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Leucistic vs Albino Boa Constrictor
Leucistic vs Albino Boa Constrictor
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: Muscle Serpents University
10  Incredible Albino and Leucistic Animals
10 Incredible Albino and Leucistic Animals
Published: 2015/10/21
Channel: WatchZozo
Top 5: Albino & Leucistic Animals
Top 5: Albino & Leucistic Animals
Published: 2016/03/05
Channel: Caters TV
WHITE LION: real & rare example of genetic anomaly (leucism not albinoism)
WHITE LION: real & rare example of genetic anomaly (leucism not albinoism)
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Datacube: awesome facts and interesting top lists
Rare White Spotted Nurse Shark (Leucism)
Rare White Spotted Nurse Shark (Leucism)
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Nate Madden
Blue Eyed Leucistic Male does live kill
Blue Eyed Leucistic Male does live kill
Published: 2015/10/24
Channel: Kato 忍者
Tal
Tal'ngai Dha'run - Leucistic Grey-headed flying fox
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Janine Davies
The White (Leucistic) Cobra
The White (Leucistic) Cobra
Published: 2014/10/05
Channel: Snake Charmer
Leucistic Turdus pilaris - (Fieldfare, Björktrast)
Leucistic Turdus pilaris - (Fieldfare, Björktrast)
Published: 2015/06/01
Channel: JHIslander Islander
The Mystery Of The Part White Blackbirds (leucism)
The Mystery Of The Part White Blackbirds (leucism)
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: HelenaMikas
Leucistic Greenfinch - Verdier d
Leucistic Greenfinch - Verdier d'Europe - Canto de Verderon
Published: 2012/02/01
Channel: Paul Dinning
White mallards by leucism
White mallards by leucism
Published: 2013/08/18
Channel: Ynterstella
Amsel mit Leuzismus / blackbird with leucism
Amsel mit Leuzismus / blackbird with leucism
Published: 2011/10/10
Channel: Flatterman Island
Morph of the Day #8 (Blue Eyed Leucistic)
Morph of the Day #8 (Blue Eyed Leucistic)
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Josh C
Vit duva. Albino / Leucism fågel.
Vit duva. Albino / Leucism fågel.
Published: 2014/02/04
Channel: Kent Degerrot
35 Incredible Albino ( and Leucistic  ) Animals
35 Incredible Albino ( and Leucistic ) Animals
Published: 2017/04/14
Channel: TopTenList
Leucistic Turdus pilaris - (Fieldfare, Björktrast) - bathing
Leucistic Turdus pilaris - (Fieldfare, Björktrast) - bathing
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: JHIslander Islander
LEUCISTIC BALL PYTHON FEMALE-beautiful snake
LEUCISTIC BALL PYTHON FEMALE-beautiful snake
Published: 2012/03/19
Channel: siegelreptiles
Leucism
Leucism
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: BloodSugarLQ
Leucistic Blackbird
Leucistic Blackbird
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: BadgerBotherer1
Blackbird (Leucism) Territorial Male Behaviour
Blackbird (Leucism) Territorial Male Behaviour
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Lancashire Butterflies
Super Rare Leucistic White Alligator in 4K UHD - by John D. Villarreal
Super Rare Leucistic White Alligator in 4K UHD - by John D. Villarreal
Published: 2016/01/05
Channel: Conservative New Media
Kos cerny s leucismem5 Turdus merula Blackbird with leucism Adolf Goebel
Kos cerny s leucismem5 Turdus merula Blackbird with leucism Adolf Goebel
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: MOS ČSO
Leucism - Albino robin ?
Leucism - Albino robin ?
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: sketchart photo
Leucism or Partially Albino Hummingbird!
Leucism or Partially Albino Hummingbird!
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: MagniloquentlyPuncturedKeyboard or MPK
Albino Alligator Vs. Leucistic Alligator
Albino Alligator Vs. Leucistic Alligator
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: theTurtleRoom
Leucistic Sugar Glider Surprise
Leucistic Sugar Glider Surprise
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: Deadly Tarantula Girl
White Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with leucism
White Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with leucism
Published: 2013/05/29
Channel: The Nature Box
Leucistic Crow
Leucistic Crow
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: Ray H
Kos cerny s leucismem4 Turdus merula Blackbird with leucism Adolf Goebel
Kos cerny s leucismem4 Turdus merula Blackbird with leucism Adolf Goebel
Published: 2015/05/16
Channel: MOS ČSO
Leucistic White Baby Sea Turtle
Leucistic White Baby Sea Turtle
Published: 2014/10/15
Channel: GetGreenBeWell
Explanation of Albinism vs Leucism in Peafowl Magnolia Plantation, Charleston, SC
Explanation of Albinism vs Leucism in Peafowl Magnolia Plantation, Charleston, SC
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: Karen Marts
Blue Eyed Leucistic Ball Python
Blue Eyed Leucistic Ball Python
Published: 2013/08/12
Channel: Josh C
Fincasters Episode 69 Leucistic Redtailed Catfish
Fincasters Episode 69 Leucistic Redtailed Catfish
Published: 2015/04/26
Channel: fincasters
Mississauga: Turkey Vulture with leucism in flight 4-18-2016
Mississauga: Turkey Vulture with leucism in flight 4-18-2016
Published: 2016/04/20
Channel: The 4K Guy - Urban / Nature / Editorial
Rare white giraffes caught on camera in Kenya
Rare white giraffes caught on camera in Kenya
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: Guardian Wires
Piebald Fox Squirrel Leucism Albino Fur
Piebald Fox Squirrel Leucism Albino Fur
Published: 2017/04/14
Channel: twredo
Leucism and Albinism in American Robins
Leucism and Albinism in American Robins
Published: 2013/11/18
Channel: Guelph Arboretum
Kos cerny s leucismem2 Turdus merula Blackbird with leucism Adolf Goebel
Kos cerny s leucismem2 Turdus merula Blackbird with leucism Adolf Goebel
Published: 2014/03/02
Channel: MOS ČSO
Leucistic Anna
Leucistic Anna's Hummingbird
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: Thy Bun
Tal
Tal'ngai the Leucistic Grey-headed flying-fox.
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Janine Davies
How to Pronounce Leucism
How to Pronounce Leucism
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: Emma Saying
LEUCISM IN 2 BIRD SPECIES FILMED FEEDING TOGETHER
LEUCISM IN 2 BIRD SPECIES FILMED FEEDING TOGETHER
Published: 2008/11/23
Channel: PYTHAGORAS101
How to say "leucism"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "leucism"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: WordBox
White House Sparrow - Leucistic Birds
White House Sparrow - Leucistic Birds
Published: 2013/09/07
Channel: Paul Dinning
Another look at the albino or leucistic Risso
Another look at the albino or leucistic Risso's Dolphin, Monterey Bay, 6/9/17.
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Princess Monterey
White Diamond Breeding! (Blue Eyed Leucistic x Mojave)
White Diamond Breeding! (Blue Eyed Leucistic x Mojave)
Published: 2015/07/04
Channel: Josh C
Blue eyed leucistic ball python
Blue eyed leucistic ball python
Published: 2016/07/03
Channel: Thomas Daff
Happy Birthday to our 4 leucistic Alligators!
Happy Birthday to our 4 leucistic Alligators!
Published: 2017/08/27
Channel: Gatorland Orlando
Leucistic and Melanoid Axolotls
Leucistic and Melanoid Axolotls
Published: 2016/03/21
Channel: Jeremy Bannister
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Leucistic white lions owe their colouring to a recessive allele. Note the eyes and lips remain the normal colour.
All-white dominant white horse with pink skin, brown eyes, and white hooves.
This white horse owes its colouring to a dominant allele (dominant white).
A leucistic rock pigeon. Both the eyes and legs are still of the normal colour.

