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WIE KAN HET BEST MAKE-UPEN SAMEN MET KELVIN | SENNA BELLOD
WIE KAN HET BEST MAKE-UPEN SAMEN MET KELVIN | SENNA BELLOD
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: Senna Bellod
KELVIN EN QUINTY ZIJN INTIEM BIJ MAKE
KELVIN EN QUINTY ZIJN INTIEM BIJ MAKE 'EM LAUGH?! | Kelvin, Quinty, Kaj, Marije | Challenges Cup #7
Published: 2017/11/20
Channel: Challenges Cup
Tunggu Beta Bale - Kelvin Fordatkossu ft. MCP Sysilia RML ☆_Full HD》Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2017.
Tunggu Beta Bale - Kelvin Fordatkossu ft. MCP Sysilia RML ☆_Full HD》Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2017.
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: KELVIN FORDATKOSSU / R M L
RAADT KELVIN DAT HIJ NINA IS BIJ FACE SWAP LIVE CHALLENGE?| Kelvin, Jill, Gio Kaj|Challenges Cup #16
RAADT KELVIN DAT HIJ NINA IS BIJ FACE SWAP LIVE CHALLENGE?| Kelvin, Jill, Gio Kaj|Challenges Cup #16
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: Challenges Cup
NOMOR LAMA - KELVIN FORDATKOSSU RML ( Official Music Video , Full ) [HD]  Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2017.
NOMOR LAMA - KELVIN FORDATKOSSU RML ( Official Music Video , Full ) [HD] Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2017.
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: KELVIN FORDATKOSSU / R M L
Drugs Mafia Kingpin Kelvin
Drugs Mafia Kingpin Kelvin's evil designs - TV9
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: TV9 Telugu
Kelvin - Sixty Symbols
Kelvin - Sixty Symbols
Published: 2009/10/27
Channel: Sixty Symbols
Kelvin "Fosforito" | Parte 3 | Comicos Ambulantes | Chabuca Granda
Kelvin "Fosforito" | Parte 3 | Comicos Ambulantes | Chabuca Granda
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: Comicos Ambulantes
INILAH KETIKA TOP 1 GLOBAL ARGUS DITANTANG TOP 1 FREYA BEKASI
INILAH KETIKA TOP 1 GLOBAL ARGUS DITANTANG TOP 1 FREYA BEKASI
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: Kelvin Gaming
Kelvin und Kelvinskala erklärt - Temperaturen
Kelvin und Kelvinskala erklärt - Temperaturen
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: TheSimplePhysics
Drug Mafia Kingpin Kelvin a Cine Association member? - TV9
Drug Mafia Kingpin Kelvin a Cine Association member? - TV9
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: TV9 Telugu
Kelvin 4D Labrak - Nona Kairatu.( Rap Mollucan Labrak ) Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2016.
Kelvin 4D Labrak - Nona Kairatu.( Rap Mollucan Labrak ) Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2016.
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: KELVIN FORDATKOSSU / R M L
Kelvin - "Diamonds" - (Rihanna) | The Voice Kids France 2017 | Blind Audition
Kelvin - "Diamonds" - (Rihanna) | The Voice Kids France 2017 | Blind Audition
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: The Voice Kids France
Kelvin Fordatkossu - Nona Aer Salobar _ Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2017.
Kelvin Fordatkossu - Nona Aer Salobar _ Lagu Ambon Terbaru 2017.
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: KELVIN FORDATKOSSU / R M L
LAGI REVIEW SKIN EPIC FREYA EH ADA BOCAH RACIST AGAMA -_-
LAGI REVIEW SKIN EPIC FREYA EH ADA BOCAH RACIST AGAMA -_-
Published: 2017/12/09
Channel: Kelvin Gaming
Golo de Kelvin e momentos finais do FC Porto-Benfica, 2-1
