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Super-Volcanoes, Part 2: La Garita
Super-Volcanoes, Part 2: La Garita
Published: 2011/02/16
Channel: WildwoodClaire1
La Garita Caldera
La Garita Caldera
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
La Garita Caldera.wmv
La Garita Caldera.wmv
Published: 2010/02/17
Channel: Derrick Esqubel
FYI: Yellowstone
FYI: Yellowstone's Super Volcano - Discovery Channel Podcast
Published: 2009/01/19
Channel: Pat Bro
Earth
Earth's Extremes - Volcanoes in Colorado, United States
Published: 2016/02/27
Channel: Planetedge
List of Super Volcanoes
List of Super Volcanoes
Published: 2014/08/25
Channel: Jan Theart
What Would Happen if a Super Volcanic Eruption Happens Again ?
What Would Happen if a Super Volcanic Eruption Happens Again ?
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Anthony Wood
Super-Volcanoes, Part 2  La Garita - a Mirror
Super-Volcanoes, Part 2 La Garita - a Mirror
Published: 2011/02/13
Channel: skinnyjohnsen
La Garita Colorado Property
La Garita Colorado Property
Published: 2012/12/17
Channel: Damon Gregory
Why the Yellowstone Supervolcano Could Be Huge
Why the Yellowstone Supervolcano Could Be Huge
Published: 2015/06/05
Channel: Smithsonian Channel
Super-Volcanoes, Part 3: Long Valley Caldera
Super-Volcanoes, Part 3: Long Valley Caldera
Published: 2011/02/17
Channel: WildwoodClaire1
A Supervolcano Waking Up In The USA
A Supervolcano Waking Up In The USA
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: Ridddle
Supervolcano in Utah: Massive Ancient Volcano Discovered by BYU Geologists
Supervolcano in Utah: Massive Ancient Volcano Discovered by BYU Geologists
Published: 2013/12/10
Channel: Brigham Young University
The World-Altering Supervolcano and How It Erupted
The World-Altering Supervolcano and How It Erupted
Published: 2015/06/07
Channel: Smithsonian Channel
SUPERVOLCANO! 7 Supervolcanoes That Threaten The Future of Humanity (Incl. World’s BIGGEST volcano!)
SUPERVOLCANO! 7 Supervolcanoes That Threaten The Future of Humanity (Incl. World’s BIGGEST volcano!)
Published: 2015/07/06
Channel: Incredible World
La Garita Presentation
La Garita Presentation
Published: 2014/08/24
Channel: Jordan Jones
Del Norte/La Garita Area Fall 2014
Del Norte/La Garita Area Fall 2014
Published: 2014/11/22
Channel: Troy Lawson
Yellowstone Supervolcano Caldera : A rumbling monster waiting to erupt
Yellowstone Supervolcano Caldera : A rumbling monster waiting to erupt
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Tantric Strawberry
Pyroclastic Flow explained in the Weminuche Wilderness - CATASTROPHIC GEOLOGY LESSON
Pyroclastic Flow explained in the Weminuche Wilderness - CATASTROPHIC GEOLOGY LESSON
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Oppenheimer Ranch Project
Yellowstone Super-Eruptions | Curiosity: Volcano Time Bomb
Yellowstone Super-Eruptions | Curiosity: Volcano Time Bomb
Published: 2012/12/03
Channel: Discovery
La Garita Presentation
La Garita Presentation
Published: 2014/08/01
Channel: Jordan Jones
La Garita Stock Driveway Trail #787 - Rio Grande National Forest
La Garita Stock Driveway Trail #787 - Rio Grande National Forest
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: TrailTaker.com
La Garita Book
La Garita Book
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: Jordan Jones
La Garita
La Garita
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: Jordan Jones
Rollback 7.3 La Garita Colorado
Rollback 7.3 La Garita Colorado
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Kyle Dillman
Yellowstone Supervolcano Eruption Simulation
Yellowstone Supervolcano Eruption Simulation
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: Unity 5 ProGames
