Kickstarter is an American public-benefit corporation based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity. The company's stated mission is to "help bring creative projects to life". Kickstarter has reportedly received more than $1.9 billion in pledges from 9.4 million backers to fund 257,000 creative projects, such as films, music, stage shows, comics, journalism, video games, technology and food-related projects.
People who back Kickstarter projects are offered tangible rewards or experiences in exchange for their pledges. This model traces its roots to subscription model of arts patronage, where artists would go directly to their audiences to fund their work.
Kickstarter HQ library, Brooklyn
Kickstarter launched on April 28, 2009, by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler, and Charles Adler. The New York Times called Kickstarter "the people's NEA". Time named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010" and "Best Websites of 2011". Kickstarter reportedly raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey, Zach Klein and Caterina Fake. The company is based in Greenpoint, Brooklyn.
Andy Baio served as the site's CTO until November 2010, when he joined Expert Labs. Lance Ivy has been Lead Developer since the website launched. On February 14, 2013, Kickstarter released an iOS app called Kickstarter for the iPhone. The app is aimed at users who create and back projects and is the first time Kickstarter has had an official mobile presence.
On October 31, 2012, Kickstarter opened projects based in the United Kingdom, followed by projects based in Canada on September 9, 2013, Australia and New Zealand on November 13, 2013, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden on September 15, 2014, Spain on May 19, 2015, and Singapore and Hong Kong on August 30, 2016. In July 2017, Strickler announced his resignation.
Kickstarter is one of a number of crowdfunding platforms for gathering money from the public, which circumvents traditional avenues of investment. Project creators choose a deadline and a minimum funding goal. If the goal is not met by the deadline, no funds are collected (a kind of assurance contract). The platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators from the US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Mexico.
Kickstarter applies a 5% fee on the total amount of the funds raised. Their payments processor applies an additional 3–5% fee. Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment, Kickstarter claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce. The web pages of projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed, projects and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site.
There is no guarantee that people who post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers' expectations. Kickstarter advises backers to use their own judgment on supporting a project. They also warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from backers for failure to deliver on promises. Projects might also fail even after a successful fundraising campaign when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome.
Asked what made Kickstarter different from other crowdfunding platforms, co-founder Perry Chen said: "I wonder if people really know what the definition of crowdfunding is. Or, if there’s even an agreed upon definition of what it is. We haven’t actively supported the use of the term because it can provoke more confusion. In our case, we focus on a middle ground between patronage and commerce. People are offering cool stuff and experiences in exchange for the support of their ideas. People are creating these mini-economies around their project ideas. So, you aren’t coming to the site to get something for nothing; you are trying to create value for the people who support you. We focus on creative projects—music, film, technology, art, design, food and publishing—and within the category of crowdfunding of the arts, we are probably ten times the size of all of the others combined."
On June 21, 2012, Kickstarter began publishing statistics on its projects. As of February 13, 2015, there were 207,135 launched projects (7,802 in progress), with a success rate of 40%. The total amount pledged was $1,523,718,656.
The business grew quickly in its early years. In 2010 Kickstarter had 3,910 successful projects and $27,638,318 pledged. The corresponding figures for 2011 were 11,836 successfully funded projects and $99,344,381 pledged; and there were 18,109 successfully funded projects, $319,786,629 pledged in 2012.
On February 9, 2012, Kickstarter hit a number of milestones. A dock made for the iPhone designed by Casey Hopkins became the first Kickstarter project to exceed one million dollars in pledges. A few hours later, a new adventure game project started by computer game developers, Double Fine Productions, reached the same figure, having been launched less than 24 hours earlier, and finished with over $3 million pledged. This was also the first time Kickstarter raised over a million dollars in pledges in a single day. On August 30, 2014, the "Coolest Cooler", an icebox created by Ryan Grepper, became the most funded Kickstarter project in history, with US$13.28 million in funding, breaking the record previously held by the Pebble smart watch.