Golo de Kelvin e momentos finais do FC Porto-Benfica, 2-1
Published: 2013/05/12
Channel: FC Porto
MCs Kelvin e Weslley - Se Eu Mandar (Lyric Vídeo) Prod. DJ Allê Mark
MCs Kelvin e Weslley - Se Eu Mandar (Lyric Vídeo) Prod. DJ Allê Mark
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: FONTE DO FUNK OFICIAL
Kelvin 4D - NONA KAIRATU
Kelvin 4D - NONA KAIRATU
Published: 2017/02/04
Channel: Pelita Utama
Kelvin Khánh - Những Ca Khúc Hay Nhất 2016 của Kelvin Khánh ft Khởi My
Kelvin Khánh - Những Ca Khúc Hay Nhất 2016 của Kelvin Khánh ft Khởi My
Published: 2016/09/18
Channel: Nam Việt Music
NAAR BED MET VRIENDINNEN VAN YOUTUBERS?! - FUCK OR KILL MET KELVIN
NAAR BED MET VRIENDINNEN VAN YOUTUBERS?! - FUCK OR KILL MET KELVIN
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: Gio
Drugs Dealer Kelvin
Drugs Dealer Kelvin's Father Jawahar Face to Face || Tollywood in Drugs || NTV
Published: 2017/07/15
Channel: NTV Telugu
KOMPILASI VIDEO INSTAGRAM LUCU BIKIN NGAKAK ONLINE PART 4 - KELVIN ALFIANDO
KOMPILASI VIDEO INSTAGRAM LUCU BIKIN NGAKAK ONLINE PART 4 - KELVIN ALFIANDO
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: Kelvin Gaming
THE ROAST OF FIFALOSOPHY - Kalcember #2 | Kalvijn
THE ROAST OF FIFALOSOPHY - Kalcember #2 | Kalvijn
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Kalvijn
Kelvin - "Envole-moi" - (Jean-Jacques Goldman / Kids United)  | The Voice Kids...
Kelvin - "Envole-moi" - (Jean-Jacques Goldman / Kids United) | The Voice Kids...
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: The Voice Kids France
KELVIN DOET PERFECTE SLIDE BIJ CUP SLIDE CHALLENGE | Kelvin, Gio, Jill, Marije | Challenges Cup #10
KELVIN DOET PERFECTE SLIDE BIJ CUP SLIDE CHALLENGE | Kelvin, Gio, Jill, Marije | Challenges Cup #10
Published: 2017/11/27
Channel: Challenges Cup
Le Kelvin, c
Le Kelvin, c'est chaud - SI - 04
Published: 2017/08/06
Channel: e-penser
Conversión de Grados Kelvin a Grados Fahrenheit (K a F)
Conversión de Grados Kelvin a Grados Fahrenheit (K a F)
Published: 2017/10/08
Channel: iEnciclotareas
VLIEGENDE WORTELS IN SUPER SINTERKLAAS RUN?! | Kelvin, Gio, Sophie, Quinty | Challenges Cup #14
VLIEGENDE WORTELS IN SUPER SINTERKLAAS RUN?! | Kelvin, Gio, Sophie, Quinty | Challenges Cup #14
Published: 2017/12/06
Channel: Challenges Cup
Kelvin - Guitarist to Drug Don ! - TV9
Kelvin - Guitarist to Drug Don ! - TV9
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: TV9 Telugu
MY KELVIN DOES MY MAKE-UP | TheKelvlog
MY KELVIN DOES MY MAKE-UP | TheKelvlog
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: Kalvijn
Woli Arole vs Kelvin; Preaching competition, who go win?
Woli Arole vs Kelvin; Preaching competition, who go win?
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: WoliArole
IK HEB NOG NOOIT ZOIETS SPANNENDS GEDAAN - Kalcember #1 | Kalvijn
IK HEB NOG NOOIT ZOIETS SPANNENDS GEDAAN - Kalcember #1 | Kalvijn
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: Kalvijn
3 STARLIGHT MEMBER FROM KELVIN GAMING !!! - GIVEAWAY PART 13
3 STARLIGHT MEMBER FROM KELVIN GAMING !!! - GIVEAWAY PART 13
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Kelvin Gaming
[FULL] KELVIN KHÁNH - TRONIE - THANH DUY - ĐẠI NHÂN | Đêm yêu thương | 1/9/2017
[FULL] KELVIN KHÁNH - TRONIE - THANH DUY - ĐẠI NHÂN | Đêm yêu thương | 1/9/2017
Published: 2017/09/17
Channel: Kelvin Khánh Tuổi Thanh Xuân Của Tôi
