Superman and other Kryptonian characters are susceptible to its radiation. The familiarity with Superman's vulnerability to Kryptonite has led to the generic usage of the term in popular culture as a reference to an individual's weakness, similar to "Achilles' heel".
An unpublished 1940 story titled "The K-Metal from Krypton", written by Superman creator Jerry Siegel, featured a prototype of Kryptonite. It was a mineral from the planet Krypton that drained Superman of his strength while giving humans superhuman powers.
The mineral known as "Kryptonite" was introduced in the story arc "The Meteor from Krypton" in June 1943 on The Adventures of Superman radio series. Since radio shows had to be performed live, when Clayton "Bud" Collyer, who played Superman and Clark Kent, wanted to take a vacation from the series, Superman was placed in a Kryptonite trap. A stand-in groaned with pain for several episodes until Collyer came back from his vacation.
Kryptonite was incorporated into the comic mythos with Superman #61 (November 1949). In August 1993, editor Dorothy Woolfolk stated in an interview with Florida newspaper Today that she had found Superman's invulnerability dull, and that DC's flagship hero might be more interesting with an Achilles' heel such as adverse reactions to a fragment of his home planet Krypton.
Kryptonite gradually appeared more frequently, causing science fiction writer Larry Niven to theorise in tongue-in-cheek fashion that Krypton was in fact a Dyson sphere or a cold neutron star, and that this was the underlying reason for so much of the mineral finding its way to Earth courtesy of meteor showers.[page needed] In an effort to reduce the use of Kryptonite in storylines, all known forms on Earth were transmuted into "k-iron" in a 1971 story arc titled "The Sandman Saga".
Various forms of the fictional mineral have been created in the Superman publications:
Originally red in color, the mineral debuted in Superman #61 (November 1949) and did not adopt its characteristic green hue until Action Comics #161 (Aug. 1951). Green Kryptonite weakens Superman and other Kryptonians and will kill them with long-term exposure. The character has been shown to become immune to the effects of Green Kryptonite due to either long-term absorption of sunlight, or extremely high short-term exposure to the sun. Post-Crisis sources establish that Green Kryptonite is also harmful to humans given sufficient long-term exposure, resulting in cancer as Lex Luthor discovered as a result of a ring with a Kryptonite jewel he wore to ward off Superman's presence.
Debuted in Adventure Comics #252 (Sept. 1958). Originally, Red Kryptonite simply weakened Superman, but to a greater degree. Red Kryptonite was later described as causing odd behavior or bizarre transformations, albeit temporary and non-fatal. TV adaptations typically show Red Kryptonite making Kryptonians dangerously uninhibited and narcissistic.
Debuted in Action Comics #252 (May 1959). Harmless to Kryptonians, but has the same effect as the green variety on normal humans. Anti-Kryptonite is also the power source for one version of the character Ultraman, Superman's evil counterpart from an antimatter universe.
Debuted in Action Comics #261 (Jan. 1960). Created by Supergirl (Kara Zor-El) in an unsuccessful attempt to find an antidote to green Kryptonite. Harmless to Kryptonians, the mineral gives normal life-forms superhuman abilities, as in the case of Supergirl's pet cat Streaky. Revised in Superman Family #203 (Oct. 1980) to have the same effect as the green variety on Kryptonians.
Debuted in Superman #140 (Oct. 1960). An "imperfect" form of kryptonite which affects the imperfect character Bizarro in the same way the green variety of kryptonite affects Superman. Blue Kryptonite also affects members of the Bizarro League in the same way. Blue kryptonite is the antidote to the random and bizarre effects of Red Kryptonite.
Debuted in Adventure Comics #279 (Dec. 1960). Kills all plant life from any world.
Red-Green Kryptonite: first variety
Debuted in Action Comics #275 (April 1961). An alloy created by the villainous character Brainiac, the Red-Green Kryptonite caused Superman to mutate, temporarily growing a third eye in the back of his head.
Debuted in Adventure Comics #299 (Aug. 1962). Kryptonite affected by atomic radiation, capable of permanently removing a Kryptonian's ability to process yellow sunlight, which in turn nullifies all superhuman abilities. Post-Crisis, this Kryptonite only removes a Kryptonian's powers temporarily.
Debuted in Superman #162 (July 1963). An imaginary story in which Superman combines the minerals to power an intelligence-expanding device. An explosion occurs, and the hero is split into two separate beings ("Superman-Blue" and "Superman-Red"), both of whom possess enhanced intelligence.