In July 2012, Wharton professor Ethan Mollick and Jeanne Pi conducted research into what contributes to a project’s success or failure on Kickstarter. Some key findings from the analysis were that increasing goal size is negatively associated with success, projects that are featured on the Kickstarter homepage have an 89% chance of being successful, compared to 30% without, and that for an average $10,000 project, a 30-day project has a 35% chance of success, while a 60-day project has a 29% chance of success, all other things being constant.
The ten largest Kickstarter projects by funds raised are listed below. Among successful projects, most raise between $1,000 and $9,999. These dollar amounts drop to less than half in the Design, Games, and Technology categories. However, the median amount raised for the latter two categories remains in the four-figure range. There is substantial variation in the success rate of projects falling under different categories. Over two thirds of completed dance projects have been successful. In contrast, fewer than 30% of completed fashion projects have reached their goal. Most failing projects fail to achieve 20% of their goals and this trend applies across all categories. Indeed, over 80% of projects that pass the 20% mark reach their goal.
Creators categorize their projects into one of 13 categories and 36 subcategories. They are: Art, Comics, Dance, Design, Fashion, Film and Video, Food, Games, Music, Photography, Publishing, Technology and Theater. Of these categories, Film & Video and Music are the largest categories and have raised the most amount of money. These categories, along with Games, account for over half the money raised. Video games and tabletop games alone account for more than $2 out of every $10 spent on Kickstarter.
To maintain its focus as a funding platform for creative projects, Kickstarter has outlined three guidelines for all project creators to follow: creators can fund projects only; projects must fit within one of the site's 13 creative categories; and creators must abide by the site's prohibited uses, which include charity and awareness campaigns. Kickstarter has additional requirements for hardware and product design projects. These include
- Banning the use of photorealistic renderings and simulations demonstrating a product
- Banning projects for genetically modified organisms.
- Limiting awards to single items or a "sensible set" of items relevant to the project (e.g., multiple light bulbs for a house)
- Requiring a physical prototype
- Requiring a manufacturing plan
The guidelines are designed to reinforce Kickstarter’s position that people are backing projects, not placing orders for a product. To underscore the notion that Kickstarter is a place in which creators and audiences make things together, creators across all categories are asked to describe the risks and challenges a project faces in producing it. This educates the public about the project goals and encourages contributions to the community.
Notable projects and creators
At $8.5 million, the Ouya
is the 8th largest successful Kickstarter campaign.
Several creative works have gone on to receive critical acclaim and accolades after being funded on Kickstarter. Others, such as the Ouya console, have resulted in commercial failure.  The documentary short "Sun Come Up" and documentary short "Incident in New Baghdad" were each nominated for an Academy Award; contemporary art projects "EyeWriter" and "Hip-Hop Word Count" were both chosen to exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art in 2011; filmmaker Matt Porterfield was selected to screen his film Putty Hill at the Whitney Biennial In 2012; author Rob Walker's Hypothetical Futures project exhibited at the 13th International Venice Architecture Biennale; musician Amanda Palmer's album "Theatre is Evil" debuted at No. 10 on the Billboard 200; designer Scott Wilson won a National Design Award from Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum following the success of his TikTok + LunaTik project; the Kickstarter funded GoldieBlox toy gained nationwide distribution in 2013; and approximately 10% of the films accepted into the Sundance, SXSW and Tribeca Film Festivals are projects funded on Kickstarter.
Numerous well-known creators have used Kickstarter to produce their work, including: musicians Jennifer Paige, Paula Cole, TLC, Amanda McBroom, De La Soul, Amanda Palmer, Daniel Johnston, Stuart Murdoch and Tom Rush; filmmakers and actors Kevin Sorbo, Alyson Hannigan, Zach Braff, Bret Easton Ellis, Colin Hanks, Ed Begley, Jr., Gary Hustwit, Hal Hartley, Jennie Livingston, Mark Duplass, Matthew Modine, Paul Schrader, Ricki Lake, Whoopi Goldberg, Kristen Bell, John de Lancie and Zana Briski; authors and writers Dan Harmon, Kevin Kelly, Neal Stephenson, Steve Altes, and Seth Godin; photographers Spencer Tunick, Shane Lavalette, and Gerd Ludwig; game developers Tim Schafer, Keiji Inafune, Brian Fargo, and Rand Miller; designer Stefan Sagmeister; animator John Kricfalusi; comedian Eugene Mirman; animators Don Bluth and Gary Goldman; entrepreneurs Tim Ferriss, Samuel Agboola and Craig Mod; and custom guitar maker Moniker.