GOYANG TOBELO - Kelvin Fordatkossu ft. MCP Sysilia ( Official Music Video , Full ) [HD] 2017
GOYANG TOBELO - Kelvin Fordatkossu ft. MCP Sysilia ( Official Music Video , Full ) [HD] 2017
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: MCP SYSILIA RAP MOLLUCAN LABRAK
Kelvin en Jayjay waxen ❤ challenge | Beautygloss
Kelvin en Jayjay waxen ❤ challenge | Beautygloss
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: beautygloss
KALVIJN
KALVIJN's Huis op Stelten #4
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: StukTV
BABYFOODCHALLENGE MET KELVIN | SENNA BELLOD
BABYFOODCHALLENGE MET KELVIN | SENNA BELLOD
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: Senna Bellod
ROAST OF KALVIJN - DISSTRACK | Kalvijn
ROAST OF KALVIJN - DISSTRACK | Kalvijn
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: Kalvijn
Viral Sensation Kelvin Pena On His Relationship w/ Deer & Everybody Eats Foundation
Viral Sensation Kelvin Pena On His Relationship w/ Deer & Everybody Eats Foundation
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: HOT 97
KELVIN NEEMT DE VLOG OVER - VLOG #17 | SENNA BELLOD
KELVIN NEEMT DE VLOG OVER - VLOG #17 | SENNA BELLOD
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: Senna Bellod
Khởi My livestream kì nghỉ trăng mật cùng Kelvin Khánh ở Maldives (02/12/2017)
Khởi My livestream kì nghỉ trăng mật cùng Kelvin Khánh ở Maldives (02/12/2017)
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Kelvin Khánh và Khởi My - Vợ Chồng Bá Đạo
BEGINILAH JADINYA KALO GUE NANTANG TOP 1 GLOBAL KAGURA RRQ LEMON
BEGINILAH JADINYA KALO GUE NANTANG TOP 1 GLOBAL KAGURA RRQ LEMON
Published: 2017/11/30
Channel: Kelvin Gaming
Kelvin - Laisse Les Parler (Feat Teky)
Kelvin - Laisse Les Parler (Feat Teky)
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Carry Out Channel
Em - Kelvin Khánh ft Bảo Thạch (MV 4K STAR OFFICIAL)
Em - Kelvin Khánh ft Bảo Thạch (MV 4K STAR OFFICIAL)
Published: 2016/11/01
Channel: Nam Việt Official
GUE TELAH MERENGGUT KEPERAWANAN PANTAI INI
GUE TELAH MERENGGUT KEPERAWANAN PANTAI INI
Published: 2017/12/09
Channel: Kelvin Gaming
ROAST OF KELVIN! - [Aflevering 114]
ROAST OF KELVIN! - [Aflevering 114]
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: TeamDylanHaegens
Fight Night Shanghai: Kelvin Gastelum & Michael Bisping Octagon Interview
Fight Night Shanghai: Kelvin Gastelum & Michael Bisping Octagon Interview
Published: 2017/11/25
Channel: UFC - Ultimate Fighting Championship
[KHOI MY TUBE] BAD - BASICK - KELVIN KHANH - TUAN HII
[KHOI MY TUBE] BAD - BASICK - KELVIN KHANH - TUAN HII
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Khởi My - Kelvin Khánh Official
Nhặt Lại Mảnh Vỡ | Kelvin Khánh ft. Jc Hưng - 4K | Yeah1 Superstar (Official Music Video)
Nhặt Lại Mảnh Vỡ | Kelvin Khánh ft. Jc Hưng - 4K | Yeah1 Superstar (Official Music Video)
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: YEAH1 MUSIC
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Kelvin
Unit system SI base unit
Unit of Temperature
Symbol K 
Named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
Kelvin temperature conversion formulae
from kelvins to kelvins
Celsius [°C] = [K] − 273.15 [K] = [°C] + 273.15
Fahrenheit [°F] = [K] × 95 − 459.67 [K] = ([°F] + 459.67) × 59
Rankine [°R] = [K] × 95 [K] = [°R] × 59
For temperature intervals rather than specific temperatures,
1 K = 1 °C = 95 °F = 95 °R
Comparisons among various temperature scales

