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Untitled
On a rough wall hangs a painting of an elderly man in a field with a large bundle of sticks tied to his back.
Studio album by Led Zeppelin
Released 8 November 1971[1]
Recorded
  • December 1970 – February 1971
  • July 1971 (mixing)[1][2]
Studio
Genre
Length 42:34
Label Atlantic
Producer Jimmy Page
Led Zeppelin chronology
Led Zeppelin III
(1970)
Untitled
(1971)
Houses of the Holy
(1973)
Singles from Untitled
  1. "Black Dog" / "Misty Mountain Hop"
    Released: 2 December 1971
  2. "Rock and Roll" / "Four Sticks"
    Released: 21 February 1972

The untitled fourth studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, commonly known as Led Zeppelin IV, was released on 8 November 1971 by Atlantic Records. It was produced by guitarist Jimmy Page and recorded between December 1970 and February 1971, mostly in the country house Headley Grange. The album contains one of the band's best known songs, "Stairway to Heaven".

The informal setting at Headley Grange inspired the band, and allowed them to try different arrangements of material and create songs in a variety of styles. After the band's previous album Led Zeppelin III received lukewarm reviews from critics, they decided their fourth album would officially be untitled, and would be represented instead by four symbols chosen by each band member, without featuring the name or any other details on the cover. This has led to confusion and disagreement with fans and critics over what to call it.

The album was a commercial and critical success and is Led Zeppelin's best-selling, shipping over 37 million copies worldwide. It has become one of the biggest-selling albums in the US, while critics have regularly placed it on lists of the greatest albums of all time.

Writing and recording[edit]

Most of the album was recorded at Headley Grange in Hampshire.

Following the release of Led Zeppelin III in October 1970, the group took a break from live performances to concentrate on recording a follow-up. They turned down all touring offers, including a proposed New Years Eve gig that would have been broadcast by television. They returned to Bron-Yr-Aur, a country house in Snowdonia, Wales, to write new material.[3]

Recording sessions for the album began at Island Records' Basing Street Studios, London in December 1970.[4] The group had considered Mick Jagger's home, Stargroves as a recording location, but decided it was too expensive.[5] They subsequently moved the following month to Headley Grange, a country house in Hampshire, England, using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio and engineer Andy Johns, with the Stones' Ian Stewart assisting. Johns had just worked on engineering Sticky Fingers and recommended the mobile studio.[5] Guitarist and producer Jimmy Page later recalled: "We needed the sort of facilities where we could have a cup of tea and wander around the garden and go in and do what we had to do."[6] This relaxed, atmospheric environment at Headley Grange also provided other advantages for the band, as they were able to capture spontaneous performances immediately, with some tracks arising from the communal jamming.[6] Bassist and keyboardist John Paul Jones remembered there was no bar or leisure facilities, but this helped focus the group on the music without being distracted.[5]

Once the basic tracks had been recorded, the band added overdubs at Island Studios in February. Page then took the completed master tapes to Sunset Sound in Los Angeles for mixing, on Johns' recommendation, with a plan for an April 1971 release.[7][8] However, the band disliked the results, and so after touring through the spring and early summer, Page remixed the whole album in July. The album was delayed again over the choice of cover, whether it should be a double album, with a possible suggestion it could be issued as a set of EPs.[9]

Songs[edit]

Side one[edit]

"Black Dog" was named after a dog that hung around Headley Grange during recording. The riff was written by Page and Jones, while the a cappella section was influenced by Fleetwood Mac's "Oh Well". Vocalist Robert Plant wrote the lyrics, and later sang portions of the song during solo concerts.[10] The guitar solos on the outro were recorded directly into the desk, without using an amplifier.[11]

"Rock and Roll" was a collaboration with Stewart that came out of a jam early in the recording sessions at Headley Grange. Drummer John Bonham wrote the introduction, which came from jamming around the intro to Little Richard's "Keep A Knockin'".[12] The track became a live favourite in concert, being performed as the opening number or an encore.[10] It was released as a promotional single in the US, with stereo and mono mixes on either side of the disc.[13]