The Glowing Plant project was the first and only Kickstarter project to fund the development of a genetically modified organism (GMO).
Top projects by funds raised
Ten largest successfully completed Kickstarter projects by total funds pledged (only closed fundings are listed)
|| % funded
||Pebble Time – Awesome Smartwatch, No Compromises
||Coolest Cooler: 21st Century Cooler that's Actually Cooler
||Pebble 2, Time 2 + All-New Pebble Core
||Kingdom Death: Monster 1.5
||Kingdom Death/Adam Poots
||Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android
||The World's Best Travel Jacket with 15 Features || BAUBAX
||OUYA: A New Kind of Video Game Console
||The Everyday Backpack, Tote, and Sling
||Fidget Cube: A Vinyl Desk Toy
||Matthew and Mark McLachlan
Both Kickstarter and project creators have canceled projects that appeared to have been fraudulent. Questions were raised about the projects in internet communities related to the fields of the projects. The concerns raised were: apparent copying of graphics from other sources; unrealistic performance or price claims; and failure of project sponsors to deliver on prior Kickstarter projects.
A small list of canceled projects includes:
- Eye3 camera drone helicopter for unrealistic performance promises, photos copied from other commercial products, and failure of creators to deliver on an earlier Kickstarter project.
- Mythic: The Story of Gods and Men adventure game for copying graphics from other games and unrealistic performance promises; the creator had raised $4,739 on an $80,000 goal before canceling the project.
- Tech-Sync Power System for failing to provide photos of the prototype and sudden departure of project creator.
- Tentacle Bento, a card game intended to satirize Japanese school girl tentacle rape comics, after being criticized in the online media for having inappropriate content.
- Kobe Red, a project for jerky made from Kobe beef, was canceled after raising $120,309. The project was allegedly fraudulent.
- iFind claimed to be a battery-free item locating tag. Critics of the project raised serious doubts about its viability, focussing on its claimed EM harvesting capability and the lack of a working prototype. Kickstarter suspended funding after $546,852 had been raised.
In the Huffington Post article "Why Kickstarter is Corrupted" Nathan Resnick blames the rise of paid advertising, investor backed campaigns, and crowdfunding agencies for the decline of Kickstarter as a useful tool for small inventors and creators.
Resnick cites Nebia, backed by Tim Cook and Eric Schmidt, as an example of a well funded, investor backed, project using Kickstarter purely for publicity and thus drawing donations from smaller teams.
He goes on to note that the highest profile crowdfunding marketing agency, "Funded Today", charges a 35% commission on all monies raised, regardless of their contribution, while reserving the right to abandon projects they've pledged to support and claims such huge fees can make it impossible for successful projects to survive even if they hit their targets. Funded Today can collect as much as 50% of the total amount a campaign raised as fees, when the four-figure up-front charges they levy are accounted for.
In addition, there have been many individual projects that have caused controversy.
- In May 2014, Kickstarter blocked fundraising for a TV film about late-term abortionist Kermit Gosnell. Producer Phelim McAleer claimed that Kickstarter was censoring the project because of its graphic content and espousing a "liberal agenda". In June 2014 the project received approval for fundraising from rival site Indiegogo, raising more than $2.3 million.
- On November 6, 2013, writer/director Hal Hartley launched a Kickstarter campaign to produce his upcoming film Ned Rifle, seeking a total of $384,000. On November 25, Hartley added a $9,000 reward tier offering the film's distribution rights for seven years in the United States and other countries, making his Kickstarter campaign the first to propose offering film distribution rights. Subsequently, Kickstarter notified Hartley that selling distribution rights is a form of investment, which is forbidden by Kickstarter's terms and conditions, forcing Hartley to remove the option.
