Play Video
1
John Legend - All of Me
John Legend - All of Me
::2013/10/02::
Play Video
2
Bob Marley - Legend (Album completo)
Bob Marley - Legend (Album completo)
::2012/10/03::
Play Video
3
Legend of Korra Book 4 | Episode 1:
Legend of Korra Book 4 | Episode 1: 'After All These Years' Clip | Nick
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
4
FIFA 15 - LEGEND PACKS!
FIFA 15 - LEGEND PACKS!
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
5
Legend of Korra Book 4 Trailer- Korra Meets Toph?! Episode 1 of Final Season Predictions!
Legend of Korra Book 4 Trailer- Korra Meets Toph?! Episode 1 of Final Season Predictions!
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
6
John Legend - All Of Me (Official Video) [with lyrics] Legendado
John Legend - All Of Me (Official Video) [with lyrics] Legendado
::2014/05/25::
Play Video
7
Game Theory: Which Link Rules them All? (Legend of Zelda: Hyrule Warriors)
Game Theory: Which Link Rules them All? (Legend of Zelda: Hyrule Warriors)
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
8
Happy Wheels: THE LEGEND OF ZELDA
Happy Wheels: THE LEGEND OF ZELDA
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
9
The Legend of Korra - The Making of an Epic Game with Platinum Games
The Legend of Korra - The Making of an Epic Game with Platinum Games
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
10
PACK SCARF OP - FIFA 15 LEGEND IN A PACK!!
PACK SCARF OP - FIFA 15 LEGEND IN A PACK!!
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
11
The Scorch Trials 2015, The Legend of Korra Book 4 Review - Beyond The Trailer
The Scorch Trials 2015, The Legend of Korra Book 4 Review - Beyond The Trailer
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
12
Hyrule Warriors: 2 Player Co-Op! The Legend of Zelda Story PART 4 Lana Dark Link Gameplay Walkthough
Hyrule Warriors: 2 Player Co-Op! The Legend of Zelda Story PART 4 Lana Dark Link Gameplay Walkthough
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
13
Legend of Korra | Book 4: Balance Official Trailer | Nick
Legend of Korra | Book 4: Balance Official Trailer | Nick
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
14
FIFA 15 LEGEND WEAH 89 Player Review & In Game Stats Ultimate Team
FIFA 15 LEGEND WEAH 89 Player Review & In Game Stats Ultimate Team
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
15
¡QUÉ BONITO TODO! #1 | THE LEGEND OF ZELDA THE WIND WAKER | Wii U
¡QUÉ BONITO TODO! #1 | THE LEGEND OF ZELDA THE WIND WAKER | Wii U
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
16
Hyrule Warriors: 2 Player Co Op! The Legend of Zelda Story PART 3 Sheik HD Gameplay Walkthrough
Hyrule Warriors: 2 Player Co Op! The Legend of Zelda Story PART 3 Sheik HD Gameplay Walkthrough
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
17
FIFA 15 UT - LEGEND PELE || FIFA 15 Ultimate Team 95 Legend Pele Player Review + In Game Stats
FIFA 15 UT - LEGEND PELE || FIFA 15 Ultimate Team 95 Legend Pele Player Review + In Game Stats
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
18
Legend Of Korra Season 4 Official Trailer Breakdown
Legend Of Korra Season 4 Official Trailer Breakdown
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
19
Legend of Korra - Book 4 Trailer REACTION
Legend of Korra - Book 4 Trailer REACTION
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
20
Before I Am Legend: The Omega Man
Before I Am Legend: The Omega Man
::2014/09/27::
Play Video
21
Hyrule Warriors: 2 Player Co-Op! The Legend of Zelda Story PART 2 Impa HD Gameplay Walkthrough
Hyrule Warriors: 2 Player Co-Op! The Legend of Zelda Story PART 2 Impa HD Gameplay Walkthrough
::2014/09/27::
Play Video
22
FIFA 15 - I GOT A LEGEND IN A PACK! - (FIFA 15 ULTIMATE TEAM PACK OPENING)
FIFA 15 - I GOT A LEGEND IN A PACK! - (FIFA 15 ULTIMATE TEAM PACK OPENING)
::2014/09/27::
Play Video
23
Legend Of Korra Season 4 - Book Four  Balance Official Trailer
Legend Of Korra Season 4 - Book Four Balance Official Trailer
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
24
Legend Movie Audio Songs Latest I Legend Jukebox I Legend Full Songs HD | Balakrishana, Jagapathi
