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Rockies Thrust Up | National Geographic
Rockies Thrust Up | National Geographic
Published: 2008/02/07
Channel: National Geographic
Laramide orogeny
Laramide orogeny
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: WikiWikiup
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Laramide Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Laramide Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
Laramie Orogeny by Dr. Paul Heller, PhD University of Wyoming
Laramie Orogeny by Dr. Paul Heller, PhD University of Wyoming
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: Geologists of Jackson Hole
Laramide Orogeny
Laramide Orogeny
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Sara Flores
Compression during the Laramide orogeny
Compression during the Laramide orogeny
Published: 2014/08/05
Channel: Virtual Field Trips
Rocky Mountain Formation by Eric Erslev, UW/CSU
Rocky Mountain Formation by Eric Erslev, UW/CSU
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: Geologists of Jackson Hole
Laramide Orogeny Clarification
Laramide Orogeny Clarification
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: Matthew Clay
Importance of the Laramide uplift
Importance of the Laramide uplift
Published: 2014/09/03
Channel: Virtual Field Trips
How the Rockies were formed
How the Rockies were formed
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: Mr.Duncan's Social Studies Channel
Laramide Resources (LAM.TO) Could Be Large Australian Uranium Producer
Laramide Resources (LAM.TO) Could Be Large Australian Uranium Producer
Published: 2014/02/05
Channel: goldstocktrades
Impact of Laramide Movements on Northern Hemisphere Hydrocarbon Systems
Impact of Laramide Movements on Northern Hemisphere Hydrocarbon Systems
Published: 2012/08/02
Channel: HGSGeoEducation
Grand Canyon Formation
Grand Canyon Formation
Published: 2010/06/25
Channel: PeakPixels
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Sevier Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Sevier Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
Geology of the Northern Rockies Field Course
Geology of the Northern Rockies Field Course
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Evan Lavery
The Grenville Orogeny and rifting of Rodinia, Virginia
The Grenville Orogeny and rifting of Rodinia, Virginia
Published: 2012/05/29
Channel: Callan Bentley
Laramide unveils maiden uranium resource at church rock
Laramide unveils maiden uranium resource at church rock
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: South Africa News
Versus The Collective -- Laramide Orogeny
Versus The Collective -- Laramide Orogeny
Published: 2011/06/15
Channel: HeavyMetalRhino
The Rocky Mountain
The Rocky Mountain
Published: 2014/12/08
Channel: Brian C
Earth.Parts #20 - Continental collisions & mountain-building by orogeny
Earth.Parts #20 - Continental collisions & mountain-building by orogeny
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: Earth.Parts
Colorado Laramide Highlands at 57 million years
Colorado Laramide Highlands at 57 million years
Published: 2012/11/29
Channel: igpcolorado
Flatirons of Boulder Colorado
Flatirons of Boulder Colorado
Published: 2012/09/19
Channel: AirRaid Aerials
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Nevadan Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Nevadan Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
Plate Tectonics 300 Ma to Today by CR Scotese
Plate Tectonics 300 Ma to Today by CR Scotese
Published: 2017/11/07
Channel: Christopher Scotese
How to Pronounce laramide - American English
How to Pronounce laramide - American English
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: HowToPronounce20
Bearthooth Highway - Wyoming
Bearthooth Highway - Wyoming's Cultural Geology Guide
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Wyoming Geological Survey
What is EPEIROGENIC MOVEMENT? What does EPEIROGENIC MOVEMENT mean? EPEIROGENIC MOVEMENT meaning
What is EPEIROGENIC MOVEMENT? What does EPEIROGENIC MOVEMENT mean? EPEIROGENIC MOVEMENT meaning
Published: 2017/10/13
Channel: The Audiopedia
Historial Geology: Late Paleozoic, Acadian
Historial Geology: Late Paleozoic, Acadian
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
The Colorado Rocky Mountains with Bill Boggs
The Colorado Rocky Mountains with Bill Boggs
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: BillBoggsTV
Plate Tectonics 200Ma to Today by CR Scotese
Plate Tectonics 200Ma to Today by CR Scotese
Published: 2017/11/07
Channel: Christopher Scotese
Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: Search Engine
The Alleghanian Orogeny
The Alleghanian Orogeny
Published: 2012/06/05
Channel: Callan Bentley
On the Road again, Rocky Mountains CANADA 2016
On the Road again, Rocky Mountains CANADA 2016
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Joop Terpstra
From Denver to Aspen, Rocky Mountains, U.S. Route 6, Colorado, United States, North America
From Denver to Aspen, Rocky Mountains, U.S. Route 6, Colorado, United States, North America
Published: 2013/07/05
Channel: Pietro Pecco
How The Rocky Mountains Were Formed?
How The Rocky Mountains Were Formed?
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Reyna Sanabria
Franklin Mountain State Park
Franklin Mountain State Park
Published: 2012/11/24
Channel: trickshotcharity
Canada Rockies,Columbia Icefields,Athabasca Glacier) Part 6
Canada Rockies,Columbia Icefields,Athabasca Glacier) Part 6
Published: 2012/03/02
Channel: Nurettin Yilmaz
Josh
Josh's Rocky Outcrop
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: The Collaborative
Documental así se hizo la tierra Las Montañas Rocosas
Documental así se hizo la tierra Las Montañas Rocosas
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: Documentales HD
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Alleghanian Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Alleghanian Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
Grand Canyon_How it came to be
Grand Canyon_How it came to be
Published: 2018/01/22
Channel: The InnerPalace Mind
Big Horn Mountain Front at Crazy Woman Canyon
Big Horn Mountain Front at Crazy Woman Canyon
Published: 2015/07/27
Channel: Charles Kieser
Growth and erosion of an orogenic wedge (re-upload)
Growth and erosion of an orogenic wedge (re-upload)
Published: 2014/02/12
Channel: TheGeoModels
Bicycle on Rocky Mountain
Bicycle on Rocky Mountain
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Diana Blackfyre 2.0
Boulder Flatirons as seen from an aircraft a few thousand metres up...
Boulder Flatirons as seen from an aircraft a few thousand metres up...
Published: 2015/08/20
Channel: zeekzilch
Rocky Mountain
Rocky Mountain
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: TOUR IN THE WORLD
the Rockies - nature documentary (1976)
the Rockies - nature documentary (1976)
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: TeNNeT RD
Rayappa Kasi  Grand Canyon4, Arizona, USA, May 19, 2009
Rayappa Kasi Grand Canyon4, Arizona, USA, May 19, 2009
Published: 2017/12/18
Channel: Rayappa Kasi
Mt  Princeton (Standard Route)
Mt Princeton (Standard Route)
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Hiker14k Mountaineering
Himalayas in New York: The Grenville Orogeny
Himalayas in New York: The Grenville Orogeny
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: Gabe Gabeler
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago. The exact duration and ages of beginning and end of the orogeny are in dispute. The Laramide orogeny occurred in a series of pulses, with quiescent phases intervening. The major feature that was created by this orogeny was deep-seated, thick-skinned deformation, with evidence of this orogeny found from Canada to northern Mexico, with the easternmost extent of the mountain-building represented by the Black Hills of South Dakota. The phenomenon is named for the Laramie Mountains of eastern Wyoming. The Laramide orogeny is sometimes confused with the Sevier orogeny, which partially overlapped in time and space.[1]