- In June 2013 controversy erupted after a project was discovered titled "Above the Game" a guidebook created on how to seduce woman. Many outlets noted that the advice given seemed to encourage sexual assault.  Although alerted to the content Kickstarter failed to pull the project and the money went through. The site would later offer a letter of apology and placed a blanked ban on "Seduction guides" 
- In April 2013, filmmaker Zach Braff used a Kickstarter campaign to fund his upcoming film Wish I Was Here and raised $2 million in three days, citing the success of Rob Thomas' Veronica Mars Kickstarter as his inspiration. Some have criticized Braff for using the site, saying celebrity use of the site will draw attention away from filmmakers and other creatives who don't have celebrity name recognition, a criticism that had been previously made in regard to big figures in the gaming industry using Kickstarter (such as Richard Garriott, who created a successful $1+ million Kickstarter despite his large personal fortune). Kickstarter has disputed these arguments by reporting that, according to their metrics, big name projects tend to attract new visitors to the site who in turn pledge to other lesser known projects.
- Since 2013, several crowdfunding campaigns have been accused of creating fake contributors in order to fool the public into thinking the campaigns were successful, and to defraud potential sources of matching funds.
- In 2012, Amanda Palmer raised $1.2 million on Kickstarter. She wrote about how she used the money, however several other musicians reviewed these expenses and said they were extravagant and possibly fraudulent. She was further criticized for attempting to have musicians play with her for free on tour, after raising such a large sum.
- In May 2011, a New York University film student, Matias Shimada, raised $1,726 to make a film, but plagiarized another film instead. Later, he publicly apologized.
- On September 30, 2011, Kickstarter filed a declaratory judgment suit against ArtistShare in an attempt to invalidate U.S. crowd-funding patent US 7885887 , "Methods and apparatuses for financing and marketing a creative work". Kickstarter asked that the patent be invalidated, or, at the very least, that the court find that Kickstarter is not liable for infringement. In February 2012, ArtistShare and Fan Funded responded to Kickstarter's complaint by filing a motion to dismiss the lawsuit. They asserted that patent infringement litigation was never threatened, that "ArtistShare merely approached Kickstarter about licensing their platform, including patent rights", and that "rather than responding to ArtistShare's request for a counter-proposal, Kickstarter filed this lawsuit." The judge ruled that the case could go forward. ArtistShare then responded by filing a counterclaim alleging that Kickstarter was indeed infringing its patent. In June 2015, Kickstarter won its lawsuit with the judge declaring ArtistShare's patent invalid.
- On November 21, 2012, 3D Systems filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Formlabs and Kickstarter for infringing its 3D printer patent US 5,597,520 , ”Simultaneous multiple-layer curing in stereolithography.” Formlabs had raised $2.9 million in a Kickstarter campaign to fund its own competitive printer. The company said that Kickstarter caused "irreparable injury and damage" to its business by promoting the Form 1 printer, and taking a 5% cut of pledged funds. A six-month stay was granted by the judge for settlement talks in which Kickstarter did not participate.
- On January 23, 2015, a patent infringement lawsuit was filed by Alphacap Ventures LLC against multiple crowdfunding platforms, including Indiegogo, CircleUp, GoFundMe, Kickstarter, Gust, RocketHub & Innovational Funding, for three patents — US 7848976 , US 7908208 and US 8433630 . According to Bloomberg, Alphacap Ventures is a company that provides strategic, operations, and financial advisory services in the United States along with other financial services
- ^ "Kickstarter.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- ^ Isaac, Mike (September 21, 2015). "Kickstarter Focuses Its Mission on Altruism Over Profit". The New York Times.
- ^ "Kickstarter crowdfunding site officially launches in Canada". The Canadian Press. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- ^ Gannes, Liz (May 29, 2010). "Kickstarter: We Don’t Have Anything Against Celebrity Projects". All Things D.
- ^ "OMG". Kickstarter. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- ^ Walker, Rob (August 5, 2011). "The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter". The New York Times Magazine.
- ^ Garber, Megan (June 29, 2013). "Kickstarters of Yore: Mozart, Lady Liberty, Alexander Pope". The Atlantic.
- ^ Wauters, Robin (April 29, 2009). "Kickstarter Launches Another Social Fundraising Platform".
