||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Korean Wikipedia. (March 2013)|
|Type||Broadcast radio and
|Slogan||Fulfilling the People's Devotion Through Broadcasting|
|Headquarters||Yeouido, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, South Korea|
|Owner||Government of South Korea|
|Launch date||February 16, 1927 (radio)
October 1, 1961 (television)
March 3, 1973 "public broadcasting stations" status
2001 (Digital Television)
|Picture format||1080i (HDTV)|
|Revised Romanization||Han-guk Bangsong Gongsa|
|McCune–Reischauer||Han'guk Pangsong Kongsa|
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) (Korean: 한국 방송 공사, Hanguk Bangsong Gongsa) is a South Korean radio and television network, founded in 1927. It is the biggest out of the four major South Korean television networks.
KBS began as Kyeongseong Broadcasting Corporation (JODK) that was established by the Governor-General of Korea in Korea on February 16, 1927. This second radio station started using the call sign HLKA in 1947 after the Republic of Korea got the call sign HL of the International Telecommunication Union. After doing a national broadcast, the radio was renamed Seoul Central Broadcasting Station in 1948.
Television broadcasts in South Korea began on 12 May 1956 with the first television station HLKZ-TV. It was sold to KBS in 1961. KBS station status changed from government to public broadcasting station on March 3, 1973. Construction of KBS headquarters in Yeouido started in 1976. In 1979, KBS radio began broadcasting on the FM wave with the launch of KBS Stereo (Now KBS 1FM).
Differing from other public broadcasters in the world that do not accept advertising, apart from television fees, part of KBS revenue also comes from advertisers. KBS began accepting advertising in 1980 after the forced merger of some private commercial broadcasting stations like Tongyang Broadcasting Company (TBC), which some consider the forerunner of JTBC, and Dong-A Broadcasting System (DBS), the former body of Channel A, into KBS by the military government. Under the Chun Doo-hwan regime, South Korea's media policy had changed; the regime closed several private commercial radio and television stations and merged them with KBS. After the merger with Tongyang Broadcasting Company (TBC) and DBS, KBS changed the name of these channels to from DBS to KBS Radio 5 (now a defunct radio station. 792 kHz frequency now owned by Seoul Broadcasting System.) (AM) TBC-FM to KBS Radio 4 (Now KBS Cool FM) and television station TBC-TV to KBS 2TV in 1980 and created KBS 3TV and Educational FM in 1981.
On December 27, 1990, KBS 3TV and Educational FM split from KBS and changed its name to Educational Broadcasting System (EBS). After the revision of the television fee collection system in 1994, KBS 1TV no longer airs commercials.
KBS is a 'public organization' that, by law, receives public funding from the South Korean government but is independently managed. As mentioned on the South Korean Constitution, the president of KBS is recommended by its board of directors to the President of South Korea. Political parties in South Korea have the right to name members of the board of directors of KBS. Since the President of South Korea usually has leadership over the members of the ruling party, KBS's president is considered to be designated by the President of South Korea. This procedure has incurred worries of political intervention in KBS's governance and has led to many thinking that the current system of recruiting needs to be revised.
Around 37.8% of its revenue comes from a mandatory Television Licence Fee priced at 2,200 won, while 47.6% of the revenue comes from commercial advertisement sales. For national or governmental programs such as International Radio service (KBS World Radio) and the Radio service for physically handicapped people, KBS receives public funds from the South Korean government.
KBS 1TV and KBS 2TV phased out analogue services on December 31, 2012 as part of the switchover to digital television.
These six channels are carried by cable and satellite operators in South Korea. There are 100+ Cable operators in South Korea and Skylife is the sole satellite television service provider. These channels are managed and operated by KBS N, a subsidiary company of KBS.
KBS World is the international television and radio service of KBS. It officially launched on July 1, 2003. It is broadcast on a 24hr schedule with programs ranging from news, sports, television dramas, entertainment, and children's. KBS World television is broadcast locally and around the world. As of July 2007, around 65% of its programs are broadcast with English subtitles, it is available in 32 countries, and reportedly more than 40 million households around the world can access KBS World. It has two overseas subsidiaries: KBS America and KBS Japan. KBS Japan is independently operated by a KBS subsidiary in Japan, and most programs are provided with Japanese subtitles.
KBS World television is a television channel that runs mostly programs commissioned for KBS' 2 terrestrial networks: KBS1 and KBS2. KBS World television is distributed over several international communication and broadcasting satellites such as IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Apstar 6 & 7, Eutelsat Hotbird 13A, Galaxy 11, 18 & 23, Badr 6, Vinasat 1, Palapa D, SES 7, Telkom 1, Thaicom 5, EchoStar 15, Anik F3. Local cable and/or satellite operators receive the signal from one of these satellite and carry the signal to end subscribers of their own networks. KBS doesn't allow individual viewer to receive the signal from IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Asiasat 5, and Galaxy 18. The signal from Badr 6 is Free-to-Air service while viewers using Eutelsat Hotbird 13A are required to pay monthly subscription fee.
|ABC and SBS||Australia|
|TVB||Hong Kong, China|
|TVRI and RCTI||Indonesia|
|NHK and TBS||Japan|
|ABS-CBN, TV5, GMA Network and GMA News TV||Philippines|
|NBC, ABC, CNN and Telemundo||United States|
One of the most controversial and most oldest controversies of KBS was the forced merger between KBS and five private broadcasting stations TBC or the Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation, DBS or the Donga Broadcasting System, SBC or Seohae Broadcasting Corporation, VOC or Jeonil Broadcasting Corporation and Hanguk-FM in 1980. In 2009 former president Lee Myung-bak said the special law was unconstitutional. In 2011 TBC was reincarnated as JTBC.
The journalists working for KBS (along with MBC, SBS and YTN) have protested against the biased journalism practices that favored the Lee Myung-bak government. The new union for KBS headed by Kim Hyeon-seok released a video clip Reset KBS News 9 (리셋 KBS 뉴스9) on the internet that discusses the Prime Minister's Office Civilian Surveillance Incident and the controversial money-spending on renovating President Lee Myung-bak's alleged birth house on March 13, 2012.
Bak Han-yong (박한용), head of the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities, criticized KBS for censoring negative remarks from a documentary about Chinilpa individuals and Rhee Syngman, who had pardoned them. This includes the Chinilpa Paik Sun-yup.
KBS is also known for banning songs that "stimulates sex desire or are sexually explicit to youth", "urges violence or crime to youth", or "glamorizes violence such as rape, and drugs" which they classified as a "medium offensive to youth". They also ban songs that mention brand names. KBS World TV and Radio is also excused because it is aired overseas but not in Korea.
In January 16, 2010 South Korea witnessed a public dispute between KBS and the Korea Cable TV Association (KCTA) over an issue of re-transmission fees. The KCTA sought to push down fees from major broadcasting channels like KBS for re-transmitting their programs through cable. KBS had demanded 280 won per subscriber, while the cable TV system operators (or ‘SOs’) wanted no more than 100 won. Negotiations reached a standstill, and so the SOs decided to make KBS2 programs unavailable to viewers. Following the blackout, the Korea Communications Commission (KCC) has ordered the SOs to resume transmission or face a hefty fine. The SOs initially refused this, but as of 7:00 p.m. (KST) on January 17th, they agreed to resume KBS2 transmissions, thus ending the 28-hour blackout.
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