|Kenneth I. Juster|
|Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs|
January 20, 2017
|Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security|
|President||George W. Bush|
|Counselor of the United States Department of State
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Robert Zoellick|
|Succeeded by||Tim Wirth|
November 24, 1954 |
New York, New York
|Alma mater||Harvard University|
Kenneth I. Juster (born November 24, 1954) is the Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs and Deputy Director of the National Economic Council in the United States Government. He is a senior member of both the National Security Council staff and the National Economic Council staff. Juster's career has spanned over 35 years in government, law, business, finance, and international affairs. Most recently, he was a Partner and Managing Director at the global investment firm Warburg Pincus. Prior to that, he served in senior positions in the U.S. Department of State and the U.S. Department of Commerce, practiced law at the firm Arnold & Porter as a senior partner, and was a senior executive at the software company salesforce.com. He also previously served as the Chairman of the Advisory Committee of Harvard's Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, the Chairman of Freedom House, the Vice Chairman of the Asia Foundation, and a member of the Trilateral Commission. He is currently a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Academy of Diplomacy.
The White House appointed Juster to serve as the Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs and Deputy Director of the National Economic Council in January 2017. In this role, he coordinates the Administration’s international economic policy and integrates it with national security and foreign policy. Juster's position is dual-hatted—on both the National Security Council staff and the National Economic Council staff. He also serves as the President’s representative and lead U.S. negotiator (“Sherpa”) for the annual G-7, G-20, and APEC Summits.
Juster previously was a Partner and Managing Director at Warburg Pincus, where he worked since October 2010. He focused on a broad range of issues, including geopolitical risk, global public policy, and regulatory matters relating to the Firm's investment activities and portfolio companies. He also headed the Firm's environmental, social, and governance program and initiatives. From 2005 to 2010, he was Executive Vice President of Law, Policy, and Corporate Strategy at salesforce.com, one of the fastest growing software companies in the world, which pioneered cloud computing for business enterprises. At salesforce.com, he was a member of the company's executive committee and oversaw, among other areas, corporate development, legal affairs, global public policy and strategy, enterprise risk management, human resources, internal audit, and worldwide real estate.
Juster previously served as U.S. Under Secretary of Commerce from 2001-2005, in charge of the Bureau of Industry and Security. In that capacity, Juster oversaw issues at the intersection of business and national security, including strategic trade controls related to the export of sensitive U.S. goods and technologies, imports and foreign investments that affect U.S. security, enforcement of anti-boycott laws, and industry compliance with international arms control agreements. He founded and served as the U.S. Chair of the U.S.-India High Technology Cooperation Group, and was one of the key architects of the Next Steps in Strategic Partnership initiative between the United States and India. His work related to India was instrumental in transforming the U.S.-India relationship and laid the foundation for the historic civil nuclear agreement between the two countries. Juster was also responsible for negotiating and signing the End-Use Visit Agreement between the United States and China, which increased the security of exports of U.S. high technology to China. In addition, he launched the Transshipment Country Export Control Initiative, which enhanced security through increased export controls at major transshipment hubs such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Panama, and the United Arab Emirates. He also worked extensively with Israel on the export of sensitive U.S. technologies, and with European allies and Japan in coordinating export control initiatives. Upon completion of his term at the Commerce Department, Juster received the Secretary of Commerce's William C. Redfield Award and Medal, the Commerce Department's highest honor.
Juster served as the Counselor (Acting) of the U.S. Department of State from 1992 to 1993, and as the Deputy and Senior Adviser to Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger from 1989-1992. He was one of the key U.S. Government officials involved in establishing and managing U.S. assistance programs to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. On behalf of Secretary of State James A. Baker, III, Juster organized the first Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union in January 1992, shortly after the collapse of the U.S.S.R, and led the first international delegation to meet with representatives of the NIS in Minsk, Belarus in February 1992. He also organized and launched the initial U.S. Enterprise Funds for countries in Central and Eastern Europe. And he was a member of the five-man team that traveled to Israel directly prior to and during the first Gulf War to negotiate with the Isralis regarding their posture during that War. In addition, Juster was actively involved at State in policy matters relating to China, Japan, Latin America, and the Persian Gulf. Upon completion of his tenure at the State Department, Juster received the Secretary of State's Distinguished Service Award and Medal, the State Department's highest honor.
From 1981-1989 and 1993-2001, Juster practiced law at the firm Arnold & Porter, where he became a senior partner and his work involved international arbitration and litigation, corporate counseling, regulatory matters, and international trade and transactions. Among his noteworthy cases was his representation of the Government of Panama-in-exile against the Noriega regime in 1988-1989. In that matter, he coordinated a broad legal strategy that secured the overseas assets of the Government of Panama and helped institute U.S. sanctions against the Noriega regime, which was eventually ousted from office. Juster also represented leading U.S. investment funds in Ukraine, Moldova, and Slovakia, and several non-profit organizations, including the National Endowment for Democracy, the Kennan Institute (George Kennan), and the Gorbachev Foundation. In addition, he successfully argued cases in the U.S. Court of Appeals and in U.S. District Courts.
