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Louie Giglio talks about Laminin (short)
Louie Giglio talks about Laminin (short)
Published: 2013/07/17
Channel: airenaishen
Louie Giglio Talks about Laminin
Louie Giglio Talks about Laminin
Published: 2012/09/01
Channel: candidickerson
How Great is Our God   Laminin   Louie Giglio Full Movie
How Great is Our God Laminin Louie Giglio Full Movie
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: carole777
Laminin debunked
Laminin debunked
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: Daniel Merrick
The Beauty Of Laminin
The Beauty Of Laminin
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Katarzyna Klosowska
laminin!!
laminin!!
Published: 2010/02/17
Channel: Nicole Visser
Louie Giglio - Laminin (short version) - YouTube.flv
Louie Giglio - Laminin (short version) - YouTube.flv
Published: 2012/03/20
Channel: George Fieldhouse
Introduction to Laminins
Introduction to Laminins
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: Kevin Hamill
Laminin Is Proof Of God!? (Reaction) 😂
Laminin Is Proof Of God!? (Reaction) 😂
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: Ex-Pastor Kevin Wesley
LAMININ- THE GLUE THAT HOLDS MAN TOGETHER- the bible connection
LAMININ- THE GLUE THAT HOLDS MAN TOGETHER- the bible connection
Published: 2013/05/20
Channel: bloodhive
Laminin Truth... It
Laminin Truth... It's not a message from god or anyone else
Published: 2010/04/04
Channel: Jim W.
How Great is Our God   Laminin   Louie Giglio Full Movie
How Great is Our God Laminin Louie Giglio Full Movie
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: maranatharoric
How I learned to love laminin
How I learned to love laminin
Published: 2011/04/13
Channel: Imperial College London
God Is in Everything, Even Molecule That Holds Us Together.
God Is in Everything, Even Molecule That Holds Us Together.
Published: 2011/10/06
Channel: LISA CHRISTIANSEN
Laminin
Laminin
Published: 2008/10/06
Channel: Nicole Visser
Laminin Molecule Shaped Like Cross   Louie Giglio
Laminin Molecule Shaped Like Cross Louie Giglio
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: David Dolores
The Story of Laminin   (MM79)
The Story of Laminin (MM79)
Published: 2008/06/30
Channel: mondayminute
Laminins create a biorelevant cell niche that enable perfect cell culture conditions in vitro
Laminins create a biorelevant cell niche that enable perfect cell culture conditions in vitro
Published: 2012/03/07
Channel: BioLamina
Laminin ~ Cross-shaped "Glue" that holds us together.
Laminin ~ Cross-shaped "Glue" that holds us together.
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Sam Hancock
Louie Giglio | Amazing Revelation About the Molecule "Laminin"
Louie Giglio | Amazing Revelation About the Molecule "Laminin"
Published: 2015/12/15
Channel: Trinity Broadcasting Network
laminin - the glue of GOD
laminin - the glue of GOD
Published: 2011/01/21
Channel: whosperfect78
Xavier Omar - Laminin
Xavier Omar - Laminin'
Published: 2013/01/01
Channel: meek michelle
A laminin molekula
A laminin molekula
Published: 2016/09/30
Channel: Info M
Laminin and Cross explained - Response to Louie Giglio
Laminin and Cross explained - Response to Louie Giglio
Published: 2009/04/12
Channel: yohanmam
Louie Giglio - Laminin
Louie Giglio - Laminin
Published: 2008/05/17
Channel: cesporlas
LifeworX Laminin Introduction Video
LifeworX Laminin Introduction Video
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: Anita Giovannoni
An Introduction to Laminins (animated movie)
An Introduction to Laminins (animated movie)
Published: 2012/03/05
Channel: Juan Fernando Maguid
Giants Nephilin & Laminin
Giants Nephilin & Laminin
Published: 2010/09/02
Channel: D7M7G7ful
Laminin
Laminin
Published: 2009/12/25
Channel: shaithinshoe
Laminin the Movie (Part 1)
Laminin the Movie (Part 1)
Published: 2010/12/13
Channel: arnoldasl52
SPZRKT - Laminin
SPZRKT - Laminin
Published: 2013/08/25
Channel: SPZRKTevo
Cross like Molecule HOLDS OUR BODIES TOGETHER! Evidence of God in the Human Body! LAMININ!
Cross like Molecule HOLDS OUR BODIES TOGETHER! Evidence of God in the Human Body! LAMININ!
Published: 2017/08/05
Channel: VFNtv
LAMININ - Awake and Alive (SKILLET cover on russian)
LAMININ - Awake and Alive (SKILLET cover on russian)
Published: 2014/01/19
Channel: Мехедов Андрей
Laminin by Jemima
Laminin by Jemima
Published: 2017/09/21
Channel: New Rivers Music ZW
Экстрасенсы о ламинине http://laminin-com.ru/
Экстрасенсы о ламинине http://laminin-com.ru/
Published: 2013/12/23
Channel: Вера Черных
Laminin-111 Treated dyW Mouse Model of MDC1A
Laminin-111 Treated dyW Mouse Model of MDC1A
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Brad Hodges
Laminin
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Published: 2008/11/03
Channel: vinodmania
SPZRKT - Laminin
SPZRKT - Laminin
Published: 2013/03/21
Channel: Sammie Ely
laminin
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Published: 2008/07/18
Channel: gwd1258
Louie Giglio  -Laminin Célula-  Subtitulos en Español
Louie Giglio -Laminin Célula- Subtitulos en Español
Published: 2014/01/21
Channel: Antho Russo
THE PROOF PART 3 (LAMININ & 2 BODY
THE PROOF PART 3 (LAMININ & 2 BODY'S OF WATER)
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: #THE PROOF# 100%
Bubbles present: "Laminin, an Important Protein that Looks Like a Cross-Truth!" : )
Bubbles present: "Laminin, an Important Protein that Looks Like a Cross-Truth!" : )
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Bubbles B62
Laminin is the cross of Christ?
Laminin is the cross of Christ?
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Adjoa Tettey
[Original] "Laminin"
[Original] "Laminin"
Published: 2010/08/05
Channel: kmao2007
Laminin Cross shaped protein ╰⊰¸¸.•¨* ORTHODOX HEART
Laminin Cross shaped protein ╰⊰¸¸.•¨* ORTHODOX HEART
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: Abel-Tasos Gkiouzelis - Smile in your heart
LAMININ - Awake and Alive (SKILLET cover on russian)
LAMININ - Awake and Alive (SKILLET cover on russian)
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: Мехедов Андрей
Laminin by Missy Robertson
Laminin by Missy Robertson
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: Laminin by Missy Robertson
Laminin: Proof God Exists ...and He
Laminin: Proof God Exists ...and He's a Christian!
Published: 2010/11/02
Channel: Discovering Religion
God
God's Glue - Laminin
Published: 2011/10/23
Channel: dersfam1
Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ's Cross and Science Relativity and the History of Laminin Discovery
Published: 2012/08/11
Channel: Laminin layfarm
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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An Illustration of the Laminin-111 complex depicting the domain organization