Legend Movie Audio Songs Latest I Legend Jukebox I Legend Full Songs HD | Balakrishana, Jagapathi
::2014/03/07::
Play Video
25
"Legend of Korra: Book 4" trailer REACTION!!!!!!
"Legend of Korra: Book 4" trailer REACTION!!!!!!
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
26
Destiny - The Struggle of a Legend - #Destiny livestream
Destiny - The Struggle of a Legend - #Destiny livestream
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
27
Minecraft Mods | The Legend Of Zelda Mod | Minecraft Chalenge! Mod Showcase
Minecraft Mods | The Legend Of Zelda Mod | Minecraft Chalenge! Mod Showcase
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
28
INSANE LEGEND & 4 INFORM PULLS!!! - FIFA 15 ULTIMATE TEAM PACK OPENING - HUNTING FOR IF RONALDO
INSANE LEGEND & 4 INFORM PULLS!!! - FIFA 15 ULTIMATE TEAM PACK OPENING - HUNTING FOR IF RONALDO
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
29
Hyrule Warriors: The Legend of Zelda Story PART 1 Link VS King Dodongo Boss! HD Gameplay Walkthrough
Hyrule Warriors: The Legend of Zelda Story PART 1 Link VS King Dodongo Boss! HD Gameplay Walkthrough
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
30
Balakrishna and Boyapati on Legend movie - Part 1 - Tv9
Balakrishna and Boyapati on Legend movie - Part 1 - Tv9
::2014/03/31::
Play Video
31
John Legend (Live in Manila 2014) - All of Me
John Legend (Live in Manila 2014) - All of Me
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
32
Jet li: The Legend of Fong Sai Yuk 2 (Kung Fu Movie)
Jet li: The Legend of Fong Sai Yuk 2 (Kung Fu Movie)
::2014/05/05::
Play Video
33
Official Destiny Live Action Trailer – Become Legend
Official Destiny Live Action Trailer – Become Legend
::2014/09/04::
Play Video
34
FIFA 15 | LEGEND PELE IN A PACK | Suarez NOT in FIFA 15! - (Fifa 15 Top 5 Random Facts)
FIFA 15 | LEGEND PELE IN A PACK | Suarez NOT in FIFA 15! - (Fifa 15 Top 5 Random Facts)
::2014/09/25::
Play Video
35
John Legend - Tonight (Best You Ever Had) ft. Ludacris
John Legend - Tonight (Best You Ever Had) ft. Ludacris
::2012/03/13::
Play Video
36
Legend (1985) - Trailer
Legend (1985) - Trailer
::2007/07/11::
Play Video
37
전설 Legend - 미.남. (미련이 남아서) Left Out
전설 Legend - 미.남. (미련이 남아서) Left Out
::2014/07/08::
Play Video
38
PES 2014 Become A Legend Ep.35 - THE FINALE
PES 2014 Become A Legend Ep.35 - THE FINALE
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
39
John Legend - You & I (Nobody In The World)
John Legend - You & I (Nobody In The World)
::2014/07/10::
Play Video
40
ตัวอย่างหนัง เซนต์เซย์ย่า Legend Of Sanctuary พากย์ไทย
ตัวอย่างหนัง เซนต์เซย์ย่า Legend Of Sanctuary พากย์ไทย
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
41
The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time - Market Performed Blindfolded by Video Game Pianist™
The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time - Market Performed Blindfolded by Video Game Pianist™
::2014/09/28::
Play Video
42
Print the Legend - Main Trailer - Netflix [HD]
Print the Legend - Main Trailer - Netflix [HD]
::2014/09/09::
Play Video
43
Celebrity Sightings at John Legend Concert
Celebrity Sightings at John Legend Concert
::2014/09/27::
Play Video
44
Legend - Loved by the sun
Legend - Loved by the sun
::2007/04/09::
Play Video
45
Jagapati Babu speaks at
Jagapati Babu speaks at 'Legend' audio release - Tv9
::2014/03/07::
Play Video
46
Carles Puyol ● Pure legend ● We will never forget you ● (HD)
Carles Puyol ● Pure legend ● We will never forget you ● (HD)
::2014/09/30::
Play Video
47
Legend of Zelda: Hyrule Warriors Gameplay Walkthrough Part 1 CoOp
Legend of Zelda: Hyrule Warriors Gameplay Walkthrough Part 1 CoOp
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
48
John Legend - Made to Love
John Legend - Made to Love
::2013/08/01::
Play Video
49
The Legend of Korra: Book 4: Balance Trailer Reaction
The Legend of Korra: Book 4: Balance Trailer Reaction
::2014/09/26::
Play Video
50
John Legend - All of Me [Lyrics + Subtitulado Al Español] Video Official HD VEVO
John Legend - All of Me [Lyrics + Subtitulado Al Español] Video Official HD VEVO
::2014/05/06::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A depiction of the legendary Rütlischwur.