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin (symbol: K) is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI). The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F).[1] In other words, it is defined such that the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K.

The Kelvin scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree. The kelvin is the primary unit of temperature measurement in the physical sciences, but is often used in conjunction with the degree Celsius, which has the same magnitude. The definition implies that absolute zero (0 K) is equivalent to −273.15 °C (−459.67 °F).

History[edit]

Lord Kelvin, the namesake of the unit

In 1848, William Thomson, who later was made Lord Kelvin, wrote in his paper, On an Absolute Thermometric Scale, of the need for a scale whereby "infinite cold" (absolute zero) was the scale's null point, and which used the degree Celsius for its unit increment. Kelvin calculated that absolute zero was equivalent to −273 °C on the air thermometers of the time.[2] This absolute scale is known today as the Kelvin thermodynamic temperature scale. Kelvin's value of "−273" was the negative reciprocal of 0.00366—the accepted expansion coefficient of gas per degree Celsius relative to the ice point, giving a remarkable consistency to the currently accepted value.

In 1954, Resolution 3 of the 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) gave the Kelvin scale its modern definition by designating the triple point of water as its second defining point and assigned its temperature to exactly 273.16 kelvins.[3]

In 1967/1968 Resolution 3 of the 13th CGPM renamed the unit increment of thermodynamic temperature "kelvin", symbol K, replacing "degree Kelvin", symbol °K.[4] Furthermore, feeling it useful to more explicitly define the magnitude of the unit increment, the 13th CGPM also held in Resolution 4 that "The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is equal to the fraction 1273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water."[1]

In 2005 The Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), a committee of the CGPM, affirmed that for the purposes of delineating the temperature of the triple point of water, the definition of the Kelvin thermodynamic temperature scale would refer to water having an isotopic composition specified as VSMOW.[5]

Usage conventions[edit]

When spelled out or spoken, the unit is pluralised using the same grammatical rules as for other SI units such as the volt or ohm (e.g. "the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 kelvins"[6]). When reference is made to the "Kelvin scale", the word "kelvin"—which is normally a noun—functions adjectivally to modify the noun "scale" and is capitalized. As with most other SI unit symbols (angle symbols, e.g. 45° 3′ 4″, are the exception) there is a space between the numeric value and the kelvin symbol (e.g. "99.987 K").[7][8]

Before the 13th CGPM in 1967–1968, the unit kelvin was called a "degree", the same as with the other temperature scales at the time. It was distinguished from the other scales with either the adjective suffix "Kelvin" ("degree Kelvin") or with "absolute" ("degree absolute") and its symbol was °K. The latter term (degree absolute), which was the unit's official name from 1948 until 1954, was ambiguous since it could also be interpreted as referring to the Rankine scale. Before the 13th CGPM, the plural form was "degrees absolute". The 13th CGPM changed the unit name to simply "kelvin" (symbol: K).[9] The omission of "degree" indicates that it is not relative to an arbitrary reference point like the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales (although the Rankine scale continued to use "degree Rankine"), but rather an absolute unit of measure which can be manipulated algebraically (e.g. multiplied by two to indicate twice the amount of "mean energy" available among elementary degrees of freedom of the system).

Use in conjunction with degrees Celsius[edit]

A thermometer calibrated in degrees Celsius (left) and kelvins (right).

In science and engineering, degrees Celsius and kelvins are often used simultaneously in the same article, where absolute temperatures are given in degrees Celsius, but temperature intervals are given in kelvins. E.g. "its measured value was 0.01028 °C with an uncertainty of 60 µK."

This practice is permissible because the degree Celsius is a special name for the kelvin for use in expressing relative temperatures, and the magnitude of the degree Celsius is exactly equal to that of the kelvin.[10] Notwithstanding that the official endorsement provided by Resolution 3 of the 13th CGPM states "a temperature interval may also be expressed in degrees Celsius",[4] the practice of simultaneously using both "°C" and "K" is widespread throughout the scientific world. The use of SI prefixed forms of the degree Celsius (such as "µ°C" or "microdegrees Celsius") to express a temperature interval has not been widely adopted.

Proposed redefinition[edit]

In 2005 the CIPM embarked on a program to redefine the kelvin (along with the other SI units) using a more experimentally rigorous methodology. The current definition as of 2016 is unsatisfactory for temperatures below 20 K and above 1300 K.[11] In particular, the committee proposed redefining the kelvin such that Boltzmann's constant takes the exact value 1.3806505×10−23 J/K.[12] The committee had hoped that the program would be completed in time for its adoption by the CGPM at its 2011 meeting, but at the 2011 meeting the decision was postponed to the 2014 meeting when it would be considered as part of a larger program.[13]

The redefinition was further postponed in 2014, pending more accurate measurements of Boltzmann's constant in terms of the current definition, but it is expected to be adopted at the 26th CGPM in late 2018.[14]

