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PRIMARY vs EXTENDED vs LOGICAL Partition
PRIMARY vs EXTENDED vs LOGICAL Partition
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Priamry Partition Vs Extended Partition
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What are Drive Partitions?
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Logical partition (virtual computing platform)
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how to convert primary partition to logical partition in win 8
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Types of Partition [Tutorial explained in Hindi] Primary and Extended
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تحويل البارتشن من primary الى logical والعكس | الحلقة 383
تحويل البارتشن من primary الى logical والعكس | الحلقة 383
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Channel: مستر ابوعلى
الحلقة 47 : الفرق بين انواع البارتشن primary و logical وطريقة تحويل احدهم للاخر
الحلقة 47 : الفرق بين انواع البارتشن primary و logical وطريقة تحويل احدهم للاخر
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How To | Convert Primary Drive To Logical Partition  | Without Losing Data
How To | Convert Primary Drive To Logical Partition | Without Losing Data
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: W10Dev
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How to Create More Than 4 Partitions {Extended | Logical Partition}
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Windows 7 - Creating an Extended Partition and Logical Drive
Windows 7 - Creating an Extended Partition and Logical Drive
Published: 2014/05/01
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How to create extended partition | Logical partitions | best partitioning for 1TB hardisk
How to create extended partition | Logical partitions | best partitioning for 1TB hardisk
Published: 2017/07/01
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How to Convert Primary Partition to Logical Partition (Bangla Tutorial)
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Create Extended & Logical drive during installation of WINDOWS 7
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convert partition from logical to primary in Win 8
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Understanding Partitions for the CompTIA exam.wmv
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Create, Delete Extended, Logical Partition in RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) OS
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Set Partition as primary or logical partition | MiniTool Partition Wizard Official Video Guide
Set Partition as primary or logical partition | MiniTool Partition Wizard Official Video Guide
Published: 2014/07/23
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how to convert logical partition into primary partition
Published: 2017/12/07
Channel: Amitech
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How to Partition a Hard Disk Drive | Microsoft Windows 10 / 8 / 7 Tutorial
How to Partition a Hard Disk Drive | Microsoft Windows 10 / 8 / 7 Tutorial
Published: 2016/01/23
Channel: The Teacher
Convert logical drive to primary drive must watch easy 2017
Convert logical drive to primary drive must watch easy 2017
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: REVANTH
How to resize logical disc drives Windows 10 Partition Wizard
How to resize logical disc drives Windows 10 Partition Wizard
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: Leszek Burda
How to create 2, 3 and more logical disc drives on new extended disc partition Windows 10
How to create 2, 3 and more logical disc drives on new extended disc partition Windows 10
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IBM PowerVM Logical Partition Management - IBM Training
IBM PowerVM Logical Partition Management - IBM Training
Published: 2013/06/12
Channel: IBM Systems Lab Services
Help! My Old Logical Partition went to free space for no reason
Help! My Old Logical Partition went to free space for no reason
Published: 2018/02/16
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PowerBasics Dynamic Logical Partition changes (DLPAR)
PowerBasics Dynamic Logical Partition changes (DLPAR)
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Windows 10 - How Manage Logical Drives, Volumes, Partition Hard Disk
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How To Create Partitions - Windows Server 2003
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Windows 10 Tutorial: Shrink, Partition, Extend Disk Volumes
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how to create a new partition from a logical drive in windows 7
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Creating and mounting LVM (Logical Volume Manager) partition in linux.
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How To Create Extended partition using Diskpart
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Gparted: Create more than 4 partitions.
Gparted: Create more than 4 partitions.
Published: 2012/08/30
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how to convert logical to primary partition
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RHCE Training Delhi. Managing Physical Partitions on Linux.
RHCE Training Delhi. Managing Physical Partitions on Linux.
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13} Linux Extended & Logical partition by Command Line Part-2
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Hitachi Compute Blade - Logical Partitioning Capabilities from Hitachi Data Systems
Hitachi Compute Blade - Logical Partitioning Capabilities from Hitachi Data Systems
Published: 2016/01/16
Channel: Hitachi Vantara
How to delete disk partition using Disk Management Windows 10
How to delete disk partition using Disk Management Windows 10
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Leszek Burda
الفرق بين النوعين primary و Logical في البارتشات وطريقة تحويل احدهم للاخر
الفرق بين النوعين primary و Logical في البارتشات وطريقة تحويل احدهم للاخر
Published: 2014/09/16
Channel: ساعة معرفه Time To Learn
Extending a CentOS Linux LVM partition by increasing an existing virtual disk size
Extending a CentOS Linux LVM partition by increasing an existing virtual disk size
Published: 2014/02/22
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How to create primary and extended partitions on a basic disc
How to create primary and extended partitions on a basic disc
Published: 2014/02/11
Channel: Patrick Jørgensen
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from LPAR)
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A logical partition, commonly called an LPAR, is a subset of a computer's hardware resources, virtualized as a separate computer. In effect, a physical machine can be partitioned into multiple logical partitions, each hosting a separate operating system.[1]

History[edit]

IBM developed the concept of hypervisors (virtual machines in CP-40 and CP-67) and in 1972 provided it for the S/370 as Virtual Machine Facility/370.[2] IBM introduced the Start Interpretive Execution (SIE) instruction (designed specifically for the execution of virtual machines) as part of 370-XA architecture on the 3081, as well as VM/XA versions of VM to exploit it. PR/SM is a type-1 Hypervisor based on the CP component of VM/XA that runs directly on the machine level and allocates system resources across LPARs to share physical resources. It is a standard feature on IBM System z only. An IBM POWER system uses PHYP (the POWER Hypervisor) to enable its LPAR functionalities for System p and System i since approximately 2000 in POWER4 systems.