Laminins are high-molecular weight (~400 to ~900 kDa) proteins of the extracellular matrix. They are a major component of the basal lamina (one of the layers of the basement membrane), a protein network foundation for most cells and organs. The laminins are an important and biologically active part of the basal lamina, influencing cell differentiation, migration, and adhesion.[1][2]

Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that contain an α-chain, a β-chain, and a γ-chain, found in five, four, and three genetic variants, respectively. The laminin molecules are named according to their chain composition. Thus, laminin-511 contains α5, β1, and γ1 chains.[3] Fourteen other chain combinations have been identified in vivo. The trimeric proteins intersect to form a cross-like structure that can bind to other cell membrane and extracellular matrix molecules.[4] The three shorter arms are particularly good at binding to other laminin molecules, which allows them to form sheets. The long arm is capable of binding to cells, which helps anchor organized tissue cells to the membrane.

The laminin family of glycoproteins are an integral part of the structural scaffolding in almost every tissue of an organism. They are secreted and incorporated into cell-associated extracellular matrices. Laminin is vital for the maintenance and survival of tissues. Defective laminins can cause muscles to form improperly, leading to a form of muscular dystrophy, lethal skin blistering disease (junctional epidermolysis bullosa) and defects of the kidney filter (nephrotic syndrome).[5]

Types[edit]

Fifteen laminin trimers have been identified. The laminins are combinations of different alpha-, beta-, and gamma-chains.[6]

Laminins were previously numbered as they were discovered, i.e. laminin-1, laminin-2, laminin-3, etc., but the nomenclature was changed to describe which chains are present in each isoform (laminin-111, laminin-211, etc.).[3] In addition, many laminins had common names before either laminin nomenclature was in place.[7][8]

