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Western Interior Seaway
Western Interior Seaway
Published: 2016/08/31
Channel: WikiWikiup
Dinosaur Discoveries Laramidia
Dinosaur Discoveries Laramidia
Published: 2015/03/22
Channel: Michael Vespia
Dinosaurs of the Lost Continent | Dr. Scott Sampson, Paleontologist
Dinosaurs of the Lost Continent | Dr. Scott Sampson, Paleontologist
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Burke Museum
LARAMIDIA paleo talks ep.14
LARAMIDIA paleo talks ep.14
Published: 2016/05/13
Channel: paleo man
WELCOME TO LARAMEDIA
WELCOME TO LARAMEDIA
Published: 2016/01/23
Channel: Matthew Laraway
DIA DAS MAES - video homenagem Marcelo Lara Midia
DIA DAS MAES - video homenagem Marcelo Lara Midia
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
FESTA 15 ANOS - Barbara Marques - Trailer Marcelo Lara Midia
FESTA 15 ANOS - Barbara Marques - Trailer Marcelo Lara Midia
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
Dinosaur Train ~ Dinosaur Big City Part 2 #2
Dinosaur Train ~ Dinosaur Big City Part 2 #2
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: Mote Fers
National geographic - T Rex of the Deep - BBC wildlife animal documentary
National geographic - T Rex of the Deep - BBC wildlife animal documentary
Published: 2015/12/11
Channel: Nature Wildlife
SPIDERMAN VS T-REX - TYRANNOSAURUS REX VS SPIDER-MAN
SPIDERMAN VS T-REX - TYRANNOSAURUS REX VS SPIDER-MAN
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: KjraGaming
Dinosaur Train ~ Dinosaur Big City Part 1 #2
Dinosaur Train ~ Dinosaur Big City Part 1 #2
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: Mote Fers
Dinosaurs Decoded - Jack Horner Documentary
Dinosaurs Decoded - Jack Horner Documentary
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: Dinosaur Stop
Documentaries - Bigger Than T.Rex: Spinosaurus
Documentaries - Bigger Than T.Rex: Spinosaurus
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: Quoc Nguyen
Plate Tectonics in action
Plate Tectonics in action
Published: 2010/10/25
Channel: Fudd
15 Unbelievable Fossil Discoveries
15 Unbelievable Fossil Discoveries
Published: 2014/06/03
Channel: Planet Dolan
How to Pronounce Laramidia
How to Pronounce Laramidia
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
Dinosaur big city Dinosaur train season 2 song
Dinosaur big city Dinosaur train season 2 song
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Diana Sawicka
Kosmoceratops - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Kosmoceratops - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Wiz Science™
Tyrannosaurus Rex: On The Hunt - Claymation Dinosaurs
Tyrannosaurus Rex: On The Hunt - Claymation Dinosaurs
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: Creator Ben
Dinosaur with
Dinosaur with 'Bent Sword' Head Spikes Unearthed in Utah
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: 21 News
LONDON MUSIC PUB - TRAILER FESTA
LONDON MUSIC PUB - TRAILER FESTA
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
15 ANOS - Julia
15 ANOS - Julia
Published: 2017/10/01
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
Eliza  Cate
Eliza Cate's Tyrannosaurus Presentation
Published: 2014/04/24
Channel: Project 45+ (Aust)
New Years From LaramidiE
New Years From LaramidiE
Published: 2015/01/01
Channel: MidiEvilBeats
how to origami T Rex
how to origami T Rex
Published: 2017/11/12
Channel: Origami M.D.O
Tyrannosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Tyrannosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Wiz Science™
Paleo Speedsketching Test 34# Nasutoceratops
Paleo Speedsketching Test 34# Nasutoceratops
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: Joschua Knüppe
DAY OFF - DIA DE FOLGA - oque voce faz no se dia de folga?
DAY OFF - DIA DE FOLGA - oque voce faz no se dia de folga?
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
Athar Bercerita Tentang Deinosuchus
Athar Bercerita Tentang Deinosuchus
Published: 2018/01/10
Channel: Athar Malik
FESTA ANIVERSARIO HEITOR 2 ANOS
FESTA ANIVERSARIO HEITOR 2 ANOS
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
EP 31 : Công viên Khủng Long - Tyrannosaurus - T-Rex : Khủng Long Bạo Chúa
EP 31 : Công viên Khủng Long - Tyrannosaurus - T-Rex : Khủng Long Bạo Chúa
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: THÀNH PM
National geographic - T Rex of the Deep - BBC wildlife animal documentary
National geographic - T Rex of the Deep - BBC wildlife animal documentary
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Willow Mcneilly
TEASER 15 ANOS JULIA BARCELOS
TEASER 15 ANOS JULIA BARCELOS
Published: 2018/01/07
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
Top 10 Classic And Oldest Dinosaur Species
Top 10 Classic And Oldest Dinosaur Species
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: Animal Breeds
lasiodora parahybana eats gromphadorhina portentosa
lasiodora parahybana eats gromphadorhina portentosa
Published: 2014/01/18
Channel: Забашта Иван
Who
Who's the alpha?
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: Family FUnny
TEASER LAUREN 15 ANOS
TEASER LAUREN 15 ANOS
Published: 2018/01/07
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
Jurassic Park 3 Tyrannosaurus Rex vs Spinosaurus Aegypticus (Ultimate RE-SOUND/Re-Scored)
Jurassic Park 3 Tyrannosaurus Rex vs Spinosaurus Aegypticus (Ultimate RE-SOUND/Re-Scored)
Published: 2018/01/15
Channel: JurassicTyrantLizardFilms [Dino Fight Scenes]
15 ANOS - Teaser da festa de 15 anos Andrielly
15 ANOS - Teaser da festa de 15 anos Andrielly
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
Lythronax: Dinosaur of the Day
Lythronax: Dinosaur of the Day
Published: 2016/05/17
Channel: I Know Dino
Videobook Julia 15th
Videobook Julia 15th
Published: 2018/01/05
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
T-Rex Fossil
T-Rex Fossil
Published: 2013/08/31
Channel: Jurassic56
New
New 'King of Gore' Dinosaur Reveals T.Rex Lineage
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: 21 News
RUSSIA WARNS? WHY DO THEY CARE? ITS COM
RUSSIA WARNS? WHY DO THEY CARE? ITS COM'N FROM BENEATH AMERICA!
Published: 2017/09/26
Channel: WheepingWillow2
ANIVERSRIO - 1 aninho da Beatriz
ANIVERSRIO - 1 aninho da Beatriz
Published: 2017/09/30
Channel: Marcelo Lara Midia
Tirex
Tirex
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: Jean-Michel Raynal
VT CIC Blumenau dias das Crianças 2009
VT CIC Blumenau dias das Crianças 2009
Published: 2009/12/22
Channel: Semper Creative
2 Dome Headed Dinosaurs the Size of German Shepherds Discovered
2 Dome Headed Dinosaurs the Size of German Shepherds Discovered
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: 21 News
Tyrannosaurus (T-rex) - Khủng long bạo chúa
Tyrannosaurus (T-rex) - Khủng long bạo chúa
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: BABY WORLD
My 2nd Tyrannosaurus-Rex Tribute
My 2nd Tyrannosaurus-Rex Tribute
Published: 2013/08/14
Channel: zygarde legendary
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Laramidia, circa 100 MYA