- ^ Walker, Rob (August 5, 2011). "The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- ^ Snyder, Steven James (November 11, 2010). "The 50 Best Inventions of 2010". TIME. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- ^ McCracken, Harry (August 16, 2011). "The 50 Best Websites of 2011". TIME. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- ^ Kafka, Peter. "Kickstarter Fesses Up: The Crowdsourced Funding Start-Up Has Funding, Too". All Things D. Dow Jones & Company Inc. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
- ^ "Kickstarter". kickstarter.com.
- ^ Andy Baio. "Joining Expert Labs". waxy.org. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- ^ crunchbase.com (November 30, 2010). "Kickstarter CrunchBase Profile".
- ^ "Kickstarter for iPhone for iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPod touch (3rd generation), iPod touch (4th generation), iPod touch (5th generation) and iPad on the iTunes App Store:". Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- ^ Dredge, Stuart (January 14, 2013). "Kickstarter? There's now an official iPhone app for that". The Guardian. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- ^ Perry Chen; Yancey Strickler; Charles Adler. "Kickstarter in the UK » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
- ^ "Kickstarter in Canada! » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter", Kickstarter.com, September 9, 2013, retrieved 2013-09-18
- ^ a b Starr, Michelle. "Kickstarter officially opens in Australia and New Zealand". CNET.
- ^ Woods, Ben. "Kickstarter opens up to projects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Ireland".
- ^ Cortes, Iker. "Kickstarter llega a España". EL CORREO.
- ^ Ho, Victoria. "Kickstarter opens in Asia, starting in Hong Kong and Singapore". Mashable. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
- ^ Dickey, Megan Rose. "Kickstarter co-founder and CEO Yancey Strickler will step down this year". Techcrunch. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
- ^ Villano, Matt (March 14, 2010). "Small Donations in Large Numbers, With Online Help". The New York Times.
- ^ Gould, Emily. "Start me up". Technology Review. MIT. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
- ^ Musgrove, Mike (March 7, 2010). "At Play: Kickstarter is a Web site for the starving artist". The Washington Post.
- ^ "Kickstarter starts welcoming UK creators with projects launching Oct. 31". GigaOM. October 10, 2012.
- ^ Kickstarter Allowing Canada-Based Projects Beginning This Summer. TechCrunch (2013-06-27). Retrieved on 2013-09-21.
- ^ "Creators – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
- ^ "Creators – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- ^ "Help Center — Kickstarter". kickstarter.com.
- ^ "Kickstarter FAQ If I am unable to complete my project as listed, what should I do?". kickstarter.com.
- ^ "Adrianne Jeffries, "Jellyfish Tanks, Funded 54 Times Over on Kickstarter, Turn Out to Be Jellyfish Death Traps UPDATED", BetaBeat, March 15, 2012". Betabeat. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "Kevin Stout, "Kickstarter, Pros and Cons", 148Apps.biz, April 23, 2012". Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ Davison, Hallie. "THE Q&A: PERRY CHEN, KICKSTARTER". More Intelligent Life. The Economist. Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- ^ Strickler, Yancey. "Kickstarter Stats".
- ^ a b c "Kickstarter Stats". Kickstarter. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- ^ "2011: The Stats", February 11, 2015, Kickstarter.com, accessed February 11, 2015.
- ^ "Kickstarter". kickstarter.com.
- ^ "Double Fine Kickstarter hits 3 million, drive closing on Ustream", Joystiq, March 13, 2012, Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- ^ Carl Franzen "Crowd-Funding Website Kickstarter Has Double Million Dollar Day", TPM, February 10, 2012, Retrieved February 11, 2012
- ^ Bogart, Nicole. "‘Coolest Cooler’ beats Pebble to become top Kickstarter project". Global News. Global News.
- ^ Mollick, Ethan (July 15, 2012). "The Dynamics of Crowdfunding: Determinants of Success and Failure". Social Science Research Network. SSRN 2088298 .
- ^ "Discover – Kickstarter". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- ^ "What Is Kickstarter For? Video Games.". Airbrite. November 13, 2013. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
- ^ "Eric Blattberg, "Kickstarter Bans Project Renderings, Adds ‘Risks and Challenges’ Section, Crowdsourcing.org 21 September 2012". www.crowdsourcing.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "Mark Milian, "After Raising Money on Kickstarter, Side Project Lands Another $3 million", Bloomberg Tech Deals, 6 September 2012". Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "Cha, Ariana Eunjung, "Glowing plants spark environmental debate" The Seattle Times 5 October 2013.". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "Kickstarter Is Not a Store".
