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The Score - Legend (Audio)
The Score - Legend (Audio)
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: The Score
Kelsea Ballerini - Legends
Kelsea Ballerini - Legends
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: KelseaBalleriniVEVO
Legend Official Trailer #1 (2015) Tom Hardy, Emily Browning Crime Thriller Movie HD
Legend Official Trailer #1 (2015) Tom Hardy, Emily Browning Crime Thriller Movie HD
Published: 2015/06/25
Channel: Zero Media
LZ vs. SSG | Quarterfinals Day 1 | 2017 World Championship | Longzhu Gaming vs Samsung Galaxy
LZ vs. SSG | Quarterfinals Day 1 | 2017 World Championship | Longzhu Gaming vs Samsung Galaxy
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: LoL Esports 24h
Legend (2015) - Bar Beatdown Scene (1/10) | Movieclips
Legend (2015) - Bar Beatdown Scene (1/10) | Movieclips
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: Movieclips
G Herbo & Southside "Legend" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
G Herbo & Southside "Legend" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
Published: 2017/08/23
Channel: WORLDSTARHIPHOP
UPCHURCH "Legend" (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
UPCHURCH "Legend" (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Ryan Upchurch
Legend The Movie -Best scene -Reggie & Ron fight
Legend The Movie -Best scene -Reggie & Ron fight
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: The Fan Review
John Legend - All of Me
John Legend - All of Me
Published: 2013/10/02
Channel: johnlegendVEVO
Legend (7/11) Movie CLIP - Darkness Seduces Lili (1985) HD
Legend (7/11) Movie CLIP - Darkness Seduces Lili (1985) HD
Published: 2011/06/27
Channel: Movieclips
You Will Buy Lancelot 100% After This Video! Mobile Legends Gameplay Build
You Will Buy Lancelot 100% After This Video! Mobile Legends Gameplay Build
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: BluePanda
Legend (1985) DC Full Movie English
Legend (1985) DC Full Movie English
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Willard Cohen
Legend (2015) - Are You Mad? Scene (8/10) | Movieclips
Legend (2015) - Are You Mad? Scene (8/10) | Movieclips
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: Movieclips
Drake - Legend (Lyrics / Lyrics Video) (Wynn Remix) Prod. Sean Ross
Drake - Legend (Lyrics / Lyrics Video) (Wynn Remix) Prod. Sean Ross
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Promoting Radio
Legend (2015) - Ron vs. Reggie Scene (5/10) | Movieclips
Legend (2015) - Ron vs. Reggie Scene (5/10) | Movieclips
Published: 2017/04/17
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Legend (2015) - Cause I Can
Legend (2015) - Cause I Can't Kill You Scene (10/10) | Movieclips
Published: 2017/04/17
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Drake - Legend (Full Lyrics)
Drake - Legend (Full Lyrics)
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: AMZY OVO
Tangerine Dream - Legend
Tangerine Dream - Legend
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: Richard W
The Score - Legend (Lyrics)
The Score - Legend (Lyrics)
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Enrik3L
LANCELOT IMMUNITY TEST ! CAN HE BE IMMUNE TO EVERYTHING ? MOBILE LEGENDS
LANCELOT IMMUNITY TEST ! CAN HE BE IMMUNE TO EVERYTHING ? MOBILE LEGENDS
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Demonal
Mobile Legends In-Depth Guide: Fanny Tips & Tricks
Mobile Legends In-Depth Guide: Fanny Tips & Tricks
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: iFlekzz - Mobile Legends Channel
🔮 INDONESIA VS TAIWAN National Arena Contest 17/10/2017 - Mobile Legends Indonesia
🔮 INDONESIA VS TAIWAN National Arena Contest 17/10/2017 - Mobile Legends Indonesia
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: TAMPAN GAMING
NEW SKIN KARRIE BLADED MANTIS SERANGGA PEMBUNUH ! - MOBILE LEGENDS INDONESIA
NEW SKIN KARRIE BLADED MANTIS SERANGGA PEMBUNUH ! - MOBILE LEGENDS INDONESIA
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Afif Yulistian
Legend - Loved by the sun
Legend - Loved by the sun
Published: 2007/04/09
Channel: xannie1234x
Legend Ronnie kray dancing movie clip
Legend Ronnie kray dancing movie clip
Published: 2015/12/23
Channel: big rick
Legend Telugu Full Movie | Latest Telugu Full Movies | Balakrishna, Jagapathi Babu| Sri Balaji Video
Legend Telugu Full Movie | Latest Telugu Full Movies | Balakrishna, Jagapathi Babu| Sri Balaji Video
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Sri Balaji Full Movies
