Play Video
1
BIBLIA - KSIĘGA NIENAWIŚCI | KATORGA #9
BIBLIA - KSIĘGA NIENAWIŚCI | KATORGA #9
::2014/05/06::
Play Video
2
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
::2014/03/31::
Play Video
3
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
::2014/02/19::
Play Video
4
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
::2014/04/07::
Play Video
5
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
::2014/03/24::
Play Video
6
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
::2014/04/14::
Play Video
7
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
::2014/03/03::
Play Video
8
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
::2014/03/17::
Play Video
9
KATorga - odcinek 10
KATorga - odcinek 10
::2012/04/15::
Play Video
10
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
::2014/03/10::
Play Video
11
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
::2014/02/28::
Play Video
12
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
::2014/02/22::
Play Video
13
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
HITLER I ARETÉ | KATORGA #10
::2014/05/12::
Play Video
14
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
::2014/03/02::
Play Video
15
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
::2013/04/04::
Play Video
16
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 04
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 04
::2014/03/10::
Play Video
17
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 03
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 03
::2014/03/05::
Play Video
18
Katorga Retraction Holiday
Katorga Retraction Holiday
::2013/07/11::
Play Video
19
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
::2012/04/20::
Play Video
20
Zwariowane przygody(Minecraft z modami)#2:Kolejna katorga z lucky blokami
Zwariowane przygody(Minecraft z modami)#2:Kolejna katorga z lucky blokami
::2014/04/12::
Play Video
21
Kanciasta Katorga odc.1
Kanciasta Katorga odc.1
::2012/10/13::
Play Video
22
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
::2013/07/14::
Play Video
23
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
::2014/03/19::
Play Video
24
Invoria.pl EQ na duży lvl to istna katorga XD #odc10 S2
Invoria.pl EQ na duży lvl to istna katorga XD #odc10 S2
::2014/07/24::
Play Video
25
Singularity Gameplay walkthrought - katorga 12 - Parte 1 (xbox/ps3/pc)
Singularity Gameplay walkthrought - katorga 12 - Parte 1 (xbox/ps3/pc)
::2012/12/17::
Play Video
26
Singularity | Parte 1 | Bienvenido a Katorga-12
Singularity | Parte 1 | Bienvenido a Katorga-12
::2014/06/25::
Play Video
27
Dragon Age Początek #1 Katorga (+18)
Dragon Age Początek #1 Katorga (+18)
::2012/05/02::
Play Video
28
KATorga - odcinek 1
KATorga - odcinek 1
::2010/11/29::
Play Video
29
logo for heavy ,death metal band ,katorga,logo designer london
logo for heavy ,death metal band ,katorga,logo designer london
::2012/01/16::
Play Video
30
Katorga of Russian prison - Trailer
Katorga of Russian prison - Trailer
::2014/02/18::
Play Video
31
Spastic Extremity Decoration - Katorga-12 [NEW ALBUM 2013]
Spastic Extremity Decoration - Katorga-12 [NEW ALBUM 2013]
::2013/08/25::
Play Video
32
Return to Katorga-12 (Singularity Montage #2)
Return to Katorga-12 (Singularity Montage #2)
::2014/05/22::
Play Video
33
Katorga 12 Chcemy prawdy
Katorga 12 Chcemy prawdy
::2012/09/29::
Play Video
34
KATorga - odcinek 5.
KATorga - odcinek 5.
::2010/11/30::
Play Video
35
"Katorga" - Cortometraje UJTL
"Katorga" - Cortometraje UJTL
::2013/05/17::
Play Video
36
SINGULARITY Odc.20 Złowroga  Katorga 12
SINGULARITY Odc.20 Złowroga Katorga 12
::2014/02/20::
Play Video
37
Making Of
Making Of 'Katorga'
::2013/05/22::
Play Video
38
Singularity 2.0 // Bienvenidos a Katorga-12 // Walkthroug HD Parte 1
Singularity 2.0 // Bienvenidos a Katorga-12 // Walkthroug HD Parte 1
::2012/07/13::
Play Video
39
Singularity #2 _ Katorga 12
Singularity #2 _ Katorga 12
::2013/10/16::
Play Video
40
PC - Singularity Living on Katorga-12 (HD)
PC - Singularity Living on Katorga-12 (HD)
::2011/04/11::
Play Video
41
Let´s Play Singularity #001 [Deutsch/Full-HD/Blind] - Willkommen auf Katorga-12
Let´s Play Singularity #001 [Deutsch/Full-HD/Blind] - Willkommen auf Katorga-12
::2013/10/25::
Play Video
42
zagrajmy w singularity part1-Katorga 12
zagrajmy w singularity part1-Katorga 12
::2012/06/12::
Play Video
43
Singularity Capitulo 1 - Llegando a Katorga-12
Singularity Capitulo 1 - Llegando a Katorga-12
::2012/08/28::
Play Video
44
Singularity Walkthrough #1|Entrando en Katorga
Singularity Walkthrough #1|Entrando en Katorga
::2014/04/12::
Play Video
45
#01 Let
#01 Let's Play Singularity [HD/DE/BLIND] - Katorga-12
::2014/05/05::
Play Video
46
Ilze Vazdika.Saldā katorga
Ilze Vazdika.Saldā katorga
::2013/12/09::
Play Video
47
GTA Śnieżna katorga
GTA Śnieżna katorga
::2014/03/18::
Play Video
48
Let
Let's Play: Singularity - Part. 17 | DIE BLUE CREATURES, A FILM ON KATORGA-12, and SMELL ME!!!
::2014/05/11::
Play Video
49
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque'a - The Suffering: Zniewolony #9 - The End - Czwartkowe Horrojki
::2013/01/17::
Play Video
50
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
::2010/11/26::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Farewell to Europe, by Aleksander Sochaczewski