- ^ http://www.extremetech.com/gaming/189089-the-stillborn-revolution-ouya-fails-to-sell-developer-seeks-buyout
- ^ Staff, NPR (February 26, 2011). "The Love Story Behind Oscar Nominee Sun Come Up". NPR.
- ^ Montgomery, David (February 21, 2012). "Incident in New Baghdad: What Happened in Iraq?". The Washington Post.
- ^ "Talk to Me – MoMA". MoMA.org. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- ^ "Matt Porterfield". whitney.org. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- ^ Titunik, Vera (May 15, 2012). "Real Designs For Fake Buildings Are Going to Venice". The New York Times.
- ^ Caulfield, Keith (September 19, 2012). "Dave Matthews Band Debuts at No. 1 on Billboard 200". Billboard.
- ^ "National Design Awards". CooperHewitt.org. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- ^ Taylor, Colleen (2 July 2013). "GoldieBlox, The Toy That Aims To Get Girls Hooked On Engineering, Is Coming To A Toys ‘R’ Us Near You". TechCrunch. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- ^ Carr, David (January 30, 2012). "At Sundance, Kickstarter Resembled a Movie Studio, but Without the Egos". The New York Times.
- ^ Watercutter, Angela (March 9, 2012). "When SXSW Money Crunch Hits, Kickstarter Comes to the Rescue". Wired.
- ^ "Jennifer Paige Makes NEW ALBUM: Daydreamer".
- ^ "Discover » "paula cole" — Kickstarter".
- ^ R&B girlgroup TLC album on Kickstarter.com
- ^ "VOICES by Amanda McBroom".
- ^ "De La Soul's NEW ALBUM".
- ^ Sisario, Ben (June 5, 2012). "Giving Love, Lots of It, To Her Fans". The New York Times.
- ^ McCarter, Reid (January 27, 2011). "The Weekly Kickstarter: Daniel Johnston and the Comic Book". The Social Times.
- ^ Eanet, Lindsay (January 13, 2012). "You Can Help Stuart Murdoch From Belle & Sebastian Make a Movie". BlackBook. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013.
- ^ Young, Robin (May 15, 2012). "Folk Singer Tom Rush Kickstarts 50th Anniversary Concert". NPR.
- ^ "Mythica: A Quest for Heroes - starring Kevin Sorbo". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
- ^ "Do You Take This Man".
- ^ "Zach Braff Explains Why He Turned to Kickstarter for New Indie Film". hollywoodreporter.com. April 24, 2013. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
- ^ Carlson, Erin (May 4, 2012). "Bret Easton Ellis Is Using Kickstarter to Finance 'The Canyons' Indie". The Hollywood Reporter.
- ^ Aswad, Jem (June 2, 2011). "Colin Hanks Uses Kickstarter to Help Fund His Tower Records Doc". The Hollywood Reporter.
- ^ d'Estries, Michael (February 17, 2012). "To Build America's Greenest Home, Actor Ed Begley Jr. Needs Your Help". Forbes.
- ^ Jr, Core (February 2012). "Gary Hustwit's Urbanized on Kickstarter + Trailer Preview". Core77.
- ^ Anderson, John (January 4, 2012). "Sundance Offers a Web Afterlife for Its Alumni". The New York Times.
- ^ Renninger, Bryce (January 6, 2011). "In the Works: New Doc from "Paris is Burning" Director, Sundance's "Pariah," Chicago Mob Boss & More". IndieWire.
- ^ Prigge, Matt (March 15, 2012). "Mark Duplass Talks About His Newest Film, "Jeff Who Lives at Home"". Philadelphia Weekly.
- ^ Herbert, Chris (April 21, 2011). "Kickstarter Project: "Full Metal Jacket Diary" – The iPad App". MacStories.
- ^ Tiku, Nitasha (May 3, 2012). "Bret Easton Ellis and Paul Schrader are Raising Money for Their Upcoming Thriller The Canyons on Kickstarter". The New York Observer.