The Laramide orogeny was caused by subduction of a plate at a shallow angle.

The orogeny is commonly attributed to events off the west coast of North America, where the Kula and Farallon Plates were sliding under the North American plate. Most hypotheses propose that oceanic crust was undergoing flat-slab subduction, i.e., with a shallow subduction angle, and as a consequence, no magmatism occurred in the central west of the continent, and the underlying oceanic lithosphere actually caused drag on the root of the overlying continental lithosphere. One cause for shallow subduction may have been an increased rate of plate convergence. Another proposed cause was subduction of thickened oceanic crust.

Magmatism associated with subduction occurred not near the plate edges (as in the volcanic arc of the Andes, for example), but far to the east, called the Coast Range Arc. Geologists call such a lack of volcanic activity near a subduction zone a magmatic null. This particular null may have occurred because the subducted slab was in contact with relatively cool continental lithosphere, not hotter asthenosphere.[2] One result of shallow angle of subduction and the drag that it caused was a broad belt of mountains, some of which were the progenitors of the Rocky Mountains. Part of the proto-Rocky Mountains would be later modified by extension to become the Basin and Range Province.

Ecological consequences[edit]

According to paleontologist Thomas M. Lehman, the Laramide orogeny triggered "the most dramatic event that affected Late Cretaceous dinosaur communities in North America prior to their extinction."[3] This turnover event saw the replacement of specialized and highly ornamented centrosaurine and lambeosaurines by more primitive upland dinosaurs in the south, while northern biomes became dominated by Triceratops with a greatly reduced hadrosaur community.[4]

Basins and mountains[edit]

The Laramide orogeny produced intermontane structural basins and adjacent mountain blocks by means of deformation. This style of deformation is typical of continental plates adjacent to convergent margins of long duration that have not sustained continent/continent collisions. This tectonic setting produces a pattern of compressive uplifts and basins, with most of the deformation confined to block edges. Twelve kilometers of structural relief between basins and adjacent uplifts is not uncommon. The basins contain several thousand meters of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that predate the Laramide orogeny. As much as 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments filled these orogenically-defined basins. Deformed Paleocene and Eocene deposits record continuing orogenic activity.[5]

During the Laramide orogeny, basin floors and mountain summits were much closer to sea level than today. After the seas retreated from the Rocky Mountain region, floodplains, swamps, and vast lakes developed in the basins. Drainage systems imposed at that time persist today. Since the Oligocene, episodic epeirogenic uplift gradually raised the entire region, including the Great Plains, to present elevations. Most of the modern topography is the result of Pliocene and Pleistocene events, including additional uplift, glaciation of the high country, and denudation and dissection of older Cenozoic surfaces in the basin by fluvial processes.[5]

Topographic map of the Bighorn Basin (highlighted in orange), formed by the Laramide Orogeny

In the United States, these distinctive intermontane basins occur principally in the central Rocky Mountains from Colorado and Utah (Uinta Basin) to Montana and are best developed in Wyoming, with the Big Horn, Powder River, and Wind River being the largest. Topographically, the basin floors resemble the surface of the western Great Plains, except for vistas of surrounding mountains.[5]

At most boundaries, Paleozoic through Paleogene units dip steeply into the basins off uplifted blocks cored by Precambrian rocks. The eroded steeply dipping units form hogbacks and flatirons. Many of the boundaries are thrust or reverse faults. Although other boundaries appear to be monoclinal flexures, faulting is suspected at depth. Most bounding faults show evidence of at least two episodes of Laramide (Late Cretaceous and Eocene) movement, suggesting both thrust and strike-slip types of displacement.[5]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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