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10 Terrifying Dinosaurs from the Cretaceous Period
10 Terrifying Dinosaurs from the Cretaceous Period
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: Countdown Central
Millions of Years Ago Part Two: The Late Cretaceous
Millions of Years Ago Part Two: The Late Cretaceous
Published: 2013/11/06
Channel: evancrankshaw
Prehistoric Predators Late Cretaceous Alberta
Prehistoric Predators Late Cretaceous Alberta
Published: 2015/06/20
Channel: Michael Vespia
Late Cretaceous Geography
Late Cretaceous Geography
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: RNC-Kerrville Information & RSVP
Late Cretaceous Period
Late Cretaceous Period
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: DinoDude
64,000,000 Years Ago
64,000,000 Years Ago
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: NFB
Dinosaur Death - Walking with Dinosaurs in HQ - BBC
Dinosaur Death - Walking with Dinosaurs in HQ - BBC
Published: 2012/11/09
Channel: BBC Earth
Late Cretaceous China; a land of Dinosaurs.
Late Cretaceous China; a land of Dinosaurs.
Published: 2016/01/10
Channel: Weasel
Mesozoic Explorer-Late Cretaceous South America
Mesozoic Explorer-Late Cretaceous South America
Published: 2010/08/12
Channel: xxxxPsycoSpotxxxx
The Cretaceous Coast of New Jersey - 65 Million Years Ago
The Cretaceous Coast of New Jersey - 65 Million Years Ago
Published: 2014/07/27
Channel: Kenneth Lacovara
Clash of the Dinosaurs: Generations [Episode 4]
Clash of the Dinosaurs: Generations [Episode 4]
Published: 2016/06/11
Channel: Lynna Steiner
Best of DinoDan "The Triceratops"
Best of DinoDan "The Triceratops"
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: Dino Kids
The Late Cretaceous "Carnivores and Herbivores"
The Late Cretaceous "Carnivores and Herbivores"
Published: 2007/01/22
Channel: Jordan Miller
51. The Late Cretaceous
51. The Late Cretaceous
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: BBC, AnimalPlanet, Discovery, ITV Unreleased Score
Pterosaurs weren’t all super sized in the Late Cretaceous
Pterosaurs weren’t all super sized in the Late Cretaceous
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Aliens UFO News
Dinosaurs in the late Cretaceous
Dinosaurs in the late Cretaceous
Published: 2014/03/31
Channel: Rebekah Lattin-Rawstrone
Mesozoic Explorer-Late Cretaceous Mongolia
Mesozoic Explorer-Late Cretaceous Mongolia
Published: 2010/07/31
Channel: xxxxPsycoSpotxxxx
Mesozoic Explorer-Late Cretaceous Alberta
Mesozoic Explorer-Late Cretaceous Alberta
Published: 2010/08/03
Channel: xxxxPsycoSpotxxxx
Styracosaurus! The Spiked Lizard at Late Cretaceous | Dinosaur World ★Genikids
Styracosaurus! The Spiked Lizard at Late Cretaceous | Dinosaur World ★Genikids
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Genikids Adventure 지니키즈 어드벤쳐
Morphology, Disparity, and Evolution of Theropod Teeth in the Late Cretaceous in Alberta
Morphology, Disparity, and Evolution of Theropod Teeth in the Late Cretaceous in Alberta
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: Royal Tyrrell Museum
Late Cretaceous North America
Late Cretaceous North America
Published: 2010/01/17
Channel: xxxxPsycoSpotxxxx
#29 밤비랍토르 vs. 알리오라무스 | 후기 백악기 육식공룡 ★지니키즈 공룡세상
#29 밤비랍토르 vs. 알리오라무스 | 후기 백악기 육식공룡 ★지니키즈 공룡세상
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: Genikids Adventure 지니키즈 어드벤쳐
Late Cretaceous: The Last Age of Dinosaurs
Late Cretaceous: The Last Age of Dinosaurs
Published: 2008/01/31
Channel: jurassicmarcmarc
Friday Nite in the Late Cretaceous
Friday Nite in the Late Cretaceous
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: Richard Christensen
"Dinosaur Horns, Hooks, & Frills: Rapid Evolution in the Late Cretaceous"
"Dinosaur Horns, Hooks, & Frills: Rapid Evolution in the Late Cretaceous"
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: case
Canadian Amber, A Snapshot of a Late Cretaceous Forest and its Inhabitants
Canadian Amber, A Snapshot of a Late Cretaceous Forest and its Inhabitants
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: Royal Tyrrell Museum
Diving Birds in the Prairies: Late Cretaceous Hesperornithiformes
Diving Birds in the Prairies: Late Cretaceous Hesperornithiformes
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: Royal Tyrrell Museum
Nonmarine Teleost Fishes from the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene
Nonmarine Teleost Fishes from the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene
Published: 2014/02/26
Channel: Royal Tyrrell Museum
late Cretaceous period
late Cretaceous period
Published: 2014/12/05
Channel: Ray G
Week 1 Teaser | Erlian (Iren Dabasu): our Late Cretaceous fieldsite
Week 1 Teaser | Erlian (Iren Dabasu): our Late Cretaceous fieldsite
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: TELI
