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Katwa
কাটোয়া
Town
Katwa is located in West Bengal
Katwa
Katwa
Location of Katwa in West Bengal, India
Katwa is located in India
Katwa
Katwa
Katwa (India)
Coordinates: 23°39′N 88°08′E / 23.65°N 88.13°E / 23.65; 88.13Coordinates: 23°39′N 88°08′E / 23.65°N 88.13°E / 23.65; 88.13
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Purba Bardhaman
Government
 • Body Katwa Municipality
 • Chairman Rabindranath Chatterjee
 • MP Sunil Mondal
 • MLA Rabindranath Chatterjee
Area
 • Total 8.53 km2 (3.29 sq mi)
Elevation 21 m (69 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 81,615
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 713130
Telephone code 91 3453
Lok Sabha constituency Bardhaman Purba
Vidhan Sabha constituency Katwa
Website bardhaman.gov.in

Katwa (Bengali: কাটোয়া) is a town and the headquarters of Katwa subdivision in Purba Bardhaman district of Indian state of West Bengal.

Geography[edit]

Ajay River Katwa.

Katwa is located at 23°39′N 88°08′E / 23.65°N 88.13°E / 23.65; 88.13. It has an average elevation of 21 m (69 ft). It is situated between the Ajay River and the Hooghly River and so bounded by water to the east, west and north.

History[edit]

The small town has a historical background of five hundred years. The earliest name of Katwa was Indranee Pargana. Later the name was changed to Kantak Nagari. In January 1510, Sri Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu received "Diksha" from his guru Kesava Bharati at the site of the current Sri Gauranga Bari Temple in Katwa.[1][2] Since then, this small township has been a sacred place for Vaishnavites.

The location of the town at the confluence of two navigable rivers, Ajay and Hooghly, made the town strategically important. Katwa was considered the gateway to Murshidabad, the erstwhile capital of the subah of Bengal.[3] Nawab Murshid Quli Khan, Nawab of Bengal, first established a chowki at Katwa during his reign (1717-1727).[3] Between 1742 and 1751, Katwa was invaded by the Bargis (break-away Maratha groups) several times, as part of the Maratha invasions of Bengal.[4][5] It was the site of the First Battle of Katwa (1742) and the Second Battle of Katwa (1745), with Nawab Alivardi Khan of Bengal defeating the Marathas both times. In the Battle of Plassey (1757), on 19 June 1757, Katwa was the last Nawabi garrison conquered by British forces before heading to Plassey. Robert Clive held a council of war in Katwa on 21 June 1757, where the decision was taken to cross the Hooghly River to Plassey.[4][6] On 19 July 1763, Katwa was once again the scene of action during the Third Battle of Katwa, where British troops fought and defeated a contingent of troops loyal to Nawab Mir Qasim.[6]

Under the aegis of the British East India Company, Katwa became an urban settlement, encouraged by the presence of missionaries such as William Carey Jr., the son of William Carey.[7][8] By the 1800s, Katwa had become a thriving trading town with the principal economic activity being the riverine trade in salt.[9] The modern town of Katwa was established in 1850, when it was granted the status of a subdivisional town under the 10th Act of Municipal Rules.[9] The Municipality of Katwa as a governing entity was established on 1 April 1869.[10] The urbanization of Katwa received a further boost with the construction of railroads in the early 20th century: Katwa-Azimganj (constructed in 1903), Katwa-Bandel (1912), Katwa-Bardhaman (1915), and Katwa-Ahmedpur (1917).

Demographics[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Katwa had a total population of 81,615, of which 41,350 (51%) were males and 40,265 (49%) were females. Population below 6 years was 6,799. The total number of literates in Katwa was 65,187 (79.87% of the population over 6 years).[11]

In 2011, the population breakdown by religion was: Hindus (66,899), Muslims (14,488), Sikhs (50), Christians (44), Buddhist (9), Jains (4), Unspecified/Not Stated (121).[12]

Religion in Katwa
Hindu
81.97%
Muslim
17.75%
Christian
0.06%
Others
0.22%

Katwa has a total area of 8.53 km² with a population density of 9,681/km².[13] A steady flow of refugees from East Pakistan increased the population of the area in the fifties.[14]

Population Growth of Katwa (1872-2011)

Economy[edit]

The economy of Katwa is based on agriculture and agro-related trades. The fertile soil of the surrounding areas is enriched by the alluvium from the Hooghly, Ajay and Damodar rivers.[15] The major crops that are farmed in the countryside surrounding Katwa include rice, jute, mustard, sugarcane and various tropical vegetables.[16] Katwa is an important center for marketing the region's agricultural products and for providing retail and consumer services to the surrounding population.[9] Industries are limited to cottage industries and small-scale agro-related industries, e.g. rice mills, jute products, etc.

