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What is the Legislature?
What is the Legislature?
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: Civics Academy SA
The Bicameral Congress: Crash Course Government and Politics #2
The Bicameral Congress: Crash Course Government and Politics #2
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: CrashCourse
Polity 3: Indian Legislature
Polity 3: Indian Legislature
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: HitBullsEye
State Legislatures and ALEC: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
State Legislatures and ALEC: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: LastWeekTonight
Gov India Explained - 3. The Legislative Branch
Gov India Explained - 3. The Legislative Branch
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Jay Modi
NY State Legislature Adjourns Without Extending De Blasio
NY State Legislature Adjourns Without Extending De Blasio's Control Of City Schools
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: CBS New York
Parliament and state legislature
Parliament and state legislature
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: Vidya-mitra
Legislature Parliament House 6th June, 2017 | व्यवस्थापिका संसद बैठक २३ जेठ,२०७४ (पहिलो बैठक)
Legislature Parliament House 6th June, 2017 | व्यवस्थापिका संसद बैठक २३ जेठ,२०७४ (पहिलो बैठक)
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: व्यवस्थापिका संसद नेपाल Legislature Parliament Nepal
IAS-6- The Union Legislature- Parliament
IAS-6- The Union Legislature- Parliament
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: Seeker
US Government: The National Legislature
US Government: The National Legislature
Published: 2015/01/08
Channel: Paul Sargent
Indian Polity: Union and State Legislature 1/3
Indian Polity: Union and State Legislature 1/3
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: Ram Deswal
No Deal Yet On Mayoral Control Of NYC Schools As State Legislature Set To Adjourn
No Deal Yet On Mayoral Control Of NYC Schools As State Legislature Set To Adjourn
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: CBS New York
Why so much hinges on the next speaker of the B.C. legislature
Why so much hinges on the next speaker of the B.C. legislature
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: CBC News
Speech By Kenyan
Speech By Kenyan's Prof. Lumumba At The Nigerian Legislature Conference On Anti-Corruption
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: NTA News
Legislature Deals Blow To De Blasio
Legislature Deals Blow To De Blasio
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: CBS New York
Texas Legislature Explained
Texas Legislature Explained
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: The Daily Texan
NJAC Debate with Arnab Goswami | Legislature Vs Judiciary | Arun Jaitley Vs Justice R M Lodha - Full
NJAC Debate with Arnab Goswami | Legislature Vs Judiciary | Arun Jaitley Vs Justice R M Lodha - Full
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: TIMES NOW
New Details: Near Brawl in Texas Legislature. #Texas
New Details: Near Brawl in Texas Legislature. #Texas
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
IAS- 8- The State Legislature ( Vidhan Sabah and Vidhan Parishad, State Emergency)
IAS- 8- The State Legislature ( Vidhan Sabah and Vidhan Parishad, State Emergency)
Published: 2016/01/29
Channel: Seeker
Prince William and Kate meet the crowd and depart from B.C. legislature
Prince William and Kate meet the crowd and depart from B.C. legislature
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: Global News
Vermont
Vermont's Legislature Voted to Legalize W-E-E-D!
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: The Humanist Report
Hong Kong Legislature Descends Into Disorder
Hong Kong Legislature Descends Into Disorder
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Wall Street Journal
Louisiana Legislature adjourns in meltdown with no budget
Louisiana Legislature adjourns in meltdown with no budget
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: NOLA.com
Hundreds protest at Texas legislature
Hundreds protest at Texas legislature's move to ban sanctuary cities
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: No Comment TV
King Goodwill Zwelithini addresses KZN legislature
King Goodwill Zwelithini addresses KZN legislature
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Africa News Network 7 TV
Somali-American Refugee Eyes Historic Role in Minnesota State Legislature
Somali-American Refugee Eyes Historic Role in Minnesota State Legislature
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: VOA News
Fight Breaks Out On Floor Of Texas Legislature
Fight Breaks Out On Floor Of Texas Legislature
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: DC Statesman
Fight In Texas Legislature Over Sanctuary for Illegals
Fight In Texas Legislature Over Sanctuary for Illegals
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Idaho News on Demand
NDP MPP Kicked Out of Legislature During Debate about Autism Cuts
NDP MPP Kicked Out of Legislature During Debate about Autism Cuts
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: AM980 News Channel
Lokmat Legislature Award Ceremony
Lokmat Legislature Award Ceremony
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: Lokmat News
State Legislature approves bill expanding cancer benefits for volunteer firefighters
State Legislature approves bill expanding cancer benefits for volunteer firefighters
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: WIVBTV
Right To Repair Hearing At Nebraska State Legislature(edited, commentary)
Right To Repair Hearing At Nebraska State Legislature(edited, commentary)
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: Louis Rossmann
Jason Kander Address the Missouri Legislature [full] -- January 4, 2017
Jason Kander Address the Missouri Legislature [full] -- January 4, 2017
Published: 2017/01/06
Channel: Jason Kander
#FOXFaceoff - composition of 85th #Texas legislature
#FOXFaceoff - composition of 85th #Texas legislature
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Fox 26 Houston
Near Brawl in Texas Legislature, threats of a shooting
Near Brawl in Texas Legislature, threats of a shooting
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: news672
Alberta NDP make mockery of legislature with more “amateur” behaviour
Alberta NDP make mockery of legislature with more “amateur” behaviour
Published: 2016/04/23
Channel: Rebel Media
WV Legislature  06/16/2017
WV Legislature 06/16/2017
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: West Virginia Public Broadcasting
Presidency,judiciary and legislature are not serious with corruption fight PACC
Presidency,judiciary and legislature are not serious with corruption fight PACC
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: Wazobia Max
Chaos at Texas legislature after immigration protest, GOP Rep says
Chaos at Texas legislature after immigration protest, GOP Rep says 'f--- them, I called ICE'
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: David Rutz
Somali-American Makes History With Election To State Legislature | Rachel Maddow | MSNBC
Somali-American Makes History With Election To State Legislature | Rachel Maddow | MSNBC
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: MSNBC
WATCH LIVE: North Carolina legislature debates repeal of HB2
WATCH LIVE: North Carolina legislature debates repeal of HB2 'bathroom bill'
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Let
Let 'Em Know: Nebraska's Unicameral Legislature
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: Open Primaries
Bicameral Legislature PQ
Bicameral Legislature PQ
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Mometrix Academy
Caught on camera: Fists fly in Ekurhuleni legislature
Caught on camera: Fists fly in Ekurhuleni legislature
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: Eyewitness News
Malema hurt in fracas at Gauteng Legislature
Malema hurt in fracas at Gauteng Legislature
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: Mpho Mathoho
Joint Session of Mass. Legislature for JFK Centennial
Joint Session of Mass. Legislature for JFK Centennial
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: JFK Library
UK Parliament Open Lecture - The Legislature and the Executive
UK Parliament Open Lecture - The Legislature and the Executive
Published: 2013/05/17
Channel: UK Parliament
ANC Legislature, Governance policy discussion document: 21 May 2017
ANC Legislature, Governance policy discussion document: 21 May 2017
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: SABC Digital News
WV Legislature Final Hours  04/08/2017
WV Legislature Final Hours 04/08/2017
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: West Virginia Public Broadcasting
Parliament punch-up: Huge fight erupts among MPs in Ukraine legislature
Parliament punch-up: Huge fight erupts among MPs in Ukraine legislature
Published: 2012/05/24
Channel: The Telegraph
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process.