THE GIANT BIRD GARGANTUAVIS: A CASE OF INSULAR EVOLUTION IN LATE CRETACEOUS EUROPE?
THE GIANT BIRD GARGANTUAVIS: A CASE OF INSULAR EVOLUTION IN LATE CRETACEOUS EUROPE?
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: Palaeo cast
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation North of Mexico
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation North of Mexico
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Bradley
"Gem" Ammonite Placenticeras meeki Late Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation St. Mary
"Gem" Ammonite Placenticeras meeki Late Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation St. Mary's River, Alberta...
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: Heritage Auctions
Roger Cooper- Guide to the Late Cretaceous Big Bend Texas
Roger Cooper- Guide to the Late Cretaceous Big Bend Texas
Published: 2014/03/27
Channel: HGSGeoEducation
INCREDIBLE DINOSAUR SKULL Triceratops prorsus Late Cretaceous, Hell Creek Formation Montana, USA
INCREDIBLE DINOSAUR SKULL Triceratops prorsus Late Cretaceous, Hell Creek Formation Montana, USA
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Heritage Auctions
Bill Hall   Gypsy Wind - Copyright Late  Cretaceous Productions
Bill Hall Gypsy Wind - Copyright Late Cretaceous Productions
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: billhallsongs
"Gem" Ammonite Placenticeras meeki Late Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation St. Mary
"Gem" Ammonite Placenticeras meeki Late Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation St. Mary's River, Alberta...
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: Heritage Auctions
Dinosaur Safari (Late Cretaceous) Clip #1: Elasmosaurus
Dinosaur Safari (Late Cretaceous) Clip #1: Elasmosaurus
Published: 2011/12/08
Channel: Kyle Hartman
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation  North of Mexico
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation North of Mexico
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: Toshi-Shitas Yiran
Late cretaceous china: a land of Dinosaurs (Narrated version).
Late cretaceous china: a land of Dinosaurs (Narrated version).
Published: 2016/02/10
Channel: Weasel
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation North of Mexico
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation North of Mexico
Published: 2016/02/26
Channel: Wilmer Britt
Let
Let's Play Terraria Episode 13 - The Late Cretaceous Pool
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: TheMrWubz
Cretaceous Swamp: Boulder, Colorado, 68 Million Years Ago
Cretaceous Swamp: Boulder, Colorado, 68 Million Years Ago
Published: 2013/12/14
Channel: igpcolorado
RARE FOSSIL CROCODILE SKULL Borealosuchus sp. Late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation Garfield...
RARE FOSSIL CROCODILE SKULL Borealosuchus sp. Late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation Garfield...
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Heritage Auctions
14 Seriously SCARY Dinosaurs
14 Seriously SCARY Dinosaurs
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: Epic Wildlife
SPECTACULAR "GEM" AMMONITE IN MATRIX Placenticeras meeki Late Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation...
SPECTACULAR "GEM" AMMONITE IN MATRIX Placenticeras meeki Late Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation...
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Heritage Auctions
#9 타조를 닮은 알도둑 공룡 오비랍토르 | 후기 백악기 육식공룡 ★지니키즈 공룡세상
#9 타조를 닮은 알도둑 공룡 오비랍토르 | 후기 백악기 육식공룡 ★지니키즈 공룡세상
Published: 2015/09/01
Channel: Genikids Adventure 지니키즈 어드벤쳐
I
I'm a Dinosaur - Giganotosaurus | HooplaKidz TV
Published: 2013/04/02
Channel: HooplaKidz TV - Funny Cartoons For Children
Biostratigraphy and Palaeontology of the Scollard Formation, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene of Albert
Biostratigraphy and Palaeontology of the Scollard Formation, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene of Albert
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Tracy Gray
Palaeo-Shorts: Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Forest (JOPG + Adobe After Effects Test)
Palaeo-Shorts: Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Forest (JOPG + Adobe After Effects Test)
Published: 2012/01/17
Channel: raddiraddatz
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0–72.1
Campanian 72.1–83.6
Santonian 83.6–86.3
Coniacian 86.3–89.8
Turonian 89.8–93.9
Cenomanian 93.9–100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5–~113.0
Aptian ~113.0–~125.0
Barremian ~125.0–~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4–~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9–~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8–~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the IUGS, as of July 2012.