"The Battle of Evermore" was written by Page on the mandolin, borrowed from Jones. Plant added lyrics inspired by a book he was reading about the Scottish Independence Wars. The track features a duet between Plant and Fairport Convention's Sandy Denny.[14][a] Plant played the role of narrator in the song, describing events, while Denny sung the part of the town crier representing the people.[15]

The Gibson EDS-1275 used for live performances of "Stairway to Heaven"

"Stairway to Heaven" was mostly written by Page, and the bulk of the chord sequence was already worked out when recording started at Basing Street Studios. The lyrics were written by Plant at Headley Grange, about a woman who "took everything without giving anything back".[16] The final take of the song was recorded at Island Studios after the Headley Grange session. The basic backing track featured Bonham on drums, Jones on electric piano and Page on acoustic guitar.[16] The whole group contributed to the arrangement, such as Jones playing recorders on the introduction, and Bonham's distinctive drum entry halfway through the piece.[14] Page played the guitar solo using a Fender Telecaster he had received from Jeff Beck and been his main guitar on the group's first album and early live shows. He put down three different takes of the solo and picked the best to put on the album.[17]

The song was the standout track on the album and was played on FM radio stations frequently, but the group resisted all suggestions to release it as a single. It became the centrepiece of the group's live set from 1971 onwards; in order to replicate the changes between acoustic, electric and twelve-string guitar on the studio recording, Page played a Gibson EDS-1275 double neck guitar during the song.[14]

Side two[edit]

"Misty Mountain Hop" was written at Headley Grange and featured Jones playing electric piano.[14] Plant wrote the lyrics about dealing with the clash against students and police around drug possession. The title comes from J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit.[18] Plant later performed the track on solo tours.[14]

"Four Sticks" took its title from Bonham playing the drum pattern that runs throughout the song with four drum sticks. The track was difficult to record compared to the other material on the album, requiring numerous takes.[14] It was played live only once by Led Zeppelin,[14] and re-recorded with the Bombay Symphony Orchestra in 1972.[19] It was reworked for Page and Plant's 1994 album No Quarter: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant Unledded.[20]

"Going to California" is a quiet acoustic number. It was written by Page and Plant about Californian earthquakes, and trying to find the perfect woman. The music was inspired by Joni Mitchell, who both were fans of. The track was originally titled "Guide To California"; the final title comes from the trip to Los Angeles to mix the album.[14][21]

"When the Levee Breaks" comes from a blues song recorded by Memphis Minnie and Kansas Joe McCoy in 1929. The track opens with Bonham's heavy unaccompanied drumming, which was recorded in the hall of Headley Grange using a single pair of microphones positioned on the stairs two floors up. Page recalled he had tried to record the track at early sessions, but it had sounded flat. The unusual locations around the hall gave the ideal ambience for the drum sound.[22] This introduction was later extensively sampled for hip hop music in the 1980s.[14] Page and Plant played the song on their 1995 tour promoting No Quarter: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant Unledded.[23]

Other songs[edit]

Three other songs from the sessions, "Down by the Seaside", "Night Flight" and "Boogie with Stu" (featuring Stewart on piano), were included four years later on the double album Physical Graffiti. An early version of "No Quarter" was also recorded at the sessions.[14]

Title[edit]

After the lukewarm, if not confused and sometimes dismissive, critical reaction Led Zeppelin III had received in late 1970, Page decided that the next Led Zeppelin album would not have a title, but would instead feature four hand-drawn symbols on the inner sleeve and record label, each one chosen by the band member it represents.[10] The record company were strongly against the idea, but the group stood their ground and refused to hand over the master tapes until their decision had been agreed.[24]

