Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
How To Make Natural Viagra
How To Make Natural Viagra
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: Cheadle Brothers
Carving a "Nine Curve" Style Chinese Mame Seal for a Christmas Gift to Spencer from Shay
Carving a "Nine Curve" Style Chinese Mame Seal for a Christmas Gift to Spencer from Shay
Published: 2011/12/14
Channel: Henry Li
Mr Bean Hair by Mr. Bean of London [1/2]
Mr Bean Hair by Mr. Bean of London [1/2]
Published: 2011/03/19
Channel: mrbeanfilmpjes
Color blind or color brave? | Mellody Hobson
Color blind or color brave? | Mellody Hobson
Published: 2014/05/05
Channel: TED
History Of Genghis Khan part چنگیز خان  1  Changez Khan By ChacharZac
History Of Genghis Khan part چنگیز خان 1 Changez Khan By ChacharZac
Published: 2011/10/10
Channel: chacharzac
Jawani Ke Khet (Hot Item Song) - Feat. Sexy Item Bomb Abhinaya Sree | Rasik Balma
Jawani Ke Khet (Hot Item Song) - Feat. Sexy Item Bomb Abhinaya Sree | Rasik Balma
Published: 2012/04/11
Channel: hamaarbhojpuri
How I hacked online dating | Amy Webb
How I hacked online dating | Amy Webb
Published: 2013/10/02
Channel: TED
Peru: Presidential Front Runner Allegedly Financed by Drug Money
Peru: Presidential Front Runner Allegedly Financed by Drug Money
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: TeleSUR English
Tan Le: My immigration story
Tan Le: My immigration story
Published: 2012/02/24
Channel: TED
Appadiya - Genghis Khan History
Appadiya - Genghis Khan History
Published: 2012/10/26
Channel: RajVideoVisionTamil
Gauwan Mein Rehli Ta (Bhojpuri Item Song) Rasik Balma
Gauwan Mein Rehli Ta (Bhojpuri Item Song) Rasik Balma
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: hamaarbhojpuri
Visual Basic How To: OCR! Object Character Recognition
Visual Basic How To: OCR! Object Character Recognition
Published: 2012/07/17
Channel: robomatics
Your body language may shape who you are | Amy Cuddy
Your body language may shape who you are | Amy Cuddy
Published: 2012/10/01
Channel: TED
Learning from dirty jobs | Mike Rowe
Learning from dirty jobs | Mike Rowe
Published: 2009/03/05
Channel: TED
How to choose your news - Damon Brown
How to choose your news - Damon Brown
Published: 2014/06/05
Channel: TED-Ed
Temujin - ASMR Request
Temujin - ASMR Request
Published: 2015/07/07
Channel: TirarADeguello
Genghis Khan - HD Full Documentary
Genghis Khan - HD Full Documentary
Published: 2014/12/09
Channel: People Who Love Documentary -HD
3 Reasons Why Nuclear Energy Is Terrible! 2/3
3 Reasons Why Nuclear Energy Is Terrible! 2/3
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
Ways To Make Great Videos On A Low-Budget (ft. Wisecrack)
Ways To Make Great Videos On A Low-Budget (ft. Wisecrack)
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: YouTube Creator Academy
Namkeen Jawani Ke Namak Tani Khaala Ho - Hot Bhojpuri Item Song
Namkeen Jawani Ke Namak Tani Khaala Ho - Hot Bhojpuri Item Song
Published: 2012/04/03
Channel: hamaarbhojpuri
[혁신이화시리즈특강] 한국문화로 읽는 문기(文氣)와 신기(神氣)
[혁신이화시리즈특강] 한국문화로 읽는 문기(文氣)와 신기(神氣)
Published: 2015/08/07
Channel: ewhauniv
Still Marry me, 8회 EP08 #04
Still Marry me, 8회 EP08 #04
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: MBCClassic
Mindwalk (1990) [Eng Captions--Spanish, Romenian]
Mindwalk (1990) [Eng Captions--Spanish, Romenian]
Published: 2011/04/22
Channel: ECOmantiqueira
The interspecies Internet? An idea in progress...
The interspecies Internet? An idea in progress...
Published: 2013/07/10
Channel: TED
Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (full movie)
Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (full movie)
Published: 2012/06/14
Channel: maxavail
