorga Plock. Zespol Skafander
Katorga Plock. Zespol Skafander
DATE: 2015/04/16::
15
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
DATE: 2012/04/20::
16
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
DATE: 2014/05/12::
17
Zagrajmy w Singularity - #1 Katorga-12
Zagrajmy w Singularity - #1 Katorga-12
DATE: 2015/03/28::
18
[Katorga-12] Ep.2  - Město Záhad
[Katorga-12] Ep.2 - Město Záhad
DATE: 2015/04/19::
19
KATorga - odcinek 8.
KATorga - odcinek 8.
DATE: 2011/04/11::
20
Katarzyna Jezierska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Katarzyna Jezierska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
21
[Katorga-12] Ep.1 - Ztroskotání
[Katorga-12] Ep.1 - Ztroskotání
DATE: 2015/04/18::
22
Katorga Plock 2015. Zespol Acoustic Whispern
Katorga Plock 2015. Zespol Acoustic Whispern
DATE: 2015/04/16::
23
Agnieszka Jezierska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Agnieszka Jezierska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
24
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque'a - The Suffering: Zniewolony #9 - The End - Czwartkowe Horrojki
DATE: 2013/01/17::
25
Skafander - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Skafander - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
26
Singularity - Wyspa Katorga 12 i pierwiastek E99 w rytmie UMC [Longshort gameplay]
Singularity - Wyspa Katorga 12 i pierwiastek E99 w rytmie UMC [Longshort gameplay]
DATE: 2014/09/06::
27
"Katorga" - Cortometraje UJTL
"Katorga" - Cortometraje UJTL
DATE: 2013/05/17::
28
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
DATE: 2013/04/04::
29
KATORGA 11
KATORGA 11
DATE: 2012/12/29::
30
Katorga Retraction Holiday
Katorga Retraction Holiday
DATE: 2013/07/11::
31
Singularity | (Dificil) parte 1: Katorga-12
Singularity | (Dificil) parte 1: Katorga-12
DATE: 2014/11/29::
32
Invoria.pl EQ na duży lvl to istna katorga XD #odc10 S2
Invoria.pl EQ na duży lvl to istna katorga XD #odc10 S2
DATE: 2014/07/24::
33
Magdalena Plebaniak - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Magdalena Plebaniak - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
34
Studencki Festiwal Pioseki Katorga 2015
Studencki Festiwal Pioseki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
35
Katorga 12
Katorga 12' ye Geri Dönüyoruz - Haber İçin Teşekkürler Tayfun Erkan
DATE: 2015/03/24::
36
Weronika Witkowska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Weronika Witkowska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
37
OZET: Katorga [section 2]
OZET: Katorga [section 2]
DATE: 2014/09/13::
38
Hogshead - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Hogshead - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
39
Paulina Malinowska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Paulina Malinowska - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
40
An Introduction to the Katorga Images (2013)
An Introduction to the Katorga Images (2013)
DATE: 2013/04/30::
41
Ciężka katorga..  #130 Champion :  Nami : Pyknijmy w League of Legends
Ciężka katorga.. #130 Champion : Nami : Pyknijmy w League of Legends
DATE: 2012/12/11::
42
Kapitan Katorga REMIX - Spaces Faces - "Śnij się"
Kapitan Katorga REMIX - Spaces Faces - "Śnij się"
DATE: 2013/07/04::
43
net4game.com ll [*] Nowy radiowóz, katorga i koniec
net4game.com ll [*] Nowy radiowóz, katorga i koniec
DATE: 2014/10/29::
44
The Acoustic Whisper - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
The Acoustic Whisper - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
45
Welcome Comitee on Katorga-12 - Singularity
Welcome Comitee on Katorga-12 - Singularity
DATE: 2010/07/01::
46
Singularity - Katorga 12
Singularity - Katorga 12
DATE: 2014/09/12::
47
Dragon Age: Origins #1 ~ "Katorga"
Dragon Age: Origins #1 ~ "Katorga"
DATE: 2015/01/30::
48
Dawid Czaplak - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
Dawid Czaplak - Studencki Festiwal Piosenki Katorga 2015
DATE: 2015/04/22::
49
Katorga Plock. Zespol Hogshead
Katorga Plock. Zespol Hogshead
DATE: 2015/04/16::
50
Singularity - Episodio 1 - Katorga-12
Singularity - Episodio 1 - Katorga-12
DATE: 2013/10/28::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the concept in the Soviet Union, see Katorga labor (Soviet Union).
Aleksander Sochaczewski's painting depicting the applying of shackles in the Siberian katorga camps.

Katorga (Russian: ка́торга; IPA: [ˈkatərgə]; from medieval Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in Russian Empire.[1] Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia and Russian Far East where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers. The prisoners had to perform forced labor under harsh conditions.

History[edit]

Prisoners at an Amur Cart Road camp

Katorga, a category of punishment within the judicial system of the Russian Empire, had many of the features associated with labor-camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually involving hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work.

Katorga camps were established in the 17th century in underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East - regions that had few towns or food sources. Despite the isolated conditions, a few prisoners successfully escaped to populated areas. From these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment, which was further enhanced by the Soviet GULAG system.

After the change in Russian penal law in 1847, exile and katorga became common punishment for participants in national uprisings within the Russian Empire. This led to increasing numbers of Poles sent to Siberia for katorga. These people have become known in Poland as Sybiraks ("Siberians"). Some of them remained there, forming a Polish minority in Siberia.

The most common occupations in katorga camps were mining and timber work. A notable example involved the construction of the Amur Cart Road (Амурская колесная дорога), praised[by whom?] as a success in the organisation of penal labor.

In 1891 Anton Chekhov, the Russian writer and playwright, visited the katorga settlements on Sakhalin island in the Russian Far East and wrote about the conditions there in his book Sakhalin Island. He criticized the short-sightedness and incompetence of the officials in charge that led to poor living-standards, waste of government funds, and decreased productivity. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his book about the Soviet-era labor camps, Gulag Archipelago, quoted Chekhov extensively to illustrate the enormous deterioration of living conditions for inmates and the huge increase in the number of people sent there in the Soviet era, compared to the katorga system of Chekhov's time.

Peter Kropotkin, while aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia in the 1860s, was appointed to inspect the state of the prison system in the area; he later described his findings in his book In Russian and French Prisons (1887).

Notable katorgas[edit]

Famous katorga convicts[edit]

Russian[edit]

Polish[edit]

Farewell to Europe, by Aleksander Sochaczewski
Main article: Sybirak

Ukrainian[edit]

Soviet times[edit]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Russian penal system was taken over by the Bolsheviks, who eventually transformed the katorga into the Gulag labor camps.

In 1943 the "katorga labor" (каторжные работы) as a special, severe type of punishment was reintroduced. It was initially intended for Nazi collaborators, but other categories of political prisoners (for example, members of deported peoples who fled from exile) were also sentenced to "katorga labor". Prisoners sentenced to "katorga labor" were sent to gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime, and many of them died.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • P.Kropotkin, In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey; 1887.

Further reading[edit]

  • Daly, Jonathan W. Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866–1905 (1998).

External links[edit]

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