Within the urban area, as of 2011, 0.81% of workers are employed in the primary (agricultural) sector, 5.96% of workers are employed in the secondary (manufacturing) sector, and 93.70% of workers are employed in the tertiary (services) sector.[3]

The Katwa Super Thermal Power Station is a super critical (660MW x2) 1320 MW coal-fired power plant currently under construction by NTPC at Srikhanda Village, 8 km from Katwa.[17]

Tourism[edit]

Areas of tourism interest in the town include:

Human resources[edit]

Education[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Library[edit]

  • Katwa Sub-Divisional Library[23]

Public health[edit]

Katwa Sub-Divisional Hospital is a 250-bed public facility providing secondary healthcare to Katwa sub-divisional area.[24] There are a number of private nursing centers that serve the town, as well.[9]

Anandaniketan Society for Mental Health Care is a not for profit organisation situated five kilometers outside of Katwa, providing residential care to 350 children, adolescents and adults who have physical, mental and/or intellectual disabilities.[25]

Public safety[edit]

Purba Bardhaman District Police's Katwa Police Station has jurisdiction over Katwa and Dainhat municipality areas and Katwa I and Katwa II CD Blocks. The area covered is 351.03 km2.[26][27]

Culture[edit]

The dominant culture of Katwa is identical to that of most of West Bengal and is deeply influenced by Hindu Bengali culture. Some of the popular festivals in Katwa include:

Katwa and its surrounding areas are especially well-known for their raucous Kartik Puja, colloquially known as Kartik Ladai (Ladai means "battle" in Bengali).[28][29] The object of worship is the boy-faced deity, Kartik, locally referred to as Nangto Kartik or Naked Kartik, in reference to the youth of the deity. In the greater Katwa area, over 250 separate organizations organize pujas and unofficially compete with each other over the sophistication of the theme or the sculpture of the deity.[28][30] After the day of the puja, the deities are paraded throughout town on their way to be ritually submerged in the nearby Hooghly River. The processions usually feature loud music and dancing, leading to a town-wide, festival-like ambiance (jovially named ladai or battle) enjoyed by all participants and spectators.[28]

Transportation[edit]

Highway[edit]

Katwa is served by WB State Highway 6 connecting Katwa to Suri and Shibpur, and WB State Highway 14 connecting Katwa with Bolpur and Palashi. The closest bridge crossing over the Hooghly River is at Gourango Setu at Nabadwip-Mayapur (41 km away).

Railway[edit]

Katwa railway station is a railway junction on Broad Gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) railway line from Calcutta/ Howrah to New Jalpaiguri railway station.

The Bardhaman-Katwa line, after conversion from narrow gauge to electrified broad gauge, was opened to the public on 12 January 2018.[31]

The Katwa-Ahmedpur narrow gauge railway line is being converted to broad gauge.[32]

Waterway[edit]

Katwa is the site of a floating terminal on National Waterway 1 consisting of a pontoon placed on water front with a berth of 30 m (98 ft).

Government and politics[edit]