Old nomenclature Old synonyms Chain composition New nomenclature
Laminin-1 EHS laminin α1β1γ1 Laminin-111
Laminin-2 Merosin α2β1γ1 Laminin-211
Laminin-3 S-laminin α1β2γ1 Laminin-121
Laminin-4 S-merosin α2β2γ1 Laminin-221
Laminin-5 / Laminin-5A Kalinin, epiligrin, nicein, ladsin α3Aβ3γ2 Laminin-332 / Laminin-3A32
Laminin-5B α3Bβ3γ2 Laminin-3B32
Laminin-6 / Laminin-6A K-laminin α3Aβ1γ1 Laminin-311 / Laminin-3A11
Laminin-7 / Laminin-7A KS-laminin α3Aβ2γ1 Laminin-321 / Laminin-3A21
Laminin-8 α4β1γ1 Laminin-411
Laminin-9 α4β2γ1 Laminin-421
Laminin-10 Drosophila-like laminin α5β1γ1 Laminin-511
Laminin-11 α5β2γ1 Laminin-521
Laminin-12 α2β1γ3 Laminin-213
Laminin-14 α4β2γ3 Laminin-423
α5β2γ2 Laminin-522
Laminin-15 α5β2γ3 Laminin-523

Function[edit]

Laminins form independent networks and are associated with type IV collagen networks via entactin,[9] fibronectin,[10] and perlecan. They also bind to cell membranes through integrin receptors and other plasma membrane molecules, such as the dystroglycan glycoprotein complex and Lutheran blood group glycoprotein.[4] Through these interactions, laminins critically contribute to cell attachment and differentiation, cell shape and movement, maintenance of tissue phenotype, and promotion of tissue survival.[4][6] Some of these biological functions of laminin have been associated with specific amino-acid sequences or fragments of laminin.[4] For example, the peptide sequence [GTFALRGDNGDNGQ], which is located on the alpha-chain of laminin, promotes adhesion of endothelial cells.[11]

Laminin alpha4 is distributed in a variety of tissues including peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglion, skeletal muscle and capillaries; in the neuromuscular junction, it is required for synaptic specialisation.[12] The structure of the laminin-G domain has been predicted to resemble that of pentraxin.[13]

Role in neural development[edit]

Laminin-111 is a major substrate along which nerve axons will grow, both in vivo and in vitro. For example, it lays down a path that developing retinal ganglion cells follow on their way from the retina to the tectum. It is also often used as a substrate in cell culture experiments. Interestingly, the presence of laminin-1 can influence how the growth cone responds to other cues. For example, growth cones are repelled by netrin when grown on laminin-111, but are attracted to netrin when grown on fibronectin.[citation needed] This effect of laminin-111 probably occurs through a lowering of intracellular cyclic AMP.[citation needed]

Pathology[edit]

Dysfunctional structure of one particular laminin, laminin-211, is the cause of one form of congenital muscular dystrophy.[14] Laminin-211 is composed of an α2, a β1 and a γ1 chains. This laminin's distribution includes the brain and muscle fibers. In muscle, it binds to alpha dystroglycan and integrin alpha7beta1 via the G domain, and via the other end binds to the extracellular matrix.

Abnormal laminin-332, which is essential for epithelial cell adhesion to the basement membrane, leads to a condition called junctional epidermolysis bullosa, characterized by generalized blisters, exuberant granulation tissue of skin and mucosa, and pitted teeth.

Malfunctional laminin-521 in the kidney filter causes leakage of protein into the urine and nephrotic syndrome.[5]

Role in cancer[edit]

Some of the laminin isoforms have been implicated in cancer pathophysiology. The majority of transcripts that harbor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) are involved in cancer development via corresponding proteins. A crucial event in tumor progression referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. The translational activation of the extracellular matrix component laminin B1 (LAMB1) during EMT has been recently reported suggesting an IRES-mediated mechanism. In this study, the IRES activity of LamB1 was determined by independent bicistronic reporter assays. Strong evidences exclude an impact of cryptic promoter or splice sites on IRES-driven translation of LamB1. Furthermore, no other LamB1 mRNA species arising from alternative transcription start sites or polyadenylation signals were detected that account for its translational control. Mapping of the LamB1 5'-untranslated region (UTR) revealed the minimal LamB1 IRES motif between -293 and -1 upstream of the start codon. Notably, RNA affinity purification showed that the La protein interacts with the LamB1 IRES. This interaction and its regulation during EMT were confirmed by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation. In addition, La was able to positively modulate LamB1 IRES translation. In summary, these data indicate that the LamB1 IRES is activated by binding to La which leads to translational upregulation during hepatocellular EMT.[15]