Page has also stated that the decision to release the album without any written information on the album sleeve was contrary to strong advice given to him by a press agent, who said that after a year's absence from both records and touring, the move would be akin to "professional suicide."[25] Page thought, "We just happened to have a lot of faith in what we were doing."[25] He recalled the record company were insisting that a title had to be on the album, but held his ground, as he felt it would be an answer to critics who could not review one Led Zeppelin album without point of reference to earlier ones.[26]

Releasing the album without an official title has made it difficult to consistently identify. While most commonly called Led Zeppelin IV, Atlantic Records catalogues have used the names Four Symbols and The Fourth Album. It has also been referred to as ZoSo (which Page's symbol appears to spell), Untitled and Runes.[10] Page frequently refers to the album in interviews as "the fourth album" and "Led Zeppelin IV",[25][27] and Plant thinks of it as "the fourth album, that's it".[28] The original LP also has no text on the front or back cover, and lacks a catalogue number on the spine.[10]

Cover[edit]

The four symbols representing (from left to right);
at the top; Page, Jones
at the bottom; Bonham and Plant

In place of a title, Page decided each member could choose a personal emblem for the cover. Initially thinking of a single symbol, he then decided there could be four, with each member of the band choosing their own.[25] He designed his own symbol[10] and has never publicly disclosed any reasoning behind it. It has been argued that his symbol appeared as early as 1557 to represent Saturn.[29] The symbol is sometimes referred to as "ZoSo", though Page has explained that it was not in fact intended to be a word at all.[10] Jones' symbol, which he chose from Rudolf Koch's Book of Signs, is a single circle intersecting three vesica pisces (a triquetra). It is intended to symbolise a person who possesses both confidence and competence.[10] Bonham's symbol, the three interlocking (Borromean) rings, was picked by the drummer from the same book. It represents the triad of mother, father and child, but, inverted, it also happens to be the logo for Ballantine beer.[10] Plant's symbol of a feather within a circle was his own design, being based on the sign of the supposed Mu civilisation.[10] A fifth, smaller symbol chosen by guest vocalist Sandy Denny represents her contribution to "The Battle of Evermore"; the figure, composed of three equilateral triangles, appears on the inner sleeve of the LP, serving as an asterisk.[30]

During Led Zeppelin's tour of the United Kingdom in winter 1971 shortly after the album's release, the symbols could be seen on the group's stage equipment; Page's on one of his amplifiers, Bonham's on his bass drum head, Jones' on a covering for his Rhodes piano, and Plant's on the side of a PA cabinet. Only Page's and Bonham's symbols were retained for subsequent tours.[31][32]

Sandy Denny's symbol of three downward-pointing equilateral triangles.

The 19th-century rustic oil painting on the front of the album was purchased from an antique shop in Reading, Berkshire by Plant.[10][33] The painting was then juxtaposed and affixed to the internal, papered wall of a partly demolished suburban house for the photograph to be taken. The block of flats seen on the album is the Salisbury Tower in the Ladywood district of Birmingham.[34] Page has explained that the cover of the fourth album was intended to bring out a city/country dichotomy that had initially surfaced on Led Zeppelin III, and a reminder that people should look after the Earth.[25] He later said the cover was supposed to be for "other people to savour" rather than a direct statement.[35] The album cover was among the 10 chosen by the Royal Mail for a set of "Classic Album Cover" postage stamps issued in January 2010.[36]

The inside illustration, entitled "The Hermit", painted by Barrington Coleby (credited to Barrington Colby MOM on the album sleeve),[30] was influenced by the design of the card of the same name in the Rider-Waite tarot deck.[10] This character was later portrayed by Page himself in Led Zeppelin's concert film, The Song Remains the Same (1976).[37] The inner painting is also referred to as View in Half or Varying Light.[38] The typeface for the lyrics to "Stairway to Heaven", printed on the inside sleeve of the album, was Page's contribution. He found it in an old arts and crafts magazine called The Studio which dated from the late 19th century. He thought the lettering was interesting and arranged for someone to create a whole alphabet.[33]