The town of Katwa is divided into twenty (20) administrative wards.[33] Each ward elects a councilor to the governing body, Katwa Municipality.[34] Municipal elections are held every five (5) years, with the most recent election held in 2015.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kesava Bharati offered the sannyasa order to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in the year 1432 sakabda (A.D. 1510) in Katwa - Vaniquotes". vaniquotes.org. Retrieved 2018-01-23. 
  2. ^ "Sri Gauranga Bari Temple at Katwa – Where Lord Caitanya took sannyasa". www.iskcondesiretree.com. Retrieved 2018-01-23. 
  3. ^ a b c Roy, Tuhin. "Unacknowledged Urbanisation and Dynamics of Urban Mobility: An Experience of Katwa Town, District: Burdwan, West Bengal, India" (PDF). Quest: Multidisciplinary Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3: 5. 
  4. ^ a b Sengupta, Nitish (2011). Land of Two Rivers. Penguin Books. pp. 158–162; 170. ISBN 9780143416784. 
  5. ^ "Bargi: The Maratha Plunder Menace In Bengal". Señor Bonerjea. 2015-09-10. Retrieved 2018-01-23. 
  6. ^ a b Malleson, George Bruce (1885). The Decisive Battles of India, from 1746 to 1849 Inclusive. Allen. 
  7. ^ "William Robinson". jbrannan.pagesperso-orange.fr. Retrieved 2018-01-23. 
  8. ^ Andrews, C. F. (Charles Freer) (c. 1932). What I owe to Christ [microform]. Internet Archive. New York, Cincinnati [etc.] : The Abingdon press. 'Religion flourishes at Katwa more than at any other station in the Mission.' (p. 277) 
  9. ^ a b c d Roy, Tuhin. "Unacknowledged Urbanisation and Dynamics of Urban Mobility: An Experience of Katwa Town, District: Burdwan, West Bengal, India" (PDF). Quest: Multidisciplinary Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences,. 3: 13–14. 
  10. ^ Peterson, J.C.K. (1997). "Bengal District Gazetteers - Burdwan" (PDF). Government of West Bengal: 218. 
  11. ^ "2011 Census - Primary Census Abstract Data Tables". West Bengal – District-wise. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  12. ^ "Census of India 2011. C-01 Population By Religious Community (India & States/UTs/District/Sub-Distt/Town Level)". Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  13. ^ Population data on urban units of Bardhaman
  14. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and folklore of Bardhaman District.), (in Bengali), Vol I, p57, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  15. ^ "Geography : Burdwan District". bardhaman.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  16. ^ "Business and Economy of Bardhaman, Industries in Bardhaman". www.bardhamanonline.in. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  17. ^ Majumdar, Arkamoy Dutta (2017-04-12). "NTPC puts Katwa power project on hold". livemint.com/. Retrieved 2018-01-23. 
  18. ^ a b "West Bengal : Katwa". IndiaTravelCompanion.com. Retrieved 2018-02-11. 
  19. ^ a b c "Tourism : Burdwan District". bardhaman.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-02-11. 
  20. ^ "::Welcome To The Official Website Of Katwa College::". katwacollege.ac.in. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  21. ^ "Bengal Institute of Technology - Katwa,Burdwan | University | India | eListing.in". eListing.in. Retrieved 2018-02-17. 
  22. ^ ":: KATWA GOVERNMENT PRIMARY TEACHER'S TRAINING INSTITUTE ::". katwagovtptti.org. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  23. ^ "Town Library Automation  » Katwa Sub-Divisional Library". www.wbpublibnet.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  24. ^ "Welcome to WB HEALTH Portal". www.wbhealth.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  25. ^ "Anandaniketan". www.equalhealth.org.au. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  26. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Burdwan". Table 2.1. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017. 
  27. ^ "Burdwan District Police". Police Station. West Bengal Police. Retrieved 26 February 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c "কেন আজও ন্যাংটো কার্তিকের পুজো হয় কাটোয়ায়?". Sangbad Pratidin. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  29. ^ "আলোয় সেজেছে রাস্তা, কার্তিক পুজোকে ঘিরে জমজমাট কাটোয়া– News18 Bengali". bengali.news18.com. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  30. ^ সংবাদদাতা, নিজস্ব. "কার্তিকের থিমে কুরুক্ষেত্র, ছৌ". anandabazar.com. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  31. ^ "Baro rail Katwae, jamlo bhidr (Big railway in Katwa, crowd gathers)". Bengali. Ananda Bazar Patrika, 13 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  32. ^ Eastern Railway. "Introduction of Barddhaman-Balgona EMU Special Train with effect from 11.2.2014". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  33. ^ "Number of wards to be increased in 26 municipalities in Bengal : All India Trinamool Congress". aitcofficial.org. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  34. ^ "Official Web Site of Department of Municipal Affairs, Govt of West Bengal". www.wbdma.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-02-09. 
  35. ^ The Kolkata Gazette: West Bengal State Election Commission Notification. Kolkata: Government of West Bengal. 2015. p. 343. 

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