Use in cell culture[edit]

Together with other major components of the ECM, such as collagens and fibronectin, laminins have been used to enhance mammalian cell culture, especially in the case of pluripotent stem cells, as well as some primary cell cultures, which can difficult to propagate on other substrates. Two types of naturally-sourced laminins are commercially available. Laminin-111 extracted from mouse sarcomas is one popular laminin type, as well as laminin mixtures from human placenta, which may primarily correspond to laminin-211, 411 or 511, depending on the provider.[16] The various laminin isoforms are practically impossible to isolate from tissues in pure form due to extensive cross-linking and the need for harsh extraction conditions, such as proteolytic enzymes or low pH, that cause degradation. Therefore, recombinant laminins have been produced since the year 2000.[17] This made it possible to test if laminins could have a significant role in vitro as they have in the human body. In 2008, two groups independently showed that mouse embryonic stem cells can be grown for months on top of recombinant laminin-511.[18][19] Later, Rodin et al. showed that recombinant laminin-511 can be used to create a totally xeno-free and defined cell culture environment to culture human pluripotent ES cells and human iPS cells.[20]

Laminin domains[edit]

Laminin Domain I
Identifiers
Symbol Laminin_I
Pfam PF06008
InterPro IPR009254
Laminin Domain II
Identifiers
Symbol Laminin_II
Pfam PF06009
InterPro IPR010307
Laminin B (Domain IV)
Identifiers
Symbol Laminin_B
Pfam PF00052
InterPro IPR000034
Laminin EGF-like (Domains III and V)
PDB 1klo EBI.jpg
crystal structure of three consecutive laminin-type epidermal growth factor-like (le) modules of laminin gamma1 chain harboring the nidogen binding site
Identifiers
Symbol Laminin_EGF
Pfam PF00053
Pfam clan CL0001
InterPro IPR002049
PROSITE PDOC00021
SCOP 1tle
SUPERFAMILY 1tle
Laminin G domain
PDB 1okq EBI.jpg
laminin alpha 2 chain lg4-5 domain pair, ca1 site mutant
Identifiers
Symbol Laminin_G_1
Pfam PF00054
Pfam clan CL0004
InterPro IPR012679
SCOP 1qu0
SUPERFAMILY 1qu0
Laminin G domain
PDB 1c4r EBI.jpg
the structure of the ligand-binding domain of neurexin 1beta: regulation of lns domain function by alternative splicing
Identifiers
Symbol Laminin_G_2
Pfam PF02210
Pfam clan CL0004
InterPro IPR012680
SMART TSPN
Laminin N-terminal (Domain VI)
Identifiers
Symbol Laminin_N
Pfam PF00055
Pfam clan CL0202
InterPro IPR008211
SMART LamNT
SCOP 1klo
SUPERFAMILY 1klo

Laminins contain several conserved protein domains.

Laminin I and Laminin II[edit]

Laminins are trimeric molecules; laminin-1 is an alpha1 beta1 gamma1 trimer. It has been suggested that the domains I and II from laminin A, B1 and B2 may come together to form a triple helical coiled-coil structure.[21]

Laminin B[edit]

The laminin B domain (also known as domain IV) is an extracellular module of unknown function. It is found in a number of different proteins that include, heparan sulphate proteoglycan from basement membrane, a laminin-like protein from Caenorhabditis elegans and laminin. Laminin IV domain is not found in short laminin chains (alpha4 or beta3).

Laminin EGF-like[edit]

Beside different types of globular domains each laminin subunit contains, in its first half, consecutive repeats of about 60 amino acids in length that include eight conserved cysteines.[22] The tertiary structure of this domain is remotely similar in its N-terminus to that of the EGF-like module.[23][24] It is also known as a 'LE' or 'laminin-type EGF-like' domain. The number of copies of the laminin EGF-like domain in the different forms of laminins is highly variable; from 3 up to 22 copies have been found. In mouse laminin gamma-1 chain, the seventh LE domain has been shown to be the only one that binds with a high affinity to nidogen.[25] The binding-sites are located on the surface within the loops C1-C3 and C5-C6.[23][24] Long consecutive arrays of laminin EGF-like domains in laminins form rod-like elements of limited flexibility, which determine the spacing in the formation of laminin networks of basement membranes.[26][27]

Laminin G[edit]

The laminin globular (G) domain, also known as the LNS (Laminin-alpha, Neurexin and Sex hormone-binding globulin) domain, is on average 177 amino acids in length and can be found in one to six copies in various laminin family members as well as in a large number of other extracellular proteins.[28] For example, all laminin alpha-chains have five laminin G domains, all collagen family proteins have one laminin G domain, the CNTNAP proteins have four laminin G domains, while neurexin 1 and 2 each hold six laminin G domains. On average, approximately one quarter of the proteins that hold laminin G domains is taken up by these laminin G domains themselves. The smallest laminin G domain can be found in one of the collagen proteins (COL24A1; 77 AA) and the largest domain in TSPEAR (219 AA).