Release[edit]

The album was promoted via a series of teaser advertisements showing the individual symbols on the album artwork.[10] It entered the UK chart at No. 10, rising to No.1 the following week and has spent a total of 90 weeks on the chart.[39] In the US it was Led Zeppelin's best-selling album,[40] but did not top the Billboard album chart, peaking at No. 2 behind There's a Riot Goin' On by Sly and the Family Stone and Music by Carole King.[41][42][b] "Ultimately," writes Lewis, "the fourth Zeppelin album would be the most durable seller in their catalogue and the most impressive critical and commercial success of their career".[10] At one point, it was ranked as one of the top five best-selling albums of all time.[44]

The album was reissued several times throughout the 1970s, including a lilac vinyl pressing in 1978 and a box set package in 1988.[45] It was first issued on CD in 1983, but Page criticised the lack of quality control, saying first-generation master tapes were not used and there was excessive tape hiss. He remastered the album in 1990 in an attempt to update the catalogue. Several tracks were used for that year's compilation Led Zeppelin Remasters and the Led Zeppelin Boxed Set. All remastered tracks were reissued on The Complete Studio Recordings,[46] while the album was individually reissued on CD in 1994.[47][48]

2014 reissue[edit]

A remastered version of Led Zeppelin IV was reissued on 27 October 2014, along with Houses of the Holy. The reissue comes in six formats: a standard CD edition, a deluxe two-CD edition, a standard LP version, a deluxe two-LP version, a super deluxe two-CD plus two-LP version with a hardback book, and as high resolution 96k/24-bit digital downloads. The deluxe and super deluxe editions feature bonus material. The reissue was released with an inverted color version of the original album's artwork as its bonus disc's cover.[49] The album's remastered version received widespread acclaim from critics, including Rolling Stone, who found Page's remastering "illuminative".[50]

Reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic5/5 stars[51]
Blender5/5 stars[52]
Christgau's Record GuideA[53]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music5/5 stars[44]
Entertainment WeeklyA+[54]
Mojo5/5 stars[55]
MusicHound Rock5/5[56]
Pitchfork9.1/10[57]
Q5/5 stars[58]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide5/5 stars[59]

Led Zeppelin IV received overwhelming praise from critics.[44] In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone, Lenny Kaye called it the band's "most consistently good" album yet and praised the diversity of the songs: "out of eight cuts, there isn't one that steps on another's toes, that tries to do too much all at once."[60] Billboard magazine called it a "powerhouse album" that has the commercial potential of the band's previous three albums.[61]

Robert Christgau originally gave Led Zeppelin IV a lukewarm review in The Village Voice, but later called the album a "genre masterpiece",[62] and wrote that it showed the band at the pinnacle of their songwriting.[63] Even though he found their Medieval ideas limiting as usual, he said that it is "the definitive Led Zeppelin and hence heavy metal album".[53] In his review for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine credited the album for "defining not only Led Zeppelin but the sound and style of '70s hard rock", while "encompassing heavy metal, folk, pure rock & roll, and blues".[51] In his album guide to heavy metal, Spin magazine's Joe Gross cited Led Zeppelin IV as a "monolithic cornerstone".[64] BBC Music's Daryl Easlea said that the album made the band a global success and effectively combined their third album's folk ideas with their second album's hard rock style,[65] while Katherine Flynn and Julian Ring of Consequence of Sound felt it featured their debut's blues rock, along with the other styles from their second and third albums.[66] Led Zeppelin's Rock and Roll Hall of Fame biography described the album as "a fully realized hybrid of the folk and hard-rock directions".[67] Music journalist Chuck Eddy named it the number one metal album of all time in his 1991 book Stairway to Hell: The 500 Best Heavy Metal Albums in the Universe.[68]