Simon Lewis: Don
Simon Lewis: Don't take consciousness for granted
Published: 2011/07/07
Channel: TED
Building Dynamic Web Apps with Laravel by Eric Ouyang
Building Dynamic Web Apps with Laravel by Eric Ouyang
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: CS50
Writing 2D Games in C using SDL by Thomas Lively
Writing 2D Games in C using SDL by Thomas Lively
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: CS50
Gengis Khan
Gengis Khan
Published: 2013/10/27
Channel: Hyllusyonya
Week 0, continued
Week 0, continued
Published: 2014/09/24
Channel: CS50
Ethan Nadelmann: Why we need to end the War on Drugs
Ethan Nadelmann: Why we need to end the War on Drugs
Published: 2014/11/12
Channel: TED
Section 2
Section 2
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: CS50
Goryeo
Goryeo
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: Audiopedia
The Hour Of The Dragon by Robert E. Howard
The Hour Of The Dragon by Robert E. Howard
Published: 2016/03/05
Channel: Audiobooks Unleashed
Week 1
Week 1
Published: 2013/12/11
Channel: CS50
Chinggis Khan Monument, Mongolia 7.9.11
Chinggis Khan Monument, Mongolia 7.9.11
Published: 2011/07/12
Channel: iSwimiDiveiHeadstandiHandstand Itravel
Suspense: Lonely Road / Out of Control / Post Mortem
Suspense: Lonely Road / Out of Control / Post Mortem
Published: 2013/02/28
Channel: Remember This
Suspense: The 13th Sound / Always Room at the Top / Three Faces at Midnight
Suspense: The 13th Sound / Always Room at the Top / Three Faces at Midnight
Published: 2013/03/07
Channel: Remember This
Fun with Music and Programming by Connor Harris and Stephen Krewson
Fun with Music and Programming by Connor Harris and Stephen Krewson
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: CS50
From C to Python by Ross Rheingans-Yoo
From C to Python by Ross Rheingans-Yoo
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: CS50
Who Is Genghis Khan? - His Life, Empire And Death -
Who Is Genghis Khan? - His Life, Empire And Death -
Published: 2015/05/10
Channel: MadeInTurkey
Week 1
Week 1
Published: 2015/09/12
Channel: CS50
The Last Man on Earth 1964
The Last Man on Earth 1964
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: Cinématographe Trailers
Week 8
Week 8
Published: 2014/10/30
Channel: CS50
Sin Piedad: Spaguetti-Western documental completo (Without Mercy)
Sin Piedad: Spaguetti-Western documental completo (Without Mercy)
Published: 2013/04/04
Channel: Alberto Carrera
Google I/O 2013 - YouTube for Developers: The Future and the Opportunities
Google I/O 2013 - YouTube for Developers: The Future and the Opportunities
Published: 2013/05/17
Channel: Google Developers
Week 8, continued
Week 8, continued
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: CS50
Web Programming - Computer Science for Business Leaders 2016
Web Programming - Computer Science for Business Leaders 2016
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: CS50
Slacker, Dazed and Confused, Before Sunrise: Richard Linklater Interview, Filmmaking Education
Slacker, Dazed and Confused, Before Sunrise: Richard Linklater Interview, Filmmaking Education
Published: 2012/06/26
Channel: The Film Archives
Contain Yourself: An Intro to Docker and Containers by Nicola Kabar and Mano Marks
Contain Yourself: An Intro to Docker and Containers by Nicola Kabar and Mano Marks
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: CS50
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Khitan large script
Yanningmuzhi.jpg
Type
Languages Khitan language
Parent systems
Child systems
Jurchen script
Sister systems
Simplified Chinese, Tangut script, Kanji, Hanja, Chữ Nôm, Zhuyin
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Kitl, 505