LANCELOT BEST MOMENTS MONTAGE | Ep. 1 | MOBILE LEGENDS
LANCELOT BEST MOMENTS MONTAGE | Ep. 1 | MOBILE LEGENDS
Published: 2017/10/14
Channel: Demonal
John Legend - Love Me Now
John Legend - Love Me Now
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: johnlegendVEVO
John Legend Greatest Hits Collection - Best Songs of John Legend
John Legend Greatest Hits Collection - Best Songs of John Legend
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: George E. Creed
NEW SKIN LANCELOT MACEM ZORO MAS BROO ! - MOBILE LEGENDS INDONESIA
NEW SKIN LANCELOT MACEM ZORO MAS BROO ! - MOBILE LEGENDS INDONESIA
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Afif Yulistian
Mobile Legends WTF Moments Episode 32
Mobile Legends WTF Moments Episode 32
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Mobile Legends Cinema
Sleeping with Sirens - Legends (Official Lyric Video)
Sleeping with Sirens - Legends (Official Lyric Video)
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: Sleeping With Sirens
LEGEND Red Band Movie Clip - What Are You F#cking Playing At? (2015) Tom Hardy
LEGEND Red Band Movie Clip - What Are You F#cking Playing At? (2015) Tom Hardy
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: JoBlo Movie Trailers
Legend Official Trailer #1 (2015) - Tom Hardy, Emily Browning Movie HD
Legend Official Trailer #1 (2015) - Tom Hardy, Emily Browning Movie HD
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: Movieclips Trailers
Legends Never Die (ft. Against The Current) [OFFICIAL AUDIO] | Worlds 2017 - League of Legends
Legends Never Die (ft. Against The Current) [OFFICIAL AUDIO] | Worlds 2017 - League of Legends
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: League of Legends
Potential Skills of Hang Tuah The New Hero Mobile Legends
Potential Skills of Hang Tuah The New Hero Mobile Legends
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: BluePanda
LEGEND Red Band Clip - A Proper F#cking Shootout (2015) Tom Hardy Movie HD
LEGEND Red Band Clip - A Proper F#cking Shootout (2015) Tom Hardy Movie HD
Published: 2015/09/15
Channel: JoBlo Movie Trailers
Legend Movie Balakrishna Sentiment Dialogue Scene | Balakrishna, Sonal Chauhan | Sri Balaji Video
Legend Movie Balakrishna Sentiment Dialogue Scene | Balakrishna, Sonal Chauhan | Sri Balaji Video
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: SriBalajiMovies
LEGEND - THE TERROR (2016) | Hindi Dubbed Full Movie  | Radhika Apte, Jagapathi Babu & Balakrishna
LEGEND - THE TERROR (2016) | Hindi Dubbed Full Movie | Radhika Apte, Jagapathi Babu & Balakrishna
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: Trisha Media
Legend (1985) Trailer (HD)
Legend (1985) Trailer (HD)
Published: 2013/12/12
Channel: John Doe
LEGEND - TOM HARDY AS BOTH REGGIE & RONNIE KRAY
LEGEND - TOM HARDY AS BOTH REGGIE & RONNIE KRAY
Published: 2015/08/19
Channel: StudiocanalUK
John Legend - This Time with lyrics
John Legend - This Time with lyrics
Published: 2009/05/13
Channel: DutchTPI
NEW HERO DIGGER GAMEPLAY! Unkillable Hero! Mobile Legends
NEW HERO DIGGER GAMEPLAY! Unkillable Hero! Mobile Legends
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: BluePanda
SCOTTIE THOMPSON "THE UPCOMING LEGEND OF GINEBRA"
SCOTTIE THOMPSON "THE UPCOMING LEGEND OF GINEBRA"
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: PrayandWork Sports&Entertainment
MOBILE LEGEND AN DULU KAKA KAKA ~~
MOBILE LEGEND AN DULU KAKA KAKA ~~
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Olivia Gosandra
Drake - Legend (Wynn Remix) Prod. by Sean Ross [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
Drake - Legend (Wynn Remix) Prod. by Sean Ross [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
Published: 2015/06/12
Channel: Wynn LNGHL
John Legend - Penthouse Floor ft. Chance the Rapper
John Legend - Penthouse Floor ft. Chance the Rapper
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: johnlegendVEVO
NEW HERO MALL! The Next Hero in Mobile Legends?
NEW HERO MALL! The Next Hero in Mobile Legends?
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: BluePanda
LEGEND Bande Annonce VF
LEGEND Bande Annonce VF
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: AuCiné
Purple
Purple's Evolve Shaman | Il deck DEFINITIVO [148 Legend]
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: Attrix
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In this 1891 painting of Lady Godiva by Jules Joseph Lefebvre, the authentic historical person is fully submerged in the legend, presented in an anachronistic high mediaeval setting.