The members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.

Internal organization[edit]

Each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; this is called a quorum.

Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are usually delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators.

The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties; the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs.

The internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members.

Power[edit]

Legislatures vary widely in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries, and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures. The German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, and the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly (since replaced by the Federal Parliament of Somalia) tied for least powerful.[1]

Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution. Such a system renders the legislature more powerful.

Delegation[edit]

Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies.[2]

Members[edit]

Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. A legislature usually contains a fixed number of legislators; because legislatures usually meet in a specific room filled with seats for the legislators, this is often described as the number of "seats" it contains. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a "seat", as, for, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat".

Terminology[edit]

Map showing the terminology for each country's legislature.

In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence. On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive.[3]

Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet" and "assembly".

Chambers[edit]

The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010

A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, and houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral.

The British House of Commons, it's lower house

In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is usually considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, and tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems, particularly parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others, particularly presidential systems, the upper house has equal or even greater power.

The German Bundestag, its theoretical lower house

In federations, the upper house typically represents the federation's component states. This is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.

The Australian Senate, its upper house

Tricameral legislatures are rare; the Massachusetts Governor's Council still exists, but the most recent national example existed in the waning years of Caucasian-minority rule in South Africa. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia.

Size[edit]

Legislatures vary widely in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 987 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected, and the National People's Congress has little independent power.

Legislative size is a tradeoff between efficiency and representation; the smaller the legislature, the more efficiently it can operate, but the larger the legislature, the better it can represent the political diversity of its constituents. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to correspond to the cube root of its population; that is, the size of the lower house tends to increase along with population, but much more slowly.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fish, M. Steven; Kroenig, Matthew (2009). The handbook of national legislatures: a global survey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51466-8. 
  2. ^ Schoenbrod, David (2008). "Delegation". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 117–18. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n74. 
  3. ^ "Governing Systems and Executive-Legislative Relations (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems)". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 2008-10-17. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  4. ^ Frederick, Brian (December 2009). "Not Quite a Full House: The Case for Enlarging the House of Representatives". Bridgewater Review. Retrieved 2016-05-15. 

Further reading[edit]

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