- ^ Melanie (July 8, 2011). "Ricki Lake Teaches Us Even More About Birth". parenting.com.
- ^ Smith, Nigel (June 27, 2012). "Why Whoopi Goldberg is Using Kickstarter to Fund Her Directorial Debut". IndieWire.
- ^ Strecker, Erin (July 12, 2012). "Charlie Kaufman, Dan Harmon use Kickstarter to fund next movie". Entertainment Weekly.
- ^ Frauenfelder, Mark (June 20, 2012). "The Silver Cord by Kevin Kelly". Boing Boing.
- ^ Kain, Erik (June 13, 2012). "Neal Stephenson's Clang Is a Kickstarter Devoted to Sword Fighting". Forbes.
- ^ "How Stunt Work on Die Hard Led to a Graphic Novel About MIT Hacks". MIT Slice of Life blog. Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 2015-08-14.
- ^ Trachtenberg, Jeffrey (June 24, 2012). "Giving Book Readers a Say". The Wall Street Journal.
- ^ Laster, Paul (February 16, 2012). "Spencer Tunick: On Stealing Cameras, Controversy, and Kickstarter". The 99 Percent.
- ^ Picturing the South, A Photobook by Shane Lavalette — Kickstarter. Kickstarter.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-14.
- ^ Ismael Ruiz, Matthew (March 19, 2012). "Kickstarter: How the Web Is Helping Photographers Fund Their Work". Popular Photography.
- ^ Netburn, Deborah (March 13, 2012). "Double Fine Raises $3.25 Million on Kickstarter for New Game". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Orland, Kyle (March 15, 2012). "Interplay's Brian Fargo Finds Fan Funding for Wasteland Sequel". Ars Technica.
- ^ Chalk, Andy (October 17, 2013). "Myst Studio Brings Obduction To Kickstarter". The Escapist. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- ^ Drumm, Perrin (September 12, 2011). "Best of Kickstarter, 9/12: The Happy Film". Sundance Channel.
- ^ McGlynn, Katia (July 12, 2011). "Eugene Mirman Comedy Festival Using Kickstarter to Fund Awkward Party BUs, Sex Pit & More". The Huffington Post.
- ^ Template:Location.displayable name. "Dragon’s Lair: The Movie (Canceled) by Don Bluth & Gary Goldman — Kickstarter". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved 2016-04-02.
- ^ Brooke, Eliza. "Charitable Water Filter Maker Soma Raises $3.7M Seed Round". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ "Flag App Kickstarter Wants To Print Your Photos For Free (updated)". Popular Photography. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ "The Lessons of Craig Mod". Kickstarter. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ Raymond, Chris (February 7, 2014). "Design Your Own Guitar—This Startup Will Build It". Popular Mechanics.
- ^ "Highest Earning Kickstarter Projects". kickstarter.com. 27 Feb 2015.
- ^ "Pebble Time - Awesome Smartwatch, No Compromises". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- ^ "COOLEST COOLER: 21st Century Cooler that's Actually Cooler". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "Pebble 2, Time 2 + All-New Pebble Core". Kickstarter. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- ^ "Kingdom Death: Monster 1.5". Kickstarer. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- ^ "Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- ^ "The World's Best TRAVEL JACKET with 15 Features || BAUBAX". Kickstarter. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- ^ "Exploding Kittens". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "OUYA: A New Kind of Video Game Console". Kickstarter. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ "The Everyday Backpack, Tote, and Sling". Kickstarter. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- ^ "Fidget Cube: A Vinyl Desk Toy". Kickstarter. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- ^ "Evan Ackerman "Update:Eye3 Drone Officially Too Good to be True", IEEE Spectrum January 31, 2012.". Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ Adrianne Jeffries. "This Is What a Kickstarter Scam Looks Like". Betabeat.
- ^ "Adrian Jeffries, "When Kickstarter Goes Wrong: Were 419 Backers Almost Taken for a $27,637 Ride?", BetaBeat, September 15, 2011.". Betabeat. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ Kirk Hamilton. "Creator of 'Satirical' Tentacle-Rape Game Apologizes". Kotaku. Gawker Media.