Lagarita Creek Ranch
Lagarita Creek Ranch
Published: 2013/06/08
Channel: Backcountry Aviation
Los 5 Súper Volcanes más Monstruosos del mundo
Los 5 Súper Volcanes más Monstruosos del mundo
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: EnigmaCinco
La Caldera de Bandama Vistas desde el nuevo mirador
La Caldera de Bandama Vistas desde el nuevo mirador
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: El Coleccionista de Instantes
La Garita, Colorado
La Garita, Colorado
Published: 2010/08/22
Channel: ferrarosd
Jardin Canario, Caldera de Bandama y Bufadero de la Garita
Jardin Canario, Caldera de Bandama y Bufadero de la Garita
Published: 2016/08/14
Channel: David Román
Supervolcanoes.Toba Lake,Yellowstone Caldera,Long Valley and Taupo Lake.
Supervolcanoes.Toba Lake,Yellowstone Caldera,Long Valley and Taupo Lake.
Published: 2011/10/04
Channel: 999yellowstone
Manifestacion en la garita
Manifestacion en la garita
Published: 2010/06/14
Channel: Carlos Vladimir
Rio Grande and volcanic cliffs
Rio Grande and volcanic cliffs
Published: 2015/07/12
Channel: Bryan oz4caster
La Garita Cabin Lot 234
La Garita Cabin Lot 234
Published: 2015/11/01
Channel: elkspleen
Alec departing La Garita - 8000ft strip in CO c180
Alec departing La Garita - 8000ft strip in CO c180
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: GravityKnightFlying
Restaurant and Convenience Store in La Garita CO
Restaurant and Convenience Store in La Garita CO
Published: 2014/01/15
Channel: La Garita Trading Post
Volcanolgy and the Long Valley Caldera
Volcanolgy and the Long Valley Caldera
Published: 2009/07/14
Channel: roadsideheritage
Headed home from La Garita Creek Ranch fly-in
Headed home from La Garita Creek Ranch fly-in
Published: 2016/06/05
Channel: GravityKnightFlying
Bufadero de La Garita-Cintasiva films
Bufadero de La Garita-Cintasiva films
Published: 2011/11/24
Channel: Nestor Jimenez
2014-06-15 En Lagarita
2014-06-15 En Lagarita
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: Juan Lopez
LA CALDERA.EL VOLCAN... GUALJAINA mp4
LA CALDERA.EL VOLCAN... GUALJAINA mp4
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: santiago luis correa
Yellowstone Supervolcano eruption
Yellowstone Supervolcano eruption
Published: 2012/12/05
Channel: aaalexccc
N&SNGM La Garita Hills Railroad
N&SNGM La Garita Hills Railroad
Published: 2015/10/19
Channel: Graham Watling
calle lagarita
calle lagarita
Published: 2013/07/26
Channel: Gobierno de Tamazula
Claire
Claire's Geology Brief No. 17: A Giant Volcanic Caldera
Published: 2014/05/03
Channel: WildwoodClaire1
Natural High on Natural Arch
Natural High on Natural Arch
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Uncover Colorado
Crystal11
Crystal11
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Marshall Ellgas
LaGarita 239-241
LaGarita 239-241
Published: 2012/04/04
Channel: elkspleen
Rhandor - La Garita.wmv
Rhandor - La Garita.wmv
Published: 2011/02/13
Channel: Erick van der Ende
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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La Garita Caldera
WheelerGACO.jpg
Volcanic ash formations of La Garita Caldera, looking northeast (Wheeler Geologic Monument).
Highest point
Coordinates 37°45′23″N 106°56′03″W / 37.75639°N 106.93417°W / 37.75639; -106.93417Coordinates: 37°45′23″N 106°56′03″W / 37.75639°N 106.93417°W / 37.75639; -106.93417
Geography
La Garita Caldera is located in Colorado
La Garita Caldera
La Garita Caldera
Location of La Garita Caldera within Colorado
Location Mineral County, Colorado, US, near Creede
Parent range San Juan Mountains
Geology
Mountain type Caldera
Last eruption 26.3 Ma (Fish Canyon Tuff 27.8 Ma)