Awards and recognition[edit]

The album is one of the best-selling albums of all time with more than 37 million copies sold as of 2014.[69] As of 2018 It is tied for third highest-certified album in the US by the Recording Industry Association of America at 23× Platinum.[70]

In 2000, Led Zeppelin IV was named the twenty-sixth greatest British album in a list by Q magazine.[71] In 2002, Spin magazine's Chuck Klosterman named it the second greatest metal album of all time and said that it was "the most famous hard-rock album ever recorded" as well as an album that unintentionally created metal—"the origin of everything that sounds, feels, or even tastes vaguely metallic".[72] In 2003, the album was ranked number 69 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time", which described it as "the peak of Seventies hard rock".[73] It was also named the seventh-best album of the 1970s in a list by Pitchfork.[74] In 2016, Classic Rock magazine ranked Led Zeppelin IV as the greatest of all Zeppelin albums.[75]

Publication Country Accolade Year Rank
Mojo UK "The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made"[76] 1996 24
Grammy Awards US Grammy Hall of Fame Award[77] 1999 *
The Guitar US "Album of the Millennium"[78] 1999 2
Classic Rock UK "100 Greatest Rock Albums Ever"[79] 2001 1
Rolling Stone US "500 Greatest Albums Ever"[73] 2012 69
Pitchfork US "Top 100 Albums of the 1970s"[74] 2004 7
Robert Dimery US 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die[80] 2005 *
Q UK "100 Best Albums Ever"[81] 2006 21
Classic Rock UK "100 Greatest British Rock Albums Ever"[82] 2006 1
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame US "The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time"[83] 2007 4
NME UK NME's The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time[84] 2013 106

(*) designates unordered lists.

Track listing[edit]

Side one
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Black Dog"4:54
2."Rock and Roll"
3:40
3."The Battle of Evermore"
  • Page
  • Plant
5:51
4."Stairway to Heaven"
  • Page
  • Plant
8:02
Side two
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
5."Misty Mountain Hop"
  • Page
  • Plant
  • Jones
4:38
6."Four Sticks"
  • Page
  • Plant
4:44
7."Going to California"
  • Page
  • Plant
3:31
8."When the Levee Breaks"
7:07

Personnel[edit]

Led Zeppelin

Other musicians

Other personnel

  • Barrington Colby M.O.M. – The Hermit illustration
  • Keith Morris – photograpy
  • Graphreaks – design coordination

Charts[edit]

Chart (1971–72) Peak
position
Australian Albums Chart[86] 2
Canadian Albums Chart[87] 1
Danish Albums Chart[88] 2
UK Albums Chart[45] 1
US Billboard 200[41] 2
Chart (2014) Peak
position
Polish Albums (ZPAV)[89] 18