Katorga (Russian: ка́торга; IPA: [ˈkatərgə]; from medieval Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a punishment of penal servitude in Tsarist Russia's labor camps,[1] which were later expanded into the Soviet Union's gulags. Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers. The prisoners had to perform forced labor under harsh conditions.

Russian Empire[edit]

History[edit]

Prisoners at an Amur Cart Road camp

Katorga was within the normal judicial system of (Imperial) Russia. It had many of the features associated with concentration camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually connected with hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work.

Katorga camps were established in the 17th century in underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East, regions that had few towns or food sources. Despite the isolated conditions, a few prisoners successfully escaped to populated areas. From these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment, which was further enhanced by the Soviet gulag, the development being influenced by the history of the Katorga camps.

After the change in Russian penal law in 1847, exile and katorga became common punishment to participants of national uprisings within the Russian Empire. This led to increasing numbers of Poles being sent to Siberia for katorga, where they were known as Sybiraks. Some of them remained there, forming a Polish minority in Siberia.

The most common occupations in katorga camps were mining and timber work. A notable example was the construction of the Amur Cart Road (Амурская колесная дорога), praised as a success in the organisation of penal labor.

In 1891 Anton Chekhov, the Russian writer and playwright, visited the katorga settlements in Sakhalin island in the Russian Far East and wrote about the conditions there in his book Sakhalin Island. He criticized the shortsightedness and incompetence of the officials in charge that led to poor living standards, waste of government funds, and decreased productivity. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his book about the Soviet-era labor camps, Gulag Archipelago, quoted Chekhov extensively to illustrate the enormous deterioration of living conditions for inmates in the Soviet era, compared to those of the katorga inmates of Chekhov's time.

Peter Kropotkin, while aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia, was appointed to inspect the state of the prison system in the area, and later described the findings in his book In Russian and French Prisons.

After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Russian penal system was taken over by the Bolsheviks, who eventually transformed the katorga into the Gulag labor camps.

In 1943 the term "katorga works" (каторжные работы) was reintroduced. They were initially intended for Nazi collaborators, but other categories of political prisoners (for example, members of deported peoples who fled from exile) were also sentenced to "katorga works". Prisoners sentenced to "katorga works" were sent to gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime, and many of them died.[2]

Notable katorgas[edit]

Famous katorga convicts[edit]

Russian[edit]

Polish[edit]

Ukrainian[edit]

Soviet Union[edit]

In 1943, during World War II, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issued the decree Presidium "О мерах наказания для немецко-фашистских злодеев, виновных в истязаниях советского гражданского населения и пленных красноармейцев, для шпионов, изменников родины из числа советских граждан и для их пособников", in which section 2 provided punishment with katorga works for 15 to 25 years. The abbreviation for the corresponding convicts was "з/к КТР" (z/k KTR).

References[edit]

  • P.Kropotkin, In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey; 1887.

Further reading[edit]

  • Daly, Jonathan W. Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866-1905 (1998)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014