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Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Laramide Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Laramide Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
Rockies Thrust Up | National Geographic
Rockies Thrust Up | National Geographic
Published: 2008/02/07
Channel: National Geographic
Laramie Orogeny by Dr. Paul Heller, PhD University of Wyoming
Laramie Orogeny by Dr. Paul Heller, PhD University of Wyoming
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: Geologists of Jackson Hole
Laramide orogeny
Laramide orogeny
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: WikiWikiup
Laramide Orogeny
Laramide Orogeny
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Sara Flores
Rocky Mountain Formation by Eric Erslev, UW/CSU
Rocky Mountain Formation by Eric Erslev, UW/CSU
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: Geologists of Jackson Hole
Compression during the Laramide orogeny
Compression during the Laramide orogeny
Published: 2014/08/05
Channel: Virtual Field Trips
Impact of Laramide Movements on Northern Hemisphere Hydrocarbon Systems
Impact of Laramide Movements on Northern Hemisphere Hydrocarbon Systems
Published: 2012/08/02
Channel: HGSGeoEducation
Laramide Orogeny Clarification
Laramide Orogeny Clarification
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: Matthew Clay
Colorado Laramide Highlands at 57 million years
Colorado Laramide Highlands at 57 million years
Published: 2012/11/29
Channel: igpcolorado
Laramide Resources (LAM.TO) Could Be Large Australian Uranium Producer
Laramide Resources (LAM.TO) Could Be Large Australian Uranium Producer
Published: 2014/02/05
Channel: goldstocktrades
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Sevier Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Sevier Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
Himalayas in New York: The Grenville Orogeny
Himalayas in New York: The Grenville Orogeny
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: Gabe Gabeler
From Denver to Aspen, Rocky Mountains, U.S. Route 6, Colorado, United States, North America
From Denver to Aspen, Rocky Mountains, U.S. Route 6, Colorado, United States, North America
Published: 2013/07/05
Channel: Pietro Pecco
The Rocky Mountain
The Rocky Mountain
Published: 2014/12/08
Channel: Brian C
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Nevadan Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Nevadan Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
Versus The Collective -- Laramide Orogeny
Versus The Collective -- Laramide Orogeny
Published: 2011/06/15
Channel: HeavyMetalRhino
Importance of the Laramide uplift
Importance of the Laramide uplift
Published: 2014/09/03
Channel: Virtual Field Trips
Bill Rehrig Preview - Discoveries 2017
Bill Rehrig Preview - Discoveries 2017
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: Mexico Mining Center
Bearthooth Highway - Wyoming
Bearthooth Highway - Wyoming's Cultural Geology Guide
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Wyoming Geological Survey
Geology of the Northern Rockies Field Course
Geology of the Northern Rockies Field Course
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Evan Lavery
Magmatism in Mexico
Magmatism in Mexico
Published: 2010/12/02
Channel: Rogelio Sosa
Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: WikiWikiup
Grand Canyon Formation
Grand Canyon Formation
Published: 2010/06/25
Channel: PeakPixels
Exploring The Colorado Rocky Mountains with Bill Boggs
Exploring The Colorado Rocky Mountains with Bill Boggs
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: BillBoggsTV
Big Horn Mountain Front at Crazy Woman Canyon
Big Horn Mountain Front at Crazy Woman Canyon
Published: 2015/07/27
Channel: Charles Kieser
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Alleghanian Orogeny
Historical Geology: Mesozoic, Alleghanian Orogeny
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: DCC - Geology Online
the Rockies - nature documentary (1976)
the Rockies - nature documentary (1976)
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: TeNNeT RD
Rocky Mountains mountains, North America  facts, information, pictures
Rocky Mountains mountains, North America facts, information, pictures
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: MyInfoline Business Pages
Dinosaur National Monument - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Dinosaur National Monument - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/06
Channel: Wiz Science™
Dinosaur paleobiogeography - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Dinosaur paleobiogeography - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Wiz Science™
[ WATCH ] Wonderfull Rocky Mountain
[ WATCH ] Wonderfull Rocky Mountain
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: Travelnews corner
Canada Rockies,Columbia Icefields,Athabasca Glacier) Part 6
Canada Rockies,Columbia Icefields,Athabasca Glacier) Part 6
Published: 2012/03/02
Channel: Nurettin Yilmaz
DriveAbout 47 - Canyonlands National Park, Utah (English)
DriveAbout 47 - Canyonlands National Park, Utah (English)
Published: 2008/08/17
Channel: GaiaGroove Italia
Flatirons of Boulder Colorado
Flatirons of Boulder Colorado
Published: 2012/09/19
Channel: AirRaid Aerials
Boulder Flatirons as seen from an aircraft a few thousand metres up...
Boulder Flatirons as seen from an aircraft a few thousand metres up...
Published: 2015/08/20
Channel: zeekzilch
Mt  Princeton (Standard Route)
Mt Princeton (Standard Route)
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Thomas Benson
Hiking Mosquito Range.
Hiking Mosquito Range.
Published: 2010/09/22
Channel: videofilmik
Rocky Mountains (Canadian Rockies) North America Canada video HD
Rocky Mountains (Canadian Rockies) North America Canada video HD
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: Anny Chang
WE SAW Mount Rushmore in South Dakota | RoadTrip Part 4 | Pet Vlog 74
WE SAW Mount Rushmore in South Dakota | RoadTrip Part 4 | Pet Vlog 74
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: Creative Pet Vlogs
Oil Fields - American Frontier (1953) American Petroleum Institute; Williston Basin, North Dakota
Oil Fields - American Frontier (1953) American Petroleum Institute; Williston Basin, North Dakota
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: Old Movies Reborn
On the Road again, Rocky Mountains CANADA 2016
On the Road again, Rocky Mountains CANADA 2016
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Joop Terpstra
MB GeoTour 10 – The Rock Shop in Souris, Manitoba
MB GeoTour 10 – The Rock Shop in Souris, Manitoba
Published: 2012/12/13
Channel: Manitoba Government
Rocky Mountain
Rocky Mountain
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: TOUR IN THE WORLD
DriveAbout 51 - Canyonlands National Park, Utah
DriveAbout 51 - Canyonlands National Park, Utah
Published: 2008/08/20
Channel: GaiaGroove Italia
DriveAbout 48 - Canyonlands National Park, Utah
DriveAbout 48 - Canyonlands National Park, Utah
Published: 2008/08/17
Channel: GaiaGroove Italia
Southwest Utah: Nature
Southwest Utah: Nature's Cameo: Bryce Canyon National Park circa 1930s Ford
Published: 2012/11/26
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Grand Staircase  Vermillion Cliffs
Grand Staircase Vermillion Cliffs
Published: 2013/10/28
Channel: TheFREDCAROLE
DriveAbout 50 - SOUND - Canyonlands National Park, Utah
DriveAbout 50 - SOUND - Canyonlands National Park, Utah
Published: 2008/08/17
Channel: GaiaGroove Italia
Scenic Drive on Rocky Mountain, CO (GoPro HERO3)
Scenic Drive on Rocky Mountain, CO (GoPro HERO3)
Published: 2014/01/11
Channel: Cristiano Rizzotto
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago. The exact duration and ages of beginning and end of the orogeny are in dispute. The Laramide orogeny occurred in a series of pulses, with quiescent phases intervening. The major feature that was created by this orogeny was deep-seated, thick-skinned deformation, with evidence of this orogeny found from Canada to northern Mexico, with the easternmost extent of the mountain-building represented by the Black Hills of South Dakota. The phenomenon is named for the Laramie Mountains of eastern Wyoming. The Laramide orogeny is sometimes confused with the Sevier orogeny, which partially overlapped it in time and space.[1]