The exact function of the Laminin G domains has remained elusive, and a variety of binding functions has been ascribed to different Laminin G modules. For example, the laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains each have five C-terminal laminin G domains, where only domains LG4 and LG5 contain binding sites for heparin, sulphatides and the cell surface receptor dystroglycan.[29] Laminin G-containing proteins appear to have a wide variety of roles in cell adhesion, signalling, migration, assembly and differentiation.

Laminin N-terminal[edit]

Basement membrane assembly is a cooperative process in which laminins polymerise through their N-terminal domain (LN or domain VI) and anchor to the cell surface through their G domains. Netrins may also associate with this network through heterotypic LN domain interactions.[27] This leads to cell signalling through integrins and dystroglycan (and possibly other receptors) recruited to the adherent laminin. This LN domain-dependent self-assembly is considered to be crucial for the integrity of basement membranes, as highlighted by genetic forms of muscular dystrophy containing the deletion of the LN module from the alpha 2 laminin chain.[30] The laminin N-terminal domain is found in all laminin and netrin subunits except laminin alpha 3A, alpha 4 and gamma 2.

Human proteins containing laminin domains[edit]

Laminin Domain I[edit]

LAMA1; LAMA2; LAMA3; LAMA4; LAMA5;

Laminin Domain II[edit]

LAMA1; LAMA2; LAMA3; LAMA4; LAMA5;

Laminin B (Domain IV)[edit]

HSPG2; LAMA1; LAMA2; LAMA3; LAMA5; LAMC1; LAMC2; LAMC3;

Laminin EGF-like (Domains III and V)[edit]

AGRIN; ATRN; ATRNL1; CELSR1; CELSR2; CELSR3; CRELD1; HSPG2; LAMA1; LAMA2; LAMA3; LAMA4; LAMA5; LAMB1; LAMB2; LAMB3; LAMB4; LAMC1; LAMC2; LAMC3; MEGF10; MEGF12; MEGF6; MEGF8; MEGF9; NSR1; NTN1; NTN2L; NTN4; NTNG1; NTNG2; RESDA1; SCARF1; SCARF2; SREC; STAB1; USH2A;

Laminin G domain[edit]

AGRIN; CELSR1; CELSR2; CELSR3; CNTNAP1; CNTNAP2; CNTNAP3; CNTNAP3B; CNTNAP4; CNTNAP5; COL11A1; COL11A2; COL12A1; COL14A1; COL15A1; COL16A1; COL18A1; COL19A1; COL20A1; COL21A1; COL22A1; COL24A1; COL27A1; COL5A1; COL5A3; COL9A1; CRB1; CRB2; CSPG4; EGFLAM; EYS; FAT; FAT2; FAT3; FAT4; GAS6; HSPG2; LAMA1; LAMA2; LAMA3; LAMA4; LAMA5; NELL1; NELL2; NRXN1; NRXN2; NRXN3; PROS1; SLIT1; SLIT2; SLIT3; SPEAR; THBS1; THBS2; THBS3; THBS4; USH2A;

Laminin N-terminal (Domain VI)[edit]

LAMA1; LAMA2; LAMA3; LAMA5; LAMB1; LAMB2; LAMB3; LAMB4; LAMC1; LAMC3; NTN1; NTN2L; NTN4; NTNG1; NTNG2; USH2A;