From a scientific point of view, this will link temperature to the rest of SI and result in a stable definition that is independent of any particular substance. From a practical point of view, the redefinition will pass unnoticed; water will still freeze at 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F).[15]

Practical uses[edit]

Colour temperature[edit]

The kelvin is often used in the measure of the colour temperature of light sources. Colour temperature is based upon the principle that a black body radiator emits light whose colour depends on the temperature of the radiator. Black bodies with temperatures below about 4000 K appear reddish, whereas those above about 7500 K appear bluish. Colour temperature is important in the fields of image projection and photography, where a colour temperature of approximately 5600 K is required to match "daylight" film emulsions. In astronomy, the stellar classification of stars and their place on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram are based, in part, upon their surface temperature, known as effective temperature. The photosphere of the Sun, for instance, has an effective temperature of 5778 K.

Digital cameras and photographic software often use colour temperature in K in edit and setup menus. The simple guide is that the higher the colour temperature, the more white or blue the image will be. The reduction in colour temperature will give an image more dominated by reddish, "warmer" colours.

Kelvin as a measure of noise[edit]

In electronics, the kelvin is used as an indicator of how noisy a circuit is in relation to an ultimate noise floor, i.e. the noise temperature. The so-called Johnson–Nyquist noise of discrete resistors and capacitors is a type of thermal noise derived from the Boltzmann constant and can be used to determine the noise temperature of a circuit using the Friis formulas for noise.

Unicode character[edit]

The symbol is encoded in Unicode at codepoint U+212A kelvin sign. However, this is a compatibility character provided for compatibility with legacy encodings. The Unicode standard recommends using U+004B K latin capital letter k instead; that is, a normal capital K. "Three letterlike symbols have been given canonical equivalence to regular letters: U+2126 ohm sign, U+212A kelvin sign, and U+212B angstrom sign. In all three instances, the regular letter should be used."[16]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Resolution 4: Definition of the SI unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin)". Resolutions of the 13th CGPM. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 1967. Archived from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2008. 
  2. ^ Lord Kelvin, William (October 1848). "On an Absolute Thermometric Scale". Philosophical Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008. 
  3. ^ "Resolution 3: Definition of the thermodynamic temperature scale". Resolutions of the 10th CGPM. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 1954. Archived from the original on 23 June 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "Resolution 3: SI unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin)". Resolutions of the 13th CGPM. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 1967. Archived from the original on 21 April 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2008. 
  5. ^ "Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin)". SI Brochure, 8th edition. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 1967. pp. Section 2.1.1.5. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  6. ^ "Rules and style conventions for expressing values of quantities". SI Brochure, 8th edition. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 1967. pp. Section 2.1.1.5. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  7. ^ "SI Unit rules and style conventions". National Institute of Standards and Technology. September 2004. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008. 
  8. ^ "Rules and style conventions for expressing values of quantities". SI Brochure, 8th edition. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 1967. pp. Section 5.3.3. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  9. ^ Barry N. Taylor (2008). "Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)" (.PDF). Special Publication 811. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  10. ^ "Units with special names and symbols; units that incorporate special names and symbols". SI Brochure, 8th edition. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. pp. Section 2.2.2, Table 3. Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2016. 
  11. ^ J. Fischer1; et al. (2 May 2007). "Report to the CIPM on the implications of changing the definition of the base unit kelvin" (PDF). International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  12. ^ Ian Mills (29 September 2010). "Draft Chapter 2 for SI Brochure, following redefinitions of the base units" (PDF). CCU. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  13. ^ "General Conference on Weights and Measures approves possible changes to the International System of Units, including redefinition of the kilogram" (PDF) (Press release). Sèvres, France: General Conference on Weights and Measures. 23 October 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2011. 
  14. ^ Wood, B. (3–4 November 2014). "Report on the Meeting of the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants" (PDF). BIPM. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 October 2015. [BIPM director Martin] Milton responded to a question about what would happen if ... the CIPM or the CGPM voted not to move forward with the redefinition of the SI. He responded that he felt that by that time the decision to move forward should be seen as a foregone conclusion. 
  15. ^ "Updating the definition of the kelvin" (PDF). International Bureau for Weights and Measures (BIPM). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  16. ^ "22.2". The Unicode Standard, Version 8.0 (PDF). Mountain View, CA, USA: The Unicode Consortium. August 2015. ISBN 978-1-936213-10-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 

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