Laramidia was an island continent that existed during the Late Cretaceous period (99.6–66 Ma), when the Western Interior Seaway split the continent of North America in two. In the Mesozoic era, Laramidia was an island land mass separated from Appalachia to the east by the Western Interior Seaway. The seaway eventually shrank, split across the Dakotas, and retreated towards the Gulf of Mexico and the Hudson Bay. The masses joined to unite the North American continent.

The name was coined by J. David Archibald in 1996.[1][2]

Geography[edit]

Laramidia stretches from modern-day Alaska to Mexico.[3] The area is rich in dinosaur fossils. Tyrannosaurs, dromaeosaurids, troodontids, hadrosaurs, ceratopsians (including Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops[4]), pachycephalosaurs, and titanosaur sauropods are some of the dinosaur groups that lived on this landmass.

Range[edit]

Vertebrate fossils have been found in the region from Alaska to Coahuila.[4][5][6][7]

Fauna[edit]

From the Turonian age of the Late Cretaceous to the very beginning of the Paleocene, Laramidia was separated from Appalachia to the east. As a result, the fauna evolved differently on each land mass over that time. Geological conditions were generally favorable for the preservation of fossils in Laramidia, making the western United States one of the most productive fossil regions in the world. Less is known about Appalachian biodiversity in the Cretaceous as few fossiliferous deposits exist in the region today and half of the fossil beds in Appalachia were destroyed during the Pleistocene ice age. However, fossil beds which haven't been discovered yet could exist in areas of the former Appalachian continent.

In western North America during the Cretaceous the dominant predators were the tyrannosaurs, huge predatory theropods with proportionately massive heads built for ripping flesh from their prey. In Laramidia the top of the terrestrial food chain was occupied by the theropods of Tyrannosaurinae such as Tyrannosaurus rex, Nanuqsaurus hoglundi,[8] Daspletosaurus, Teratophoneus, and theropods of Albertosaurinae such as Albertosaurus and Gorgosaurus, all being included under the same family of Tyrannosauridae and not actually contemporary. The bodies of tyrannosaurs exhibited huge heads and legs, in contrast to proportionally tiny arms. The teeth exhibited in this family are rather comparable to railroad spikes and would have helped inflict major damage on prey.

Another common group of North American dinosaurs were the hadrosaurs. The fossil record shows a staggering variety of hadrosaur forms in Laramidia.

Other differences in genera appear between the island land masses. Sauropods roamed Laramidia during the Cretaceous after apparently dying out in Appalachia. Nodosaurs, though, appear to have been more plentiful in Appalachia. Nodosaurs were large, herbivorous armored dinosaurs resembling armadillos. They were scarce in Laramidia by the late Cretaceous, existing only in specialized forms like Edmontonia and Panoplosaurus while nodosaurs were thriving in Appalachia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Archibald, J. David; Dinosaur Extinction and the End of an Era: What the Fossils Say, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1996
  2. ^ Laramidia is named for Laramie, Wyoming, located in the former landmass.
  3. ^ MSN, "Amazing Horned Dinosaurs Discovered" (23-Sep-2010) Archived 2010-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 23-Sep-2010.
  4. ^ a b Scott D. Sampson; Mark A. Loewen; Andrew A. Farke; Eric M. Roberts; Catherine A. Forster; Joshua A. Smith; Alan L. Titus (2010). "New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism". PLoS ONE. 5 (9): e12292. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...512292S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012292. PMC 2929175Freely accessible. PMID 20877459. 
  5. ^ Rozell, Ned. Geophysical Institute, UAF - Alaska Science Forum, "Shedding light on Arctic dinosaurs, Alaska Science Forum, Article #1737" (10-Feb-2005) Archived 2012-04-04 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 14-Nov-2011.
  6. ^ U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska, Resources, Environmental Education, "Dinosaurs on Alaska's North Slope" (30-May-2008) Archived 2011-11-10 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 14-Nov-2011.
  7. ^ "Hallan en Coahuila cementerio de dinosaurios" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  8. ^ "A Diminutive New Tyrannosaur from the Top of the World" (12-Mar-2014)[permanent dead link] Accessed 12-Mar-2014.

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