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale. Rock strata from this epoch form the Upper Cretaceous series. The Cretaceous is named after the white limestone known as chalk which occurs widely in northern France and is seen in the white cliffs of south-eastern England, and which dates from this time.

Climate[edit]

During the Late Cretaceous, the climate was warmer than present, although throughout the period a cooling trend is evident.[1] The tropics became restricted to equatorial regions and northern latitudes experienced markedly more seasonal climatic conditions.[1]

Geography[edit]

Due to plate tectonics, the Americas were gradually moving westward, causing the Atlantic Ocean to expand. The Western Interior Seaway divided North America into eastern and western halves; Appalachia and Laramidia.[1] India maintained a northward course towards Asia.[1] In the Southern Hemisphere, Australia and Antarctica seem to have remained connected and began to drift away from Africa and South America.[1] Europe was an island chain.[1] Populating some of these islands were endemic dwarf dinosaur species.[1]

Vertebrate fauna[edit]

Dinosaurs[edit]

This was a period of great success for dinosaurs, with many new types appearing and diversifying.[citation needed] The hadrosaurs, ankylosaurs, and ceratopsians experienced success in Asiamerica (Western North America and eastern Asia). Tyrannosaurs dominated the large predator niche in North America.[1] They were also present in Asia, although were usually smaller and more primitive than the North American varieties.[1] Pachycephalosaurs were also present in both North America and Asia.[1] Dromaeosaurs shared the same geographical distribution, and are well documented in both Mongolia and Western North America.[1] By contrast therizinosaurs (known previously as segnosaurs) appear to have been living solely in Asia.[1] Gondwana held a very different dinosaurian fauna, with most predators being abelisaurs and carcharodontosaurs; and titanosaurs being among the dominant herbivores.[1] Spinosaurids were also present during this time. Velociraptors also began in this time.

Birds became increasingly common and diverse, diversifying in a variety of enantiornithe and ornithurine forms. Early Neornithes such as Vegavis co-existed with forms as bizarre as Yungavolucris and Avisaurus. Though mostly small, marine Hesperornithes became relatively large and flightless, adapted to life in the open sea.

Pterosaurs[edit]

Though primarily represented by azhdarchids, other forms like pteranodontids, tapejarids (Caiuajara and Bakonydraco), nyctosaurids and uncertain forms (Piksi, Navajodactylus) are also present. Historically, it has been assumed that pterosaurs were in decline due to competition with birds, but it appears that neither group overlapped significantly ecologically, nor is it particularly evident that a true systematic decline was ever in place, especially with the discovery of smaller pterosaur species.[2]

Mammals[edit]

Several old mammal groups began to disappear, with the last eutriconodonts occurring in the Campanian of North America.[3] In the northern hemisphere, cimolodont, multituberculates, metatherians and eutherians were the dominant mammals, with the former two groups being the most common mammals in North America. In the southern hemisphere there was instead a more complex fauna of dryolestoids, gondwanatheres and other multituberculates and basal eutherians; monotremes were presumably present, as was the last of the haramiyidans, Avashishta.

Mammals, though generally small, ranged into a variety of ecological niches, from carnivores (Deltatheroida), to mollusc-eater (Stagodontidae), to herbivores (multituberculates, Schowalteria, Zhelestidae and Mesungulatidae).

True placentals only evolved at the very end of the epoch; the same can be said for true marsupials. Instead, nearly all known eutherian and metatherian fossils belong to other groups. [4]

Marine life[edit]

In the seas, mosasaurs suddenly appeared and underwent a spectacular evolutionary radiation. Modern sharks also appeared and giant-penguin-like polycotylid plesiosaurs (3 meters long) and huge long-necked elasmosaurs (13 meters long) also diversified. These predators fed on the numerous teleost fishes, which in turn evolved into new advanced and modern forms (Neoteleostei). Ichthyosaurs and pliosaurs, on the other hand, became extinct during the Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event.