Debuted in Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen #70 (July 1963). Revealed by Jimmy Olsen to be a hoax. Post-Crisis, Silver Kryptonite first appeared in Superman/Batman #46 (April 2008), modeled after the version that appeared in the Smallville TV series. Silver Kryptonite causes Kryptonians to suffer from altered perceptions, loss of inhibition, and extreme hunger cravings. On the Supergirl TV series, this causes Superman to hallucinate his "greatest fear" of an attacking General Zod.
Debuted in Action Comics #310 (March 1964). Fragments of Krypton's Jewel Mountains. Amplifies the psychic powers of the criminals imprisoned in the Phantom Zone, allowing them to project illusions or perform mind control.
Debuted in Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen #80 (Oct. 1964). Affects humans the same manner that Red Kryptonite affects Kryptonians.
Red-Green Kryptonite: second variety
Debuted in Superboy Comics #121 (June 1965). This caused Superboy to lose his powers permanently, but Phantom Zone criminal Vakox unwillingly cured him, restoring his powers.
Debuted in Superman #178 (July 1965). Temporarily deprives Kryptonians of their memories.
Debuted in Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen #92 (April 1966). Created by the villain Mr. Nero, this variety is magnetically attracted to all substances originally from Krypton.
Debuted in Superman #192 (Jan. 1967). An imaginary story in which the alloy permanently removes Superman's powers and memories of himself as Superman.
Debuted in The Brave and the Bold #175 (June 1981). A modified variety of Green Kryptonite produced by supervillan Metallo that affects humans in a manner similar to the green mineral.
Debuted in The Adventures of Superman #511 (April 1994). A one-time fluke, Kryptonite-X was created when the Eradicator filtered a harmful barrage of Kryptonite discharged by the villain Cyborg Superman at Superman. The result was beneficial, "supercharging" Superman and restoring his ability to process solar radiation.
Debuted in Supergirl vol. 4 #79 (April 2003), Pink Kryptonite seemingly turns Kryptonians gay. This type of Kryptonite was mentioned in a single panel in a story that was a satire of the plots of many Silver Age comic stories (such as those listed above) which featured some strange new variety of Kryptonite.
Debuted in Supergirl #2 (vol. 5, Oct. 2005). Can split a Kryptonian into two separate entities: one good and the other evil.
Debuted in Krypto the Superdog #4 (Feb. 2007). The Orange Kryptonite provides super abilities for 24 hours to any animal that comes into contact with it.
Debuted in Superman Family Adventures #9 (March 2013). A non-canon story. Exposure of the Periwinkle Kryptonite causes Kryptonians to lose all inhibitions.
Other varieties of the mineral have appeared but have been revealed to be hoaxes, such as yellow (Action Comics #277, June 1961), "Kryptonite plus" (Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen #126 Jan. 1970) and "blood" (52 #13, Aug. 2006).
The Adventures of Superman (1952-1958) episodes "Panic in the Sky", "The Defeat of Superman" (both 1953), "Superman Week", "The Deadly Rock" (both 1955), "The Magic Secret", "The Gentle Monster", and "All That Glitters" (all 1958) all feature Kryptonite.
Superboy (1988-1992) featured Green Kryptonite the episodes "Kryptonite Kills" and "Metallo" (both 1989), "Bride of Bizarro" (1990), "Kryptonite Kid" (1991), and "Obituary for a Super-Hero" (1992); red in "Super Menace" (1990) and a Bizarro White variant in "The Battle With Bizarro" (1989), which heals the title character.
Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman (1993-1997) featured Green Kryptonite in several episodes, including "The Green, Green Glow of Home", "Barbarians at the Planet", "The House of Luthor" (all 1993) "Metallo" (1994), "Top Copy" (1995), and "Battleground Earth" (1996), with the Red variety appearing in "Individual Responsibility", "Ultrawoman" (both 1995), and "Lethal Weapon" (1997).
