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1
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
Przez Kościół umierają miliony ludzi | Katorga #1
::2014/02/19::
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2
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
ROZERWALNOŚĆ MAŁŻEŃSTWA I UROJONE ROSZCZENIA TRADYCJI | KATORGA #2
::2014/03/03::
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3
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
UPADEK ZACOFANEGO KOŚCIOŁA & DR HOUSE | KATORGA #6
::2014/03/31::
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4
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
POMYSŁ NA KOMUNIĘ DLA ROZWODNIKÓW | Katorga #4
::2014/03/17::
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5
KATORGA 11
KATORGA 11
::2012/12/29::
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6
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
KOŚCIÓŁ (SEKTA) WIĄŻE KOŚCIÓŁ Z BOGACTWEM | KATORGA #3
::2014/03/10::
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7
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
ŻONA PANA JEZUSA | KATORGA #5
::2014/03/24::
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8
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
KOŚCIÓŁ HIPOKRYTÓW | KATORGA #7
::2014/04/07::
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9
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 01
::2014/02/28::
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10
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
Виды и типы Нерчинской каторги / Nerchinsk katorga 1891
::2014/03/19::
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11
"Katorga" - Cortometraje UJTL
"Katorga" - Cortometraje UJTL
::2013/05/17::
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12
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 04
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 04
::2014/03/10::
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13
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 03
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 03
::2014/03/05::
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14
KATorga - odcinek 10
KATorga - odcinek 10
::2012/04/15::
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15
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
WŁASNA ŚWIADOMOŚĆ | KATORGA #8
::2014/04/14::
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16
Singularity Gameplay walkthrought - katorga 12 - Parte 1 (xbox/ps3/pc)
Singularity Gameplay walkthrought - katorga 12 - Parte 1 (xbox/ps3/pc)
::2012/12/17::
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17
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
Singularity - Episode 1: Welcome To Katorga-12
::2012/04/20::
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18
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
Katorga-12 Conspiracy: 02
::2014/03/02::
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19
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
" Katorga of Russian prison " ( Каторга )
::2014/02/23::
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20
KATorga - odcinek 8.
KATorga - odcinek 8.
::2011/04/11::
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21
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
Minecraft Dragon Age odcinek 1 - Katorga
::2013/04/04::
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22
KATorga - odcinek 5.
KATorga - odcinek 5.
::2010/11/30::
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23
Let
Let's Play Singularity #001 [German] Katorga 12
::2012/02/05::
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24
raznotravie-katorga.mp4; разнотравие-каторга
raznotravie-katorga.mp4; разнотравие-каторга
::2012/04/02::
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25
Dragon Age Początek #1 Katorga (+18)
Dragon Age Początek #1 Katorga (+18)
::2012/05/02::
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26
Kanciasta Katorga odc.1
Kanciasta Katorga odc.1
::2012/10/14::
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27
SINGULARITY Odc.20 Złowroga  Katorga 12
SINGULARITY Odc.20 Złowroga Katorga 12
::2014/02/21::
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28
Ilze Vazdika.Saldā katorga
Ilze Vazdika.Saldā katorga
::2013/12/09::
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29
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.2)
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.2)
::2010/11/26::
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30
KATorga - odcinek 6
KATorga - odcinek 6
::2010/12/05::
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31
Katorga Retraction Holiday
Katorga Retraction Holiday
::2013/07/12::
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32
Making Of
Making Of 'Katorga'
::2013/05/22::
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33
Katorga of Russian prison - Trailer
Katorga of Russian prison - Trailer
::2014/02/18::
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34
Let´s Play - Singularity (Singularidad) - Parte 1 - Bienvenidos a Katorga-12
Let´s Play - Singularity (Singularidad) - Parte 1 - Bienvenidos a Katorga-12
::2013/07/03::
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35
[Test]La Singularité sur Katorga-12
[Test]La Singularité sur Katorga-12
::2014/02/02::
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36
Singularity - [FR][HD] - épisode 1 :  Bienvenue sur Katorga 12 !
Singularity - [FR][HD] - épisode 1 : Bienvenue sur Katorga 12 !
::2013/10/28::
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37
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
OZET Katorga: Past 2 (The Group)
::2013/07/14::
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38
logo for heavy ,death metal band ,katorga,logo designer london
logo for heavy ,death metal band ,katorga,logo designer london
::2012/01/16::
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39
Let´s Play Singularity #001 [Deutsch/Full-HD/Blind] - Willkommen auf Katorga-12
Let´s Play Singularity #001 [Deutsch/Full-HD/Blind] - Willkommen auf Katorga-12
::2013/10/26::
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40
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
Kabaret NOWAKI - czyli okulary, bita śmietana i katorga (cz.1)
::2010/11/26::
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41
KATorga - odcinek 1
KATorga - odcinek 1
::2010/11/29::
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42
Katorga
Katorga
::2007/10/18::
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43
Singularity PL - Katorga 12 - Gameplay
Singularity PL - Katorga 12 - Gameplay
::2010/08/04::
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44
Singularity Part-01 CHEGAMOS EM KATORGA 12
Singularity Part-01 CHEGAMOS EM KATORGA 12
::2014/01/22::
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45
Singularity #2 _ Katorga 12
Singularity #2 _ Katorga 12
::2013/10/16::
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46
Spastic Extremity Decoration - Katorga-12 [NEW ALBUM 2013]
Spastic Extremity Decoration - Katorga-12 [NEW ALBUM 2013]
::2013/08/26::
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47
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque
KONIEC: Katorga Roja i Torque'a - The Suffering: Zniewolony #9 - The End - Czwartkowe Horrojki
::2013/01/17::
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48
singularity ep 01 bienvenue sur katorga 12 !!!!
singularity ep 01 bienvenue sur katorga 12 !!!!
::2014/01/23::
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49
Singularity 2.0 // Bienvenidos a Katorga-12 // Walkthroug HD Parte 1
Singularity 2.0 // Bienvenidos a Katorga-12 // Walkthroug HD Parte 1
::2012/07/13::
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50
It
It's Time To Play Singularity - 01 - Welcome to Katorga-12
::2014/01/19::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Farewell to Europe by Aleksander Sochaczewski