A legend is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and demonstrating human values, and which possesses certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility," but may include miracles. Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep them fresh and vital, and realistic. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted.[1]

The Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale historically grounded.[2] A modern folklorist's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R. Tangherlini in 1990:[3]

Legend, typically, is a short (mono-) episodic, traditional, highly ecotypified[4] historicized narrative performed in a conversational mode, reflecting on a psychological level a symbolic representation of folk belief and collective experiences and serving as a reaffirmation of commonly held values of the group to whose tradition it belongs.

Etymology and origin[edit]

Holger Danske, a legendary character

Legend is a loanword from Old French that entered English usage circa 1340. The Old French noun legende derives from the Medieval Latin legenda.[5] In its early English-language usage, the word indicated a narrative of an event. The word legendary was originally a noun (introduced in the 1510s) meaning a collection or corpus of legends.[6][7] This word changed to legendry, and legendary became the adjectival form.[6]

By 1613, English-speaking Protestants began to use the word when they wished to imply that an event (especially the story of any saint not acknowledged in John Foxe's Actes and Monuments) was fictitious. Thus, legend gained its modern connotations of "undocumented" and "spurious", which distinguish it from the meaning of chronicle.[8]

In 1866, Jacob Grimm described the fairy tale as "poetic, legend historic."[9] Early scholars such as Karl Wehrhan (de)[10] Friedrich Ranke[11] and Will Erich Peuckert[12] followed Grimm's example in focussing solely on the literary narrative, an approach that was enriched particularly after the 1960s,[13] by addressing questions of performance and the anthropological and psychological insights provided in considering legends' social context. Questions of categorising legends, in hopes of compiling a content-based series of categories on the line of the Aarne–Thompson folktale index, provoked a search for a broader new synthesis.

In an early attempt at defining some basic questions operative in examining folk tales, Friedrich Ranke (de) in 1925[14] characterised the folk legend as "a popular narrative with an objectively untrue imaginary content" a dismissive position that was subsequently largely abandoned.[15]

Compared to the highly structured folktale, legend is comparatively amorphous, Helmut de Boor noted in 1928.[16] The narrative content of legend is in realistic mode, rather than the wry irony of folktale;[17] Wilhelm Heiske[18] remarked on the similarity of motifs in legend and folktale and concluded that, in spite of its realistic mode, legend is not more historical than folktale.

In Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft (1928), Ernst Bernheim asserted that a legend is simply a longstanding rumour.[19] Gordon Allport credited the staying-power of some rumours to the persistent cultural state-of-mind that they embody and capsulise;[20] thus "Urban legends" are a feature of rumour.[21] When Willian Jansen suggested that legends that disappear quickly were "short-term legends" and the persistent ones be termed "long-term legends", the distinction between legend and rumour was effectively obliterated, Tangherlini concluded.[22]

Christian legenda[edit]

In the narrow Christian sense, legenda ("things to be read [on a certain day, in church]") were hagiographical accounts, often collected in a legendary. Because saints' lives are often included in many miracle stories, legend, in a wider sense, came to refer to any story that is set in a historical context but that contains supernatural, divine or fantastic elements.[23]

Related concepts[edit]

Giants Mata and Grifone, celebrated in the streets of Messina the second week of August, according to a legend are founders of the Sicilian city.
The mediaeval legend of Genevieve of Brabant connected her to Treves.

Hippolyte Delehaye distinguished legend from myth: "The legend, on the other hand, has, of necessity, some historical or topographical connection. It refers imaginary events to some real personage, or it localizes romantic stories in some definite spot."[24]

From the moment a legend is retold as fiction, its authentic legendary qualities begin to fade and recede: in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Washington Irving transformed a local Hudson River Valley legend into a literary anecdote with "Gothic" overtones, which actually tended to diminish its character as genuine legend.[citation needed]

Stories that exceed the boundaries of "realism" are called "fables". For example, the talking animal formula of Aesop identifies his brief stories as fables, not legends. The parable of the Prodigal Son would be a legend if it were told as having actually happened to a specific son of a historical father. If it included a donkey that gave sage advice to the Prodigal Son it would be a fable.[citation needed]

Legend may be transmitted orally, passed on person-to-person, or, in the original sense, through written text. Jacob de Voragine's Legenda Aurea or "The Golden Legend" comprises a series of vitae or instructive biographical narratives, tied to the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. They are presented as lives of the saints, but the profusion of miraculous happenings and above all their uncritical context are characteristics of hagiography. The Legenda was intended to inspire extemporized homilies and sermons appropriate to the saint of the day.[25]

Urban legend[edit]

The tale of the White Lady who haunts Union Cemetery is a variant of the Vanishing hitchhiker legend.