Smallville (2001-2011) featured Kryptonite on a regular basis: a large quantity of the Green variety descends to Earth in meteor shower, arriving in the town of Smallville, Kansas with the spaceship containing the infant Kal-El. The mineral is colloquially referred to by Smallville residents as "meteor rock", but is eventually called "Kryptonite" by Clark Kent once he discovers his origins ("Rosetta", Season 2, 2003). Aside from being harmful to Clark Kent, the mineral produces bizarre changes in flora and fauna, including occasionally bestowing metahuman abilities on humans depending on the circumstances of their exposure to it, such as a girl treated for a rare bone disease acquiring shapeshifting powers. These people are commonly known by the inhabitants of Smallville as "Meteor Freaks". The Green variety of the mineral appears in several episodes every season, although other varieties appear, including Red ("Red": 2002. "Exodus", "Exile", "Phoenix" : 2003, "Unsafe": 2005, "Crimson": 2007, "Upgrade": 2010), black, formed when superheating green kryptonite ("Crusade": 2004, "Doomsday": 2009), Silver ("Splinter": 2005), Blue ("Blue": 2007, "Persona": 2008, "Kandor": 2009, "Salvation": 2010, "Harvest": 2011), Gem ("Persuasion": 2010) and Gold ("Prophecy", "Finale": 2011). Smallville was the first appearance of a Black Kryptonite that would split a person into their good and evil halves, before later being brought into the comic canon in Supergirl #2 (vol. 5, Oct. 2005).
Supergirl (2015–present): in the series' pilot, Kara is shot down by a low-level Green Kryptonite tranquilizer made by the Department of Extra-Normal Operations (DEO), and is placed on a gurney with Green Kryptonite handcuffs. In "Stronger Together", a room with low level Kryptonite radiation is used to train Supergirl in fighting without her power. Later, Hank Henshaw (J'onn J'onzz) uses a Kryptonite knife on Astra Zor-El. When Astra brings the knife to a scientist, he is unable to determine its origin, only stating the knife is not from Earth and that the weapon emits specific radiation damaging to Kryptonian cells. By the episode "Hostile Takeover", the Kryptonians have managed to develop a wearable device blocking the radiation. The DEO was shown to use Kryptonite radiation guns in addition to the darts. In the episode "Bizarro", the DEO attempts to use Kryptonite bullets on the titular character, but the bullets only serves to disfigure and apparently strengthen her. However, the DEO manages to synthesize a substance with reversed ionic charge and opposite properties (Blue Kryptonite) which proves effective in taking Bizarro down. In the episode "For the Girl Who Has Everything", the DEO once again use Green Kryptonite to battle the evil Kryptonians, with Alex using a Kryptonite sword to kill Astra. The Red variety appears in the episode "Falling", as a failed attempt to recreate Green Kryptonite by Maxwell Lord. After an accidental exposure, Supergirl first merely became uninhibited, much like the effects in Smallville, but later, became outright violent and paranoid. The effects seemed permanent until she was shot by a device developed by Lord for the purpose.
The Season 2 episode "The Adventures of Supergirl" reveals that the D.E.O discovered Kryptonite and was first named by J'onn. Superman stopped working with the DEO after discovering they had a Kryptonite stockpile, since he disagreed with their keeping the material as a contingency against his or Supergirl going rogue. J'onn J'onzz eventually turns over the DEO's Kryptonite supply to Superman as a gesture of goodwill, and Superman takes the Kryptonite away for disposal. However, Superman's archenemy, Lex Luthor, and his family have their own Kryptonite supply. Queen Rhea of Daxam, Krypton's neighboring planet, states that different varieties of Kryptonite rained down on her planet when Krypton exploded, and the surviving Daxamites have stores of them. Rhea uses a green Kryptonite dagger to attempt to kill Supergirl in "Distant Sun", and employs Silver Kryptonite on Superman in "Nevertheless, She Persisted", causing him to hallucinate that Kara is General Zod and attack her. Rhea's body is later shown to be internally suffused with Green Kryptonite, so that when she bleeds, the blood becomes exposed and can affect Kryptonians with its deadly radiation.
The Brady Kids (1972-1973) "Cindy's Super Friend" shows Clark Kent attempting to become Superman in the Kids' clubhouse, only to be incapacitated by a piece of Green Kryptonite as part of a rock collection. Cindy obligingly removes it, allowing Clark to switch identities.
Super Friends (1973-1986) features Kryptonite in the episodes "Superfriends: Rest in Peace" ("Krypton Steel"); "Darkseid's Golden Trap" (gold); "Terror From the Phantom Zone" (Blue, Green, and Red); "Return of the Phantoms" (green); "Rokan: Enemy from Space" (green); "Bazarowurld" (Red and Blue); "Revenge of Bizarro" (Red and Blue); Will the world Collide?" (green); "Uncle Mxyzptlk" (red); "The Death of Superman" (Green); "Batman: Dead or Alive" (Green).