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Timpl R, Rohde H, Robey PG, Rennard SI, Foidart JM, Martin GR (October 1979). "Laminin--a glycoprotein from basement membranes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (19): 9933–7. PMID 114518. 
  2. ^ DOI 10.1007/s00441-009-0838-2
  3. ^ a b Aumailley M, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Carter WG, Deutzmann R, Edgar D, Ekblom P, Engel J, Engvall E, Hohenester E, Jones JC, Kleinman HK, Marinkovich MP, Martin GR, Mayer U, Meneguzzi G, Miner JH, Miyazaki K, Patarroyo M, Paulsson M, Quaranta V, Sanes JR, Sasaki T, Sekiguchi K, Sorokin LM, Talts JF, Tryggvason K, Uitto J, Virtanen I, von der Mark K, Wewer UM, Yamada Y, Yurchenco PD (August 2005). "A simplified laminin nomenclature". Matrix Biology. 24 (5): 326–32. doi:10.1016/j.matbio.2005.05.006. PMID 15979864. 
  4. ^ a b c d M. A. Haralson; John R. Hassell (1995). Extracellular matrix: a practical approach. Ithaca, N.Y: IRL Press. ISBN 0-19-963220-0. 
  5. ^ a b Yurchenco PD, Patton BL (2009). "Developmental and pathogenic mechanisms of basement membrane assembly". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 15 (12): 1277–94. doi:10.2174/138161209787846766. PMC 2978668Freely accessible. PMID 19355968. 
  6. ^ a b Colognato H, Yurchenco PD (June 2000). "Form and function: the laminin family of heterotrimers". Developmental Dynamics. 218 (2): 213–34. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200006)218:2<213::AID-DVDY1>3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 10842354. 
  7. ^ Royce, Peter M., ed. (2002). Connective tissue and its heritable disorders: molecular, genetic, and medical aspects (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley-Liss. p. 306. ISBN 9780471251859. 
  8. ^ Kühn, Klaus (1997). "Extracellular matrix constituents as integrin ligands". In Elbe, Johannes A. Integrin-ligand interaction. New York: Chapman & Hall. p. 50. ISBN 9780412138614. 
  9. ^ Smith J, Ockleford CD (January 1994). "Laser scanning confocal examination and comparison of nidogen (entactin) with laminin in term human amniochorion". Placenta. 15 (1): 95–106. doi:10.1016/S0143-4004(05)80240-1. PMID 8208674. 
  10. ^ Ockleford C, Bright N, Hubbard A, D'Lacey C, Smith J, Gardiner L, Sheikh T, Albentosa M, Turtle K (October 1993). "Micro-trabeculae, macro-plaques or mini-basement membranes in human term fetal membranes?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 342 (1300): 121–36. doi:10.1098/rstb.1993.0142. 
  11. ^ Beck et al., 1999.[specify]
  12. ^ Ichikawa N, Kasai S, Suzuki N, Nishi N, Oishi S, Fujii N, Kadoya Y, Hatori K, Mizuno Y, Nomizu M, Arikawa-Hirasawa E (April 2005). "Identification of neurite outgrowth active sites on the laminin alpha4 chain G domain". Biochemistry. 44 (15): 5755–62. doi:10.1021/bi0476228. PMID 15823034. 
  13. ^ Beckmann G, Hanke J, Bork P, Reich JG (February 1998). "Merging extracellular domains: fold prediction for laminin G-like and amino-terminal thrombospondin-like modules based on homology to pentraxins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 275 (5): 725–30. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1997.1510. PMID 9480764. 
  14. ^ Hall TE, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Berger S, Jacoby AS, Cole NJ, Hollway GE, Berger J, Currie PD (April 2007). "The zebrafish candyfloss mutant implicates extracellular matrix adhesion failure in laminin alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (17): 7092–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700942104. PMC 1855385Freely accessible. PMID 17438294. 
  15. ^ Petz M, Them N, Huber H, Beug H, Mikulits W (January 2012). "La enhances IRES-mediated translation of laminin B1 during malignant epithelial to mesenchymal transition". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (1): 290–302. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr717. PMC 3245933Freely accessible. PMID 21896617. 
  16. ^ Wondimu Z, Gorfu G, Kawataki T, Smirnov S, Yurchenco P, Tryggvason K, Patarroyo M (March 2006). "Characterization of commercial laminin preparations from human placenta in comparison to recombinant laminins 2 (alpha2beta1gamma1), 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1)". Matrix Biology. 25 (2): 89–93. doi:10.1016/j.matbio.2005.10.001. PMID 16289578. 
  17. ^ Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Yurchenco, Peter; Tryggvason, Karl (19 May 2000). "Recombinant Laminin-8 (α4β1γ1)". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (20): 14853–14859. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.20.14853. 
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  19. ^ Miyazaki T, Futaki S, Hasegawa K, Kawasaki M, Sanzen N, Hayashi M, Kawase E, Sekiguchi K, Nakatsuji N, Suemori H (October 2008). "Recombinant human laminin isoforms can support the undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 375 (1): 27–32. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.07.111. PMID 18675790. 
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