- ^ "Pepitone, Julianne, "Kickstarter pulls plug on scam minutes before $120,000 heist", CNN Money, 17 June 2013". CNNMoney. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "Lester Haines "Kickstarter unplugs iFind miracle battery-free locator", The Register June 27, 2014.". Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ Resnick, Nathan (2015-09-14). "Why Kickstarter Is Corrupted | Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ "Entrepreneur, Writer, Traveler". nathanresnick.com. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ "Nebia Shower - Better experience, 70% less water". Kickstarter. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ Simon, Ruth (2016-05-04). "Many Crowdfunding Consultants Come Up Short". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ Bond, Paul. "Filmmaker Accuses Kickstarter of Censoring 'Gosnell' Abortion Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
- ^ "Gosnell Movie". Indiegogo. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
- ^ "NED RIFLE by Hal Hartley". Kickstarter. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- ^ Bernstein, Paula (November 25, 2013). "Hal Hartley Explains Why He is Offering Distribution Rights to 'Ned Rifle' as Kickstarter Backer Reward". Indiewire. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- ^ Saperstein, Pat (November 25, 2013). "Updated: Hal Hartley Can’t Offer Distribution Rights as Kickstarter Reward". Variety. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- ^ Dunn, Gaby. "Reddit pick-up artist issues mea culpa after Kickstarter controversy". Daily Dot. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- ^ Baker, Katie J.M. "Redditor's PUA Kickstarter Project Recommends Sexual Assault". Jezebel. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- ^ Dredge, Stuart. "Kickstarter bans 'seduction guides' after Above The Game controversy". Guardian. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- ^ Ha, Anthony. "Kickstarter Says It Was Wrong About ‘Above The Game’ Campaign, Bans Future ‘Seduction Guides’". Techcrunch. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- ^ Amos Barshad. "Thanks to Kickstarter, Zach Braff Finally Has Millions of Dollars".
- ^ Steven Bogos (2013-03-12). "The Escapist : News : Richard Garriott Explains Why He Needs a $1 Million Kickstarter". Escapistmagazine.com. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- ^ · 35 comments (2012-03-29). "Blockbuster Effects » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- ^ Best Inventions of 2010 (2013-05-09). "Who is Kickstarter for? » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- ^ "Crowdfunders create fake donors to fraudulently inflate campaign "success"". Crowdfaking. Crowdfaking.
- ^ Clover, Joshua. "The Amanda Palmer Kickstarter Scandal". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- ^ Tanzer, Myles (May 9, 2011). "NYU Tisch Student Makes Plagiarized Film To Win Festival Prize After Raising $1,700 On Kickstarter · NYU Local". NYU Local. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- ^ Sam Biddle. "NYU Film Student Plagiarizes His Way to Kickstarter Fame". Gizmodo.
- ^ Jan Wolfe (19 February 2013). "Jan Wolfe, "ArtistShare Can't Show Kickstarter Infringes Crowd-Funding Patent" The AM Law Litigation Daily, 19 February 2013.". Litigation Daily. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ Sarah Jacobsson Purewal (October 5, 2011). "Kickstarter Faces Patent Suit Over Funding Idea". PCWorld. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- ^ Eriq Gardner (February 16, 2012). "Hollywood Docket: Comedy Club Documentary Lawsuit; Michael Jordan vs. 1st Amendment". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- ^ Jeffries, Adrianne (14 May 2012). "Kickstarter Wins Small Victory in Patent Lawsuit With 2000-Era Crowdfunding Site". BetaBeat. The New York Observer. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- ^ "Kickstarter Wins Crowdfunding Patent Lawsuit Against ArtistShare". Crowdfund Insider.
- ^ "Joseph Flaherty, "3D Systems Sues Formlabs and Kickstarter for Patent Infringement" Wired, 21 November 2012". WIRED. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ ""Kickstarter Sued: Formlabs 3D Printer Accused Of Patent Breach" Huffington Post, 21 November 2012". The Huffington Post UK. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "3D Systems gets 6-month stay for settlement talks over patent lawsuit".
- ^ "Details Emerge on Patent Lawsuit Against Multiple Crowdfunding Platforms".