Juster served as a Visiting Fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government in 2010-2011, and at the Council on Foreign Relations in 1993; as a law clerk in 1980-1981 to Judge James L. Oakes of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit; and at the National Security Council in 1978.
Juster holds a law degree from the Harvard Law School, a master's degree in public policy from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, and a Bachelor of Arts degree in government (Phi Beta Kappa) from Harvard College. While an undergraduate at Harvard, he was research assistant to Professor Samuel P. Huntington and wrote his senior thesis on Japanese foreign policy under Professor Edwin O. Reischauer. Juster was an AFS Exchange Student to Thailand in 1971.
Juster has received numerous honors and awards, including:
Member, U.S. President's Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations, 2007-2010
Officer’s Cross of the Order of Merit from the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (for contributions to U.S.-German relations), 2006
Secretary of Commerce’s William C. Redfield Award and Medal, 2005
Vasco Núñez de Balboa en el Grado de Gran Cruz Decoration and Medal from the President of Panama (for contributions to U.S.-Panama relations), 2004
Blackwill Award from the U.S.-India Business Council (for contributions to U.S.-India relations), 2004
Friendship Award from the U.S.-Panama Business Council (for contributions to U.S.-Panama relations), 2004, 2002
Secretary of State's Distinguished Service Award and Medal, 1993
Distinguished Alumnus of Scarsdale High School, 2007
Juster has published extensively on international economic and legal issues, including Making Economic Policy: An Assessment of the National Economic Council (Brookings Institution, 1997) and “The Myth of Iraqgate” in Foreign Policy magazine (Spring 1994). Juster's research, analysis, and public discourse on the so-called Iraqgate scandal was instrumental in demonstrating that, contrary to media reporting and popular opinion, there was, in fact, no improper or illicit assistance by the U.S. Government to Iraq before the 1991 Gulf War. An Independent Counsel appointed by the U.S. Attorney General in the Clinton Administration subsequently investigated the Iraqgate claims and validated all elements of Juster's analysis.
Other significant publications by Juster include:
“Unleashing U.S.-India Defense Trade,” Working Paper, Center for a New American Security, October 2010 (co-author).
“Myths and Mistrust: Striking the right chord seems an uphill task in the Indo-US defence trade,” Force, Vol. 7, No. 11, July 2010 (co-author).
“Room for Give and Take: Unleashing US defence trade with India will be key to pushing forward bilateral ties,” The Times of India, May 31, 2010 (co-author).
“Using Cloud Computing to Close the Development Gap,” Foreign Service Journal, p. 47, September 2009.
“The Weapons of Mass Disruption,” Business Standard (India), p. 8, October 15, 2004.
“A New Strategic Partnership for the U.S. and India,” The Wall Street Journal Online/The Asian Wall Street Journal, p. 11, October 1–3, 2004.
“U.S.-India High-Tech Cooperation,” Business Times (India), Vol. 23, No. 1 (2004).
“Critical Infrastructure Assurance: A Conceptual Overview,” in Security in the Information Age: New Challenges, New Strategies (Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress, 2002) (co-author).
“The United States and Iraq: Perils of Engagement,” in Richard N. Haass and Meghan O’Sullivan (eds.) Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign Policy (Brookings Institution, 2000).
“The Santa Elena Case: Two Steps Forward, Three Steps Back,” The American Review of International Arbitration, Vol. 10 (1999).
“The Mistake of a Separate Peace,” The Washington Post, p. A15, August 9, 1999.
“Iraq: An American Perspective,” in Richard N. Haass (ed.) Transatlantic Tensions: The United States, Europe, and Problem Countries (Brookings Institution, 1999).
“Lessons on the Uprooted From Bosnia Peace Accord,” Christian Science Monitor, p. 18, February 7, 1996 (co-author).
“International Arbitration and Other Procedures for Dispute Resolution,” in James A. Dobkin, et al. (eds.) Joint Ventures With International Partners (Butterworths, 1993).
“Assisting Countries in Transition,” in Michael A. Epstein, et al. (eds.) New Developments in Doing Business in Eastern Europe, Russia and Ukraine (Prentice Hall, 1993).
“An Overview of U.S. Government Assistance to Central and Eastern Europe,” in Charles Wolf, Jr. (ed.) Promoting Democracy and Free Markets in Eastern Europe (RAND, 1991).
“The Libyan Sanctions: A Rational Response to State-Sponsored Terrorism?” Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 26, No. 4 (1986) (co-author).
“Foreign Policy-Making During the Oil Crisis,” The Japan Interpreter, Vol. 11, No. 3 (1977).
“Kissinger's Evolving Agenda for China,” Harvard Political Review, Vol. 3, No. 4 (1975).