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Australia (ARIA)[90] 9× Platinum 630,000^
Canada (Music Canada)[91] 2× Diamond 2,000,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[92] 6× Platinum 1,800,000^
United States (RIAA)[93] 23× Platinum 23,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Plant knew Denny via a mutual friend, Fairport bassist Dave Pegg. Pegg, Plant and Bonham had played together on the 1960s Birmingham club circuit in the group The Way of Life.[15]
  2. ^ Several sources have claimed that King's most critically and commercially successful album, Tapestry, kept Led Zeppelin IV from No. 1,[10] but the latter was still being mixed during the former's chart run over summer 1971.[43]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Led Zeppelin IV, Led Zeppelin, Atlantic Records, R2-536185, Super Deluxe Edition Box, 2014 Liner Notes, page 3
  2. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 51,89.
  3. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 67.
  4. ^ "Their Time is Gonna Come". Classic Rock Magazine. December 2007. 
  5. ^ a b c Lewis 2010, p. 73.
  6. ^ a b Lewis 1990, p. 16.
  7. ^ Lewis 1990, p. 89.
  8. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 91.
  9. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 16, 89.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Lewis 1990, p. 51.
  11. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 79.
  12. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 74.
  13. ^ Lewis 1990, p. 96.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lewis 1990, p. 52.
  15. ^ a b Lewis 2010, p. 76.
  16. ^ a b Lewis 2010, p. 87.
  17. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 89.
  18. ^ Shadwick 2005, p. 162.
  19. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 86.
  20. ^ "No Quarter". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 July 2018. 
  21. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 78.
  22. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 84.
  23. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 103.
  24. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 93.
  25. ^ a b c d e Dave Schulps, Interview with Jimmy Page, Trouser Press, October 1977.
  26. ^ Jackson, James (8 January 2010). "Jimmy Page on Led Zeppelin IV, the band's peak and their reunion". The Times. (Subscription required (help)). 
  27. ^ Interview with Jimmy Page, Guitar World magazine, 1993
  28. ^ Scaggs, Austin (5 May 2005). "Q&A: Robert Plant". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009. 
  29. ^ Gettings, Fred (1981). The Dictionary of Occult, Hermetic, and Alchemical Sigils and Symbols. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. p. 201. ISBN 0-7100-0095-2. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Untitled (Media notes). Atlantic Records. 1972. K50008. 
  31. ^ Lewis & Pallett 2007, p. 72.
  32. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 97.
  33. ^ a b Tolinski, Brad; Di Bendetto, Greg (January 1998). "Light and Shade". Guitar World. 
  34. ^ "How the Led Zeppelin IV album cover would look it was made today – 45 years on". Birmingham Mail. 10 November 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2018. 
  35. ^ Jackson, James (8 January 2010). "Jimmy Page on Led Zeppelin's good times, bad times and reunion rumours". The Times. (Subscription required (help)). 
  36. ^ Michaels, Sean (8 January 2010). "Coldplay album gets stamp of approval from Royal Mail". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  37. ^ "The 10 Wildest Led Zeppelin Legends, Fact-Checked". Rolling Stone. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2018. 
  38. ^ Davis, Erik (2005). Led Zeppelin's Led Zeppelin IV. A&C Black. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-826-41658-2. 
  39. ^ "Led Zeppelin | full Official Chart History | Official Charts Company". www.officialcharts.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018. 
  40. ^ Lynch, John (9 August 2017). "The 50 best-selling albums of all time". The Independent. Retrieved 19 July 2018. 
  41. ^ a b "Top 200 Albums". Billboard. 18 December 1971. Retrieved 11 July 2018. 
  42. ^ "Top 200 Albums". Billboard. 8 January 1972. Retrieved 11 July 2018. 
  43. ^ "Billboard 200 : 1971". Billboard. Retrieved 11 July 2018. 
  44. ^ a b c Larkin, Colin (2006). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. 5 (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-19-531373-9. 
  45. ^ a b Lewis 1990, p. 94.
  46. ^ "The Complete Studio Recordings". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 July 2018. 
  47. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 94–95.
  48. ^ Led Zeppelin IV (Media notes). Atlantic Records. 1994. 7567-82638-2. 
  49. ^ Bennett, Ross (29 July 2014). "Led Zeppelin IV and Houses of the Holy Remasters Due". Mojo. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  50. ^ "Reviews for Led Zeppelin IV [Remastered] by Led Zeppelin". Metacritic. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  51. ^ a b Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (8 November 1971). "AllMusic Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  52. ^ Blender Review Archived 26 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
  53. ^ a b Christgau, Robert (13 October 1981). Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. p. 222. ISBN 0-89919-025-1. 