Superman (1988) features a Kryptonite ring worn by Lex Luthor.
In Batman Beyond (1999-2001) the two-part episode "The Call" reveals Kryptonite has been kept safe in the distant future as a deterrent against Superman due to hero's past as a rogue agent under Darkseid's mind manipulation.
The Young Justice (2010-2013) episode "Auld Acquaintance" features use of the Green variety.
In Batman: The Brave and the Bold episode "Battle of the Superheroes!", Superman is infected with a Red Kryptonite necklace secretly given to Lois Lane by Lex Luthor which causes Superman to become evil. Now Batman must work with Krypto the Superdog to hold off Superman until the effects of the Red Kryptonite wear off.
Superman III (1983): billionaire Ross Webster (Robert Vaughn) orders the creation of synthetic Kryptonite. Computer programmer Gus Gorman (Richard Pryor) uses tar to compensate for an unknown component of Kryptonite, causing the newly created mineral to eventually turn Superman evil and split the hero into two beings. Gorman's "super computer" later fights Superman and uses a Kryptonite ray.
Superman Returns (2006): Lex Luthor (Kevin Spacey) steals the Addis Ababa L9 Pallasite Meteorite and uses Kryptonite to create a new Kryptonian landmass and a dagger for use against Superman.
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016): Kryptonite is discovered by men working for Lex Luthor (Jesse Eisenberg) at the bottom of the Indian Ocean and experimented with by Luthor, who learns of its harmful effect on Kryptonians when the corpse of General Zod is exposed to it. Kryptonite is stolen from Luthor by Batman (Ben Affleck), who uses the Kryptonite to create Kryptonite gas pellets and a Kryptonite-tipped spear, both of which he later uses in battle with Superman (Henry Cavill). Doomsday is also shown to be weakened by Kryptonite, allowing Superman to use the spear to kill him in the film's climax.
Superman: Atari 2600 (1978): Luthor has created Kryptonite satellites and scattered them around Metropolis that take away Superman's ability to fly when touched. Superman must then walk around Metropolis until he finds and meets Lois Lane, to regain his powers.
Superman 64 (1999): appears as Kryptonite fog, coined as an excuse for the game's poor draw distance.
Injustice: Gods Among Us (2013) features a Kryptonite laser designed as a failsafe against Superman should he go against humanity. In the alternate timeline, the laser was created by Batman, but he sealed the weapon in the Batcave and programmed the Kryptonite laser to only be accessible when he was accompanied by four other members of the Justice League - Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, Green Arrow and Aquaman - to ensure that he couldn't make the decision to kill Superman himself, requiring him to bring in the heroes of an alternate universe to help him when Green Arrow was killed and the other three joined Superman's team. Although Lex Luthor attempts to deploy the laser against Superman, who is returning from low orbit, Shazam (who is another of Superman's allies) prevents him from firing before Lex is killed by Superman.
Gold and Green Kryptonite appear in the story mode of Injustice 2. Firestorm creates a Gold Kryptonite knife for Batman to fight against Superman, and Batman reveals this in the final battle after Brainiac is defeated and Superman prepares to kill Brainiac. Batman manages to get several swipes off Superman, temporarily depowering him before Superman knocks the knife out of his hand. Wonder Woman (still allied with Superman) then recovers the knife and the sword is not seen again. Green Kryptonite is not explicitly mentioned by name, although several of Batman's costume pieces feature luminous green lighting, and one of his moves features a punch with a green crystalline substance that shatters afterward, both heavily implied to be Green Kryptonite.[original research?]
The mining group Rio Tinto found an unusual specimen in a mine near Jadar in Serbia, which mineralogist Chris Stanley identified as sodium lithium boron silicate hydroxide, an almost inert, white, mostly harmless substance that nevertheless fluoresces a pinkish-orange when exposed to ultraviolet light. Since "kriptonite" already existed as a fictional name, the specimen was called "Jadarite" in honor of the place where the mineral was first found.[unreliable source?]
^Cowsill, Alan (2010). "1970s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. New York: Dorling Kindserley Publishing. p. 144. ISBN9780756667429. New editor Julius Schwartz, new scripter Denny O'Neil, and regular artist Curt Swan removed the Man of Steel's greatest weakness from the face of the Earth.
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