La Garita Caldera is a large volcanic caldera in the San Juan volcanic field in the San Juan Mountains near the town of Creede in southwestern Colorado, United States.[1] It is west of La Garita, Colorado. The eruption that created the La Garita Caldera is among the largest known volcanic eruptions in Earth's history.[2][3]

Date[edit]

The La Garita Caldera is one of a number of calderas that formed during a massive ignimbrite flare-up in Colorado, Utah and Nevada from 40–18 million years ago, and was the site of massive eruptions about 28.01±0.04 million years ago, during the Oligocene Epoch.[4]

Area devastated[edit]

The area devastated by the La Garita eruption is thought to have covered a significant portion of what is now Colorado. The deposit, known as the Fish Canyon Tuff, covered at least 30,000 km2 (11,000 miles2). Its average thickness is 100 m. The eruption might have formed a large-area ash-fall, but none has yet been identified.[5]

Size of eruption[edit]

The scale of La Garita volcanism was the second greatest of the Cenozoic Era. The resulting Fish Canyon Tuff has a volume of approximately 1,200 cubic miles (5,000 km3), rating it an 8 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. This is enough material to fill Lake Michigan. By comparison, the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mt. St. Helens was 0.25 cubic miles (1.0 km3) in volume.[6]

By contrast, the most powerful human-made explosive device ever detonated, the Tsar Bomba, had a yield of 50 megatons, whereas the eruption at La Garita was about 5,000 times more energetic. However, because Tsar Bomba's reaction was complete within microseconds,[citation needed] while a volcanic explosion can take seconds or minutes, the power of the events are comparable if measured within the respective bounded timeframes. It is the most energetic event to have taken place on Earth since the Chicxulub impact which, at 240 teratons,[7] was approximately one thousand times more powerful than La Garita.

Geology[edit]

The Fish Canyon Tuff, made of dacite, is uniform in its petrological composition and forms a single cooling unit despite the huge volume. Dacite is a silicic volcanic rock common in explosive eruptions, lava domes and short thick lava flows. There are also large intracaldera lavas composed of andesite, a volcanic rock compositionally intermediate between basalt (poor in silica content) and dacite (higher silica content) in the La Garita Caldera.

The caldera itself, like the eruption of Fish Canyon Tuff, is quite large in scale. It is 35 by 75 kilometers (22 by 47 mi) and oblong in shape. Most supervolcano calderas of explosive origin are slightly ovoid or oblong in shape. Because of the vast scale and erosion, it took scientists over 30 years to fully determine the size of the caldera. La Garita is considered an extinct volcano.

La Garita is also the source of at least 7 major eruptions of welded tuff deposits over a span of 1.5 million years since the Fish Canyon Tuff eruption. The caldera is also known to have extensive outcrops of a very unusual lava-like rock unit, called the Pagosa Peak Dacite, made of dacite that is very similar to that of the Fish Canyon Tuff. The Pagosa Peak Dacite, which has characteristics of both lava and welded tuff, was erupted probably shortly before the Fish Canyon Tuff. The Pagosa Peak Dacite has been interpreted as having erupted as thick spatter during low-energy lava fountaining and has a volume of about 200–300 cubic kilometers (48–72 cu mi). These rocks had been identified as lava because the unit has a high aspect ratio (1:50) and very high viscosity of the crystal-rich magma similar to those of flow-layered silicic lava. However, the Pagosa Peak Dacite formed by low-column pyroclastic fountaining and lateral transport as dense, poorly-inflated pyroclastic flows.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steven, Thomas A.; Lipman, Peter W. (1976). "Calderas of the San Juan Volcanic Field, Southwestern Colorado". U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 958: 1–35. Retrieved 2012-05-16. 
  2. ^ "What's the Biggest Volcanic Eruption Ever?". livescience.com. November 10, 2010. Retrieved 2014-02-01. 
  3. ^ Best, MG (2013). "The 36–18 Ma Indian Peak–Caliente ignimbrite field and calderas, southeastern Great Basin, USA: Multicyclic super-eruptions". Geosphere. doi:10.1130/GES00902.1. 
  4. ^ Phillips, D (2013). "Ultra-high precision 40Ar/39Ar ages for Fish Canyon Tuff and Alder Creek Rhyolite sanidine: New dating standards required?". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2013.07.003. 
  5. ^ Lipman3, PW (2000). "Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework". Geological Society of America Special Papers. doi:10.1130/0-8137-2346-9.9. 
  6. ^ Mason, et al.
  7. ^ Hildebrand; et al. (1998). "Mapping Chicxulub crater structure with gravity and seismic reflection data". The Geological Society. 
  8. ^ Bachmann, O.; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W. (May 2000). "Voluminous lava-like precursor to a major ash-flow tuff: low-column pyroclastic eruption of the Pagosa Peak Dacite, San Juan volcanic field, Colorado". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 98 (1–4): 153–171. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00185-7. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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