  54. ^ Sinclair, Tom (20 June 2003). "On the Records ... Led Zeppelin". Entertainment Weekly. New York. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  55. ^ Snow, Mat (November 2014). "More muscle in your bustle: Led Zeppelin Led Zeppelin IV". Mojo. p. 106. 
  56. ^ Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel (eds) (1999). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide. Farmington Hills, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 662. ISBN 1-57859-061-2. 
  57. ^ Richardson, Mark (24 February 2015). "Led Zeppelin: Led Zeppelin IV/Houses of the Holy/Physical Graffiti". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 10 October 2015. 
  58. ^ "Review: Led Zeppelin IV". Q. London: 141. October 1994. 
  59. ^ Kot, Greg; et al. (2004). Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 479. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. 
  60. ^ "Rolling Stone Review". Rolling Stone. 23 December 1971. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  61. ^ "Album Reviews". Billboard: 70. 20 November 1971. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  62. ^ Christgau, Robert (3 March 1972). "Consumer Guide (24)". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  63. ^ Christgau, Robert (4 October 1976). "Christgau's Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  64. ^ Gross, Joe (February 2005). "Heavy Metal". Spin. Vibe/Spin Ventures. 21 (2): 89. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  65. ^ Easlea, Daryl (2007). "Review of Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin IV". BBC Music. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  66. ^ "Dusting 'Em Off: Led Zeppelin IV". 7 June 2014. 
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  68. ^ Herrmann, Brenda (18 June 1991). "Ranking Rock, Enraging Fans". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  69. ^ McCormick, Neil (29 July 2014). "Led Zeppelin IV: is this the greatest rock album ever made?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 July 2018. 
  70. ^ "Top 100 Albums". RIAA. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  71. ^ "100 Greatest British Albums". Q. London. June 2000. p. 76. 
  72. ^ Klosterman, Chuck (September 2002). "40 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time". Spin. p. 81. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  73. ^ a b Wenner, Jann S. (ed.) (2012). "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone (Special Collectors Issue). ISBN 978-7-09-893419-6. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  74. ^ a b Pitchfork Staff (23 June 2004). "Top 100 Albums of the 1970s". Pitchfork. p. 10. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  75. ^ "Led Zeppelin Albums Ranked From Worst To Best – The Ultimate Guide". loudersound. Retrieved 30 April 2018. 
  76. ^ "The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made — January 1996". Mojo. Retrieved 10 February 2009. 
  77. ^ "The Grammy Hall of Fame Award". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2007. 
  78. ^ "Album of the Millennium — December 1999". The Guitar. Retrieved 10 February 2009. 
  79. ^ "Classic Rock – 100 Greatest Rock Albums Ever December 2001". Classic Rock. Retrieved 10 February 2009. 
  80. ^ Dimery, Robert (2011). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. Hachette UK. p. 856. ISBN 978-1-844-03714-8. 
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  82. ^ "Classic Rock – 100 Greatest British Rock Albums Ever — April 2006". Classic Rock. Retrieved 10 February 2009. 
  83. ^ "The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (United States). Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2009. 
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  87. ^ "RPM Albums Chart – 8 January 1972". RPM. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2009. 
  88. ^ "LP Top 10 – November 22, 1971". Retrieved 30 March 2016. 
  89. ^ "Oficjalna lista sprzedaży :: OLiS - Official Retail Sales Chart". OLiS. Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  90. ^ "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2009 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. 
  91. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin IV". Music Canada. 
  92. ^ "British album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin IV". British Phonographic Industry.  Select albums in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Enter Led Zeppelin IV in the search field and then press Enter.
  93. ^ "American album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin IV". Recording Industry Association of America.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH

Bibliography

  • Lewis, Dave (1990). Led Zeppelin : A Celebration. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-711-92416-1. 
  • Lewis, Dave (2010). Led Zeppelin: The 'Tight But Loose' Files. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-857-12220-9. 
  • Lewis, Dave; Pallett, Simon (2007). Led Zeppelin: The Concert File. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-5307-4. 
  • Shadwick, Keith (2005). Led Zeppelin: The Story of a Band and Their Music, 1968-80. Backbeat. ISBN 978-0-879-30871-1. 

External links[edit]

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