Flora[edit]

Near the end of the Cretaceous Period, flowering plants diversified. In temperate regions, familiar plants like magnolias, sassafras, roses, redwoods, and willows could be found in abundance.[1]

Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction[edit]

The Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event was a large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically short period of time, approximately 66 million years ago (Ma). It is widely known as the K–T extinction event and is associated with a geological signature, usually a thin band dated to that time and found in various parts of the world, known as the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (K–T boundary). K is the traditional abbreviation for the Cretaceous Period derived from the German name Kreidezeit, and T is the abbreviation for the Tertiary Period (a historical term for the period of time now covered by the Paleogene and Neogene periods). The event marks the end of the Mesozoic Era and the beginning of the Cenozoic Era.[5] "Tertiary" being no longer recognized as a formal time or rock unit by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the K-T event is now called the Cretaceous—Paleogene (or K-Pg) extinction event by many researchers.

Non-avian dinosaur fossils are only found below the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary and became extinct immediately before or during the event.[6] A very small number of dinosaur fossils have been found above the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, but they have been explained as reworked fossils, that is, fossils that have been eroded from their original locations then preserved in later sedimentary layers.[7][8][9] Mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs and many species of plants and invertebrates also became extinct. Mammalian and bird clades passed through the boundary with few extinctions, and evolutionary radiation from those Maastrichtian clades occurred well past the boundary. Rates of extinction and radiation varied across different clades of organisms.[10]

Scientists have hypothesized that the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinctions were caused by one or more catastrophic events such as massive asteroid impacts or increased volcanic activity. Several impact craters and massive volcanic activity in the Deccan traps have been dated to the approximate time of the extinction event. These geological events may have reduced sunlight and hindered photosynthesis, leading to a massive disruption in Earth's ecology. Other researchers believe the extinction was more gradual, resulting from slower changes in sea level or climate.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Dinosaurs Ruled the World: Late Cretaceous Period." In: Dodson, Peter & Britt, Brooks & Carpenter, Kenneth & Forster, Catherine A. & Gillette, David D. & Norell, Mark A. & Olshevsky, George & Parrish, J. Michael & Weishampel, David B. The Age of Dinosaurs. Publications International, LTD. Pp. 103-104. ISBN 0-7853-0443-6.
  2. ^ Prondvai, E., Bodor, E. R. & Ösi, A. 2014. Does morphology reflect osteohistology-based ontogeny? A case study of Late Cretaceous pterosaur jaw symphyses from Hungary reveals hidden taxonomic diversity. Paleobiology 40, 288-321.
  3. ^ Fox., R. C. Studies of Late Cretaceous vertebrates. III. A triconodont mammal from Alberta. Can. J. Zool Article in Canadian Journal of Zoology 47(6):1253-1256 · February 2011 Impact Factor: 1.30 · DOI: 10.1139/z69-196
  4. ^ Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals
  5. ^ Fortey R (1999). Life: A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth. Vintage. pp. 238–260. ISBN 978-0375702617. 
  6. ^ Fastovsky DE, Sheehan PM (2005). "The extinction of the dinosaurs in North America". GSA Today. 15 (3): 4–10. doi:10.1130/1052-5173(2005)015<4:TEOTDI>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2007-05-18. 
  7. ^ Sloan RE; Rigby K; Van Valen LM; Gabriel Diane (1986). "Gradual dinosaur extinction and simultaneous ungulate radiation in the Hell Creek formation". Science. 232 (4750): 629–633. Bibcode:1986Sci...232..629S. PMID 17781415. doi:10.1126/science.232.4750.629. Retrieved 2007-05-18. 
  8. ^ Fassett JE, Lucas SG, Zielinski RA, Budahn JR (2001). "Compelling new evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, USA" (PDF). International Conference on Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond, 9–12 July 2000, Vienna, Austria. 1053: 45–46. Retrieved 2007-05-18. 
  9. ^ Sullivan RM (2003). "No Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 35 (5): 15. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  10. ^ a b MacLeod N, Rawson PF, Forey PL, Banner FT, Boudagher-Fadel MK, Bown PR, Burnett JA, Chambers, P, Culver S, Evans SE, Jeffery C, Kaminski MA, Lord AR, Milner AC, Milner AR, Morris N, Owen E, Rosen BR, Smith AB, Taylor PD, Urquhart E, Young JR (1997). "The Cretaceous–Tertiary biotic transition". Journal of the Geological Society. 154 (2): 265–292. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.154.2.0265. Archived from the original on 2013-05-25. 
Cretaceous Period
Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous
Berriasian | Valanginian | Hauterivian
Barremian| Aptian | Albian
Cenomanian | Turonian | Coniacian
Santonian |Campanian | Maastrichtian

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