The Khitan large script was one of two Khitan writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language. It was used during the 10th–12th centuries by the Khitan people, who had created the Liao Empire in north-eastern China. In addition to the large script, the Khitans simultaneously also used a functionally independent writing system known as the Khitan small script. Both Khitan scripts continued to be in use to some extent by the Jurchens for several decades after the fall of the Liao Dynasty, until the Jurchens fully switched to a script of their own. Examples of the scripts appeared most often on epitaphs and monuments, although other fragments sometimes surface.

History[edit]

Abaoji of the Yelü clan, founder of the Khitan, or Liao, Dynasty, introduced the original Khitan script in 920 CE.[1] “Large script”, or “big characters" (大字), as it was referred to in some Chinese sources, was established to keep the record of the new Khitan state. The Khitan script was based on the idea of the Chinese script.[2]

Description[edit]

The Khitan large script was considered to be relatively simple. The large script characters were written equally spaced, in vertical columns, in the same way as the Chinese has been traditionally written. Although large script mostly uses logograms, it is possible that ideograms and syllabograms are used for grammatical functions. The large script has a few similarities to Chinese, with several words taken directly with or without modifications from the Chinese (e.g. characters 二,三,十,廿,月,日, which appear in dates in the apparently bilingual Xiao Xiaozhong muzhi inscription from Xigushan, Jinxi, Liaoning Province).[3] Most large script characters, however, cannot be directly related to any Chinese characters. The meaning of most of them remains unknown, but that of a few of them (numbers, symbols for some of the five elements and the twelve animals that the Khitans apparently used to designate years of the sexagenary cycle) has been established by analyzing dates in Khitan inscriptions.[4]

While there has long been controversy as to whether a particular monument belong to the large or small script,[5] there are several monuments (steles or fragments of stelae) that the specialists at least tentatively identify as written in the Khitan large script. However, one of the first inscriptions so identified (the Gu taishi mingshi ji epitaph, found in 1935) has been since lost, and the preserved rubbings of it are not very legible; moreover, some believe that this inscription was a forgery in the first place. In any event, the total of about 830 different large-script characters are thought to have been identified, even without the problematic Gu taishi mingshi ji; including it, the character count rises to about 1000.[6] The Memorial for Yelü Yanning (dated 986 CE) is one of the earliest inscriptions in Khitan large script.

Jurchen[edit]

Some of the characters of the Jurchen scripts have similarities to Khitan large script. According to some sources, the discoveries of inscriptions on monuments and epitaphs give clues to the connection between Khitan and Jurchen.[7] After the fall of the Liao Dynasty, the Khitan (small-character) script continued to be used by the Jurchen people for a few decades, until fully replaced with Jurchen script and, in 1191, suppressed by imperial order.[8][9]

Corpus[edit]

Folio 9 of manuscript codex Nova N 176

There are no surviving examples of printed texts in the Khitan language, and aside from five example Khitan large characters with Chinese glosses in a book on calligraphy written by Tao Zongyi (陶宗儀) during the mid 14th century, there are no Chinese glossaries or dictionaries of Khitan. However, in 2002 a small fragment of a Khitan manuscript with seven Khitan large characters and interlinear glosses in Old Uyghur was identified in the collection of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities.[10] Then, in 2010 a manuscript codex (Nova N 176) held at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg was identified by Viacheslav Zaytsev as being written in the Khitan large script.[11]

The main source of Khitan texts are monumental inscriptions, mostly comprising memorial tablets buried in the tombs of Khitan nobility.[12] There are about 17 known monuments with inscriptions in the Khitan large script, ranging in date from 986 to 1176.

In addition to monumental inscriptions, short inscriptions in both Khitan scripts have also been found on tomb murals and rock paintings, and on various portable artefacts such as mirrors, amulets, paiza (tablets of authority given to officials and envoys), and special non-circulation coins. A number of bronze official seals with the seal face inscribed in a convoluted seal script style of Khitan characters are also known.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 353. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  2. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  3. ^ Kane (1989), p. 12
  4. ^ Kane (1989), p. 11-13
  5. ^ Kane (1989), pp. 6–7
  6. ^ Kane (1989), pp. 6, 12
  7. ^ Kiyose, Gisaburo N. (1985), "The Significance of the New Kitan and Jurchen Materials", Papers in East Asian Languages, pp. 75–87 
  8. ^ Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William (1996), The World’s Writing Systems, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 230–234 
  9. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 359. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  10. ^ Wang, Ding (2004). "Ch 3586 — ein khitanisches Fragment mit uigurischen Glossen in der Berliner Turfansammlung". In Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond; Raschmann, Simone-Christiane; Wilkens, Jens; Yaldiz, Marianne; Zieme, Peter. Turfan Revisited: The First Century of Research into the Arts and Cultures of the Silk Road. Dietrich Reimer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-496-02763-8. 
  11. ^ O. A. Vodneva (О. А. Воднева) (2 June 2011). Отчет о ежегодной научной сессии ИВР РАН – 2010 [Report on the annual scientific session of the IOM – 2010] (in Russian). Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  12. ^ Kane 2009, p. 4

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license