Katorga (Russian: ка́торга, IPA: [ˈkatərgə]; from medieval Greek: katergon, κάτεργον galley) was a punishment of penal servitude in the prison farm (labor camps) in Tsarist Russia[1] and later expanded in the Soviet Union as gulags. Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia—where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers. The prisoners were forced to perform forced labour under harsh conditions.

Russian Empire[edit]

History[edit]

Prisoners at an Amur Cart Road camp

Katorga was within the normal judicial system of (Imperial) Russia. It had many of the features associated with concentration camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually connected with hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work.

Katorga camps were established in the 17th century in underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East, regions that had few towns or food sources. Despite the isolated conditions, a few prisoners successfully escaped to populated areas. From these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment, which was further enhanced by the Soviet gulag, the development being influenced by the history of the Katorga camps.

After the change in Russian penal law in 1847, exile and katorga became common punishment to participants of national uprisings within the Russian Empire. This led to increasing numbers of Poles being sent to Siberia for katorga, where they were known as Sybiraks. Some of them remained there, forming a Polish minority in Siberia.

The most common occupations in katorga camps were mining and timber work. A notable example was the construction of the Amur Cart Road (Амурская колесная дорога), praised as a success in the organisation of penal labor.

In 1891 Anton Chekhov, the Russian writer and playwright, visited the katorga settlements in Sakhalin island in the Russian Far East and wrote about the conditions there in his book Sakhalin Island. He criticized the shortsightedness and incompetence of the officials in charge that led to poor living standards, waste of government funds, and decreased productivity. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his book about the Soviet-era labor camps, Gulag Archipelago, quoted Chekhov extensively to illustrate the enormous deterioration of living conditions for inmates in the Soviet era, compared to those of the katorga inmates of Chekhov's time.

Peter Kropotkin, while aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia, was appointed to inspect the state of the prison system in the area, and later described the findings in his book In Russian and French Prisons.

After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Russian penal system was taken over by the Bolsheviks, who eventually transformed the katorga into the Gulag labor camps.

In 1943 the term "katorga works" (каторжные работы) was reintroduced. They were initially intended for Nazi collaborators, but other categories of political prisoners (for example, members of deported peoples who fled from exile) were also sentenced to "katorga works". Prisoners sentenced to "katorga works" were sent to gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime, and many of them died.[2]

Notable katorgas[edit]

Famous katorga convicts[edit]

Russian[edit]

Polish[edit]

Ukrainian[edit]

Soviet Union[edit]

In 1943, during World War II, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issued the decree Presidium "О мерах наказания для немецко-фашистских злодеев, виновных в истязаниях советского гражданского населения и пленных красноармейцев, для шпионов, изменников родины из числа советских граждан и для их пособников", in which section 2 provided punishment with katorga works for 15 to 25 years. The abbreviation for the corresponding convicts was "з/к КТР" (z/k KTR).

References[edit]

  • P.Kropotkin, In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey; 1887.

Further reading[edit]

  • Daly, Jonathan W. Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866-1905 (1998)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

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