The Laramide orogeny was caused by subduction of a plate at a shallow angle.

The orogeny is commonly attributed to events off the west coast of North America, where the Kula and Farallon Plates were sliding under the North American plate. Most hypotheses propose that oceanic crust was undergoing flat-slab subduction, i.e., with a shallow subduction angle, and as a consequence, no magmatism occurred in the central west of the continent, and the underlying oceanic lithosphere actually caused drag on the root of the overlying continental lithosphere. One cause for shallow subduction may have been an increased rate of plate convergence. Another proposed cause was subduction of thickened oceanic crust.

Magmatism associated with subduction occurred not near the plate edges (as in the volcanic arc of the Andes, for example), but far to the east, called the Coast Range Arc. Geologists call such a lack of volcanic activity near a subduction zone a magmatic null. This particular null may have occurred because the subducted slab was in contact with relatively cool continental lithosphere, not hotter asthenosphere.[2] One result of shallow angle of subduction and the drag that it caused was a broad belt of mountains, some of which were the progenitors of the Rocky Mountains. Part of the proto-Rocky Mountains would be later modified by extension to become the Basin and Range Province.

Ecological consequences[edit]

According to paleontologist Thomas M. Lehman, the Laramide orogeny triggered "the most dramatic event that affected Late Cretaceous dinosaur communities in North America prior to their extinction."[3] This turnover event saw the replacement of specialized and highly ornamented centrosaurine and lambeosaurines by more primitive upland dinosaurs in the south, while northern biomes became dominated by Triceratops with a greatly reduced hadrosaur community.[4]

Basins and mountains[edit]

The Laramide orogeny produced intermontane structural basins and adjacent mountain blocks by means of deformation. This style of deformation is typical of continental plates adjacent to convergent margins of long duration that have not sustained continent/continent collisions. This tectonic setting produces a pattern of compressive uplifts and basins, with most of the deformation confined to block edges. Twelve kilometers of structural relief between basins and adjacent uplifts is not uncommon. The basins contain several thousand meters of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that predate the Laramide orogeny. As much as 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments filled these orogenically-defined basins. Deformed Paleocene and Eocene deposits record continuing orogenic activity.[5]

During the Laramide orogeny, basin floors and mountain summits were much closer to sea level than today. After the seas retreated from the Rocky Mountain region, floodplains, swamps, and vast lakes developed in the basins. Drainage systems imposed at that time persist today. Since the Oligocene, episodic epeirogenic uplift gradually raised the entire region, including the Great Plains, to present elevations. Most of the modern topography is the result of Pliocene and Pleistocene events, including additional uplift, glaciation of the high country, and denudation and dissection of older Cenozoic surfaces in the basin by fluvial processes.[5]

Topographic map of the Bighorn Basin (highlighted in orange), formed by the Laramide Orogeny

In the United States, these distinctive intermontane basins occur principally in the central Rocky Mountains from Colorado and Utah (Uinta Basin) to Montana and are best developed in Wyoming, with the Big Horn, Powder River, and Wind River being the largest. Topographically, the basin floors resemble the surface of the western Great Plains, except for vistas of surrounding mountains.[5]

At most boundaries, Paleozoic through Paleogene units dip steeply into the basins off uplifted blocks cored by Precambrian rocks. The eroded steeply dipping units form hogbacks and flatirons. Many of the boundaries are thrust or reverse faults. Although other boundaries appear to be monoclinal flexures, faulting is suspected at depth. Most bounding faults show evidence of at least two episodes of Laramide (Late Cretaceous and Eocene) movement, suggesting both thrust and strike-slip types of displacement.[5]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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