A legend (Latin, legenda, "things to be read") is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility", is defined by a highly flexible set of parameters which may include miracles that are perceived as actually having happened, within the specific tradition of indoctrination where the legend arises, and within which it may be transformed over time, in order to keep it fresh and vital, and realistic. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted.[1]

The Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale historically grounded.[2] A modern folklorist's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R. Tangherlini in 1990:[3]

Legend, typically, is a short (mono-) episodic, traditional, highly ecotypified[4] historicized narrative performed in a conversational mode, reflecting on a psychological level a symbolic representation of folk belief and collective experiences and serving as a reaffirmation of commonly held values of the group to whose tradition it belongs."

Etymology and origin[edit]

Holger Danske, a legendary character.

Legend is a loanword from Old French that entered English usage circa 1340. The Old French noun legende derives from the Medieval Latin legenda.[5] In its earliest English-language usage, the word indicated a narrative of an event.

In 1613, English-speaking Protestants began to use the word when they wished to imply that an event (especially the story of any saint not acknowledged in John Foxe's Actes and Monuments) was fictitious.[6] Thus, legend gained its modern connotations of "undocumented" and "spurious", which distinguish it from the meaning of chronicle.

In 1866, Jacob Grimm described the fairy tale as "poetic, legend, historic."[7] Early scholars such as Karl Wehrhan (de)[8] Friedrich Ranke (de)[9] and Will-Erich Peukert[10] followed Grimm's example in focussing solely on the literary narrative, an approach that was enriched particularly after the 1960s,[11] by addressing questions of performance and the anthropological and psychological insights provided in considering legends' social context. Questions of categorising legends, in hopes of compiling a content-based series of categories on the line of the Aarne-Thompson folktale index, provoked a search for a broader new synthesis.

In an early attempt at defining some basic questions operative in examining folk tales, Friedrich Ranke (de) in 1925[12] characterised the folk legend as "a popular narrative with an objectively untrue imaginary content" a dismissive position that was subsequently largely abandoned.[13]

Compared to the highly structured folktale, legend is comparatively amorphous, Helmut de Boor noted in 1928.[14] The narrative content of legend is in realistic mode, rather than the wry irony of folktale;[15] Wilhelm Heiske[16] remarked on the similarity of motifs in legend and folktale and concluded that, in spite of its realistic mode, legend is not more historical than folktale.

In Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft (1928), Ernst Bernheim asserted that a legend is simply a longstanding rumour.[17] Gordon Allport credited the staying-power of some rumours to the persistent cultural state-of-mind that they embody and capsulise;[18] thus "Urban legends" are a feature of rumour.[19] When Willian Jansen suggested that legends that disappear quickly were "short-term legends" and the persistent ones be termed "long-term legends", the distinction between legend and rumour was effectively obliterated, Tangherlini concluded.[20]

The word legendary was originally a noun (introduced in the 1510s) meaning a collection or corpus of legends.[21][22] This word changed to legendry, and legendary became the adjectival form of legend.[21]

In the painting of Lady Godiva by Jules Joseph Lefebvre, the authentic historical person is fully submerged in the legend, presented in an anachronistic high mediaeval setting.

Christian legenda[edit]

In the narrow Christian sense, legenda ("things to be read [on a certain day, in church]") were hagiographical accounts, often collected in a legendary.

Because saints' lives are often included in many miracle stories, legend, in a wider sense, came to refer to any story that is set in a historical context but that contains supernatural or fantastic elements.

Related concepts[edit]

Legends are tales that, because of the tie to a historical event or location, are believable, though not necessarily believed. For the purpose of the study of legends, in the academic discipline of folkloristics, the truth value of legends is irrelevant because, whether the story told is true or not, the fact that the story is being told at all allows scholars to use it as commentary upon the cultures that produce or circulate the legends.

The mediaeval legend of Genevieve of Brabant connected her to Treves.

Hippolyte Delehaye, (in his Preface to The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography, 1907) distinguished legend from myth: "The legend, on the other hand, has, of necessity, some historical or topographical connection. It refers imaginary events to some real personage, or it localizes romantic stories in some definite spot."

From the moment a legend is retold as fiction, its authentic legendary qualities begin to fade and recede: in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Washington Irving transformed a local Hudson River Valley legend into a literary anecdote with "Gothic" overtones, which actually tended to diminish its character as genuine legend.

Stories that exceed the boundaries of "realism" are called "fables". For example, the talking animal formula of Aesop identifies his brief stories as fables, not legends. The parable of the Prodigal Son would be a legend if it were told as having actually happened to a specific son of a historical father. If it included an ass that gave sage advice to the Prodigal Son it would be a fable.

Legend may be transmitted orally, passed on person-to-person, or, in the original sense, through written text. Jacob de Voragine's Legenda Aurea or "The Golden Legend" comprises a series of vitae or instructive biographical narratives, tied to the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. They are presented as lives of the saints, but the profusion of miraculous happenings and above all their uncritical context are characteristics of hagiography. The Legenda was intended to inspire extemporized homilies and sermons appropriate to the saint of the day.