The vanishing hitchhiker is the best-known urban legend in America, traceable as far back as 1870, but it is found around the world including in Korea and Russia. In the legend, a young girl in a white dress picked up alongside of the road by a passerby. The unknown girl in white remains silent for the duration of her ride, thanks the driver, and quietly gets out at her destination. When the driver turns to look back, the girl has vanished.[26][27][28][29] In 1942, Beardsley and Hankey collected 79 written accounts of the legend.[30][31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Georges, Robert; Owens, Michael (1995). Folkloristics. United States of America: Indiana University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-253-32934-5. 
  2. ^ Norbert Krapf, Beneath the Cherry Sapling: Legends from Franconia (New York: Fordham University Press) 1988, devotes his opening section to distinguishing the genre of legend from other narrative forms, such as fairy tale; he "reiterates the Grimms' definition of legend as a folktale historically grounded", according to Hans Sebald's review in German Studies Review 13.2 (May 1990), p 312.
  3. ^ Tangherlini, "'It Happened Not Too Far from Here...': A Survey of Legend Theory and Characterization" Western Folklore 49.4 (October 1990:371–390) p. 385.
  4. ^ That is to say, specifically located in place and time.
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "legend"
  6. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "legendary". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  7. ^ "legendry". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 
  8. ^ Patrick Collinson. Elizabethans, "Truth and Legend: The Veracity of John Foxe's Book of Martyrs" 2003:151–77, balances the authentic records and rhetorical presentation of Foxe's Acts and Monuments, itself a mighty force of Protestant legend-making. Sherry L. Reames, The Legenda Aurea: a reexamination of its paradoxical history, 1985, examines the "Renaissance verdict" on the Legenda, and its wider influence in skeptical approaches to Catholic hagiography in general.
  9. ^ Das MĂ€rchen ist poetischer, die Sage, historischer, quoted at the commencement of Tangherlini's survey of legend scholarship (Tangherlini 1990:371)
  10. ^ Wehrhan Die Sage (Leipzig) 1908.
  11. ^ Ranke, "Grundfragen der Volkssagen Forshung", in Leander Petzoldt (ed.), Vergleichende Sagenforschung 1971:1–20, noted by Tangherlini 1990.
  12. ^ Peuckert , Sagen (Munich: E Schmidt) 1965.
  13. ^ This was stimulated in part, Tangherlini suggests, by the 1962 congress of the International Society for Folk Narrative Research.
  14. ^ Ranke, "Grundfragen der Volkssagenforschung", Niederdeutsche Zeitschrift fĂŒr Volkskunde 3 (1925, reprinted 1969)
  15. ^ Charles L. Perdue Jt., reviewing Linda DĂ©gh and Andrew VĂĄszony's essay "The crack on the red goblet or truth and the modern legend" in Richard M. Dorson, ed. Folklore in the Modern World, (The Hague: Mouton)1978, in The Journal of American Folklore 93 No. 369 (July–September 1980:367), remarked on Ranke's definition, criticised in the essay, as a "dead issue". A more recent examination of the balance between oral performance and literal truth at work in legends forms Gillian Bennett's chaprer "Legend: Performance and Truth" in Gillian Bennett and Paul Smith, eds. Contemporary Legend (Garland) 1996:17–40.
  16. ^ de Boor, "MĂ€rchenforschung", Zeitschrift fĂŒr Deutschkunde 42 1928:563–81.
  17. ^ Lutz Röhrich, MĂ€rchen und Wirklichkeit: Eine volkskundliche Untersuchung (Wiesbaden: Steiner Verlag) 1956:9–26.
  18. ^ Heiske, "Das MĂ€rchen ist poetischer, die Sage, historischer: Versuch einer Kritik", Deutschunterricht14 1962:69–75..
  19. ^ Bernheim, Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft(Berlin: de Gruyter) 1928.
  20. ^ Allport, The Psychology of Rumor (New York: Holt, Rinehart) 1947:164.
  21. ^ Bengt af Klintberg, "FolksĂ€gner i dag" Fataburen 1976:269–96.
  22. ^ Jansen, "Legend: oral tradition in the modern experience", Folklore Today, A Festschrift for William Dorson (Bloomington: Indiana University Press) 1972:265–72, noted in Tangherlini 1990:375.
  23. ^ Literary or Profane Legends. Catholic Encyclopedia
  24. ^ Hippolyte Delehaye, The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography (1907), Chapter I: Preliminary Definitions
  25. ^ Timothy R. Tangherlini, "'It Happened Not Too Far from Here...': A Survey of Legend Theory and Characterization" Western Folklore 49.4 (October 1990:371–390). A condensed survey with extensive bibliography.
  26. ^ Bennett, Gillian. (1998). The Vanishing Hitchhiker at Fifty-Five. Western Folklore. Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 1-17.
  27. ^ Langlois, Janet L. (July–September 1983). "The Vanishing Hitchhiker: American Urban Legends and Their Meanings by Jan Harold Brunvand". The Journal of American Folklore. 96 (381): 356–357. JSTOR 540959. doi:10.2307/540959. 
  28. ^ Georges, Jones, Robert, Michael (1995). Folkloristics. Indiana University Press. 
  29. ^ Fine, Gary Alan (April 1982). "The Vanishing Hitchhiker: American Urban Legends and Their Meanings by Jan Harold Brunvand". Western Folklore. Western States Folklore Society. 41 (2): 156–157. JSTOR 1499791. doi:10.2307/1499791. 
  30. ^ Beardsley, Richard K; Hankey, Rosalie. (1942). The Vanishing Hitchhiker. California Folklore Quarterly 1: 303-335.
  31. ^ Beardsley, Richard K; Hankey, Rosalie. (1943). A History of the Vanishing Hitchhiker. California Folklore Quarterly 2: 13-25.


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