The terms PR/SM and LPAR are often used interchangeably in IBM System z, including in IBM documentation. Formally, LPAR designates the logical partitioning function and mode of operation, whereas PR/SM is the commercial designation of the feature.[3]

Amdahl Corporation's Multiple Domain Facility (MDF) was introduced in 1982.[4] IBM began marketing its functionally similar PR/SM in 1988, implemented on its ESA/390 architecture released that year. MDF-based LPAR technology continued to be developed separately by Amdahl, and Hitachi Data Systems in part for their implementations of the new architecture, which featured the introduction of access registers that allowed use of multiple data spaces addressable by a single address space. IBM subsequently continued its LPAR development with its 64-bit System z and System i architectures. LPAR and PR/SM reconfigurations can be made without rebooting the computer, i.e., while some LPARs remain active. Reconfigurations can include changing channel path definitions and device definitions.

z/VM supports the z/Architecture HiperSockets function for high-speed TCP/IP communication among virtual machines and logical partitions (LPARs) within the same IBM zSeries server. This function uses an adaptation of the Queued-Direct Input/Output (QDIO) high-speed I/O protocol.

IBM later introduced LPARs to their iSeries and pSeries servers in 1999 and 2001, respectively,[5] albeit with varying technical specifications. Multiple operating systems are compatible with LPARs, including z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE, z/TPF, AIX, Linux, and i/OS. In storage systems, such as the IBM TotalStorage DS8000, LPARs allow for multiple virtual instances of a storage array to exist within a single physical array.

In first part of 2010 year, Fujitsu announced availability of its x86 64 PRIMEQUEST line of servers,[6] which support LPARs.

In second part of 2011 year, Hitachi has announced availability of CB2000 and CB320 blade systems,[7] which support LPAR on x86 64 hardware.

Hardware partitioning[edit]

Logical partitioning divides hardware resources. Two LPARs may access memory from a common memory chip, provided that the ranges of addresses directly accessible to each do not overlap. One partition may indirectly control memory controlled by a second partition, but only by commanding a process in that partition[clarification needed]. CPUs may be dedicated to a single LPAR or shared. While on Amdahl's MDF(Multiple Domain Feature)[clarification needed] it was possible to configure an LPAR with both shared and dedicated CPUs. This is no longer possible with any mainframes flavours currently in the market.

On IBM mainframes, LPARs are managed by the PR/SM facility. IBM mainframes operate exclusively in LPAR mode, even when there is only one partition on a machine. Multiple LPARs running z/OS can form a Sysplex or Parallel Sysplex, whether on one machine or spread across multiple machines.[8]

On IBM System p POWER hardware, LPARs are managed by PHYP (the POWER Hypervisor). PHYP acts as a virtual switch between the LPARs and also handles the virtual SCSI traffic between LPARs. Micro-Partitioning supports 10 times as many LPARs as processors with fractional allocations. It was introduced with the POWER5 processor. All IBM POWER5 and POWER6 systems may be partitioned. Note that a full system partition may be defined where all resources are consumed by a single partition. System P servers with PowerVM enabled allow LPARs with shared CPUs to delegate their unused cycles into the shared pool. Dedicated processors are not available for sharing. Unused cycles become available for other partitions and are governed by the parameters specified when the LPAR is defined. Changes to a running partition can be made dynamically up to the maximum value set, and down to the minimum value set in the active profile. The changing of resource allocations without restart of the logical partition is called dynamic logical partitioning. IBM PowerVM is the licensed/purchased feature that enables the virtualization features on p4,5,6,7 series servers.[9][10]

Expoiting Intel vPro (i.e. Non-uniform memory access), there are also implementations of Logical Partitioning based on Intel Xeon e.g. by Hitachi Data Systems.[11]

LPARs safely allow combining multiple test, development, quality assurance, and production work on the same server, offering advantages such as lower costs, faster deployment, and more convenience. IBM mainframe LPARs are Common Criteria EAL5 certifiable, equivalent to physically unconnected servers, so they support the highest security requirements, including military use. Nearly all IBM mainframes run with multiple LPARs with the IBM System z9 and IBM System z10 supporting up to 60 LPARs.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Karan (2009-12-02). "Security on the Mainframe" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  2. ^ 1990, 2002, Copyright IBM Corp. (2002-04-12). z/VMbuilt on IBM Virtualization Technology General Information Version 4 Release 3.0 (PDF). GC24-5991-04. 
  3. ^ Singh, Karan (2009-12-02). "Security on the Mainframe" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2010-04-06. , page 83
  4. ^ Doran, R.W. (October 1988). "Amdahl multiple-domain architecture" (PDF). Computer. 21 (10): 20–28. doi:10.1109/2.7054. 
  5. ^ Griffiths, Nigel (2005-06-29). "POWER5 Virtualization: How to set up the Virtual I/O Server". Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  6. ^ Fujitsu Upgrades Lineup of PRIMEQUEST Mission-Critical Servers
  7. ^ Logical Partitioning Feature of CB Series Xeon servers Suitable for Robust and Reliable Cloud Archived 2012-09-14 at the Wayback Machine. by H. Ueno at hds.com
  8. ^ a b Singh, Karan (2009-12-02). "Security on the Mainframe". Retrieved 2010-01-14. 
  9. ^ System p Virtualization
  10. ^ 207-269, IBM Announcement (2007-11-06). "IBM System p Virtualization — The most complete virtualization offering for UNIX and Linux". Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  11. ^ "High-Performance Nested Virtualization With Hitachi Logical Partitioning Feature" (PDF). 2014-09-01. Retrieved 2016-05-29. 

External links[edit]

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