Legends in folklore[edit]

The World of Legends - Székely Land, 2014

Legends are used as a source of folklore, providing historical information regarding the culture and views of a specific legend's native civilization. "The Vanishing Hitchhiker" is the most popular and well known American legend.[23] The traditional tale type involves a young girl in a white dress picked up alongside of the road by a passerby. The unknown girl in white remains silent for the duration of her ride, thanks the driver, and quietly gets out at her destination. When the driver turns to look back, the girl has vanished. Often there a third character is included at the destination to add further suspicion to the girl's existence by informing the driver that they haven't seen anyone all night. "The Vanishing Hitchhiker" and stories like it, display the fears and anxieties that a particular social group has. For example, the hitchhiking tale speaks to America's fascination with the road and also the anxieties that are inherent to travel.

Examples of famous legends[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Georges and Michael Owens (1995). Folkloristics. United States of America: Indiana University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-253-32934-5. 
  2. ^ Norbert Krapf, Beneath the Cherry Sapling: Legends from Franconia (New York: Fordham University Press) 1988, devotes his opening section to distinguishing the genre of legend from other narrative forms, such as fairy tale; he "reiterates the Grimms' definition of legend as a folktale historically grounded", according to Hans Sebald's review in German Studies Review 13.2 (May 1990), p 312.
  3. ^ Tangherlini, "'It Happened Not Too Far from Here...': A Survey of Legend Theory and Characterization" Western Folklore 49.4 (October 1990:371-390) p. 385.
  4. ^ That is to say, specifically located in place and time.
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "legend"
  6. ^ Patrick Collinson. Elizabethans, "Truth and Legend: The Veracity of John Foxe's Book of Martyrs" 2003:151-77, balances the authentic records and rhetorical presentation of Foxe's Acts and Monuments, itself a mighty force of Protestant legend-making. Sherry L. Reames, The Legenda Aurea: a reexamination of its paradoxical history, 1985, examines the "Renaissance verdict" on the Legenda, and its wider influence in skeptical approaches to Catholic hagiography in general.
  7. ^ Das Märchen ist poetischer, die Sage, historischer, quoted at the commencement of Tangherlini's survey of legend scholarship (Tangherlini 1990:371)
  8. ^ Wehrhan Die Sage (Leipzig) 1908.
  9. ^ Ranke, "Grundfragen der Volkssagen Forshung", in Leander Petzoldt (ed.), Vergleichende Sagenforschung 1971:1-20, noted by Tangherlini 1990.)
  10. ^ Peukert , Sagen (Munich: E Schmidt) 1965.
  11. ^ Stimulated in part, Tangherlini suggests, by the 1962 congress of the International Society for Folk Narrative Research.
  12. ^ Ranke, "Grundfragen der Volkssagenforschung", Niederdeutsche Zeitschrift fur Volkskunde 3 (1925, reprinted 1969)
  13. ^ Charles L. Perdue Jt., reviewing Linda Dégh and Andrew Vászony's essay "The crack on the red goblet or truth and the modern legend" in Richard M. Dorson, ed. Folklore in the Modern World, (The Hague: Mouton)1978, in The Journal of American Folklore 93 No. 369 (July–September 1980:367), remarked on Ranke's definition, criticised in the essay, as a "dead issue". A more recent examination of the balance between oral performance and literal truth at work in legends forms Gillian Bennett's chaprer "Legend: Performance and Truth" in Gillian Bennett and Paul Smith, eds. Contemporary Legend (Garland) 1996:17-40.
  14. ^ de Boor, "Märchenforschung", Zeitschrift für Deutschkunde 42 1928:563-81.
  15. ^ Lutz Röhrich, Märchen und Wirklichkeit: Eine volkskundliche Untersuchung (Wiesbaden: Steiner Verlag) 1956:9-26.
  16. ^ Heiske, "Das Märchen ist poetischer, die Sage, historischer: Versuch einer Kritik", Deutschunterricht14 1962:69-75..
  17. ^ Bernheim, Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft(Berlin: de Gruyter) 1928.
  18. ^ Allport, The Psychology of Rumor (New York: Holt, Rinehart) 1947:164.
  19. ^ Bengt af Klintberg, "Folksägner i dag" Fataburen 1976:269-96.
  20. ^ Jansen, "Legend: oral tradition in the modern experience", Folklore Today, A Festschrift for William Dorson (Bloomington: Indiana University Press) 1972:265-72, noted in Tangherlini 1990:375.
  21. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "legendary". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  22. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary legendry
  23. ^ Georges, Jones, Robert, Michael (1995). Folkloristics. Indiana University Press. 
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014