Leucism (/ˈljuːkɪzəm/;[1] or /ˈlsɪzəm/[2][3]) is a condition in which there is partial loss of pigmentation in an animal resulting in white, pale, or patchy coloration of the skin, hair, feathers, scales or cuticle, but not the eyes.[1] Unlike albinism, it is caused by a reduction in multiple types of pigment, not just melanin.

Details[edit]

(video) A tiger with leucism at Tobu Zoo, in Saitama, Japan.

Leucism (occasionally spelled leukism) is a general term for the phenotype resulting from defects in pigment cell differentiation and/or migration from the neural crest to skin, hair, or feathers during development. This results in either the entire surface (if all pigment cells fail to develop) or patches of body surface (if only a subset are defective) having a lack of cells capable of making pigment.

Since all pigment cell-types differentiate from the same multipotent precursor cell-type, leucism can cause the reduction in all types of pigment. This is in contrast to albinism, for which leucism is often mistaken. Albinism results in the reduction of melanin production only, though the melanocyte (or melanophore) is still present. Thus in species that have other pigment cell-types, for example xanthophores, albinos are not entirely white, but instead display a pale yellow colour.

More common than a complete absence of pigment cells is localized or incomplete hypopigmentation, resulting in irregular patches of white on an animal that otherwise has normal colouring and patterning. This partial leucism is known as a "pied" or "piebald" effect; and the ratio of white to normal-coloured skin can vary considerably not only between generations, but between different offspring from the same parents, and even between members of the same litter. This is notable in horses, cows, cats, dogs, the urban crow[4] and the ball python[5] but is also found in many other species.

A further difference between albinism and leucism is in eye colour. Due to the lack of melanin production in both the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and iris, those affected by albinism typically have red eyes due to the underlying blood vessels showing through. In contrast, most leucistic animals have normally coloured eyes. This is because the melanocytes of the RPE are not derived from the neural crest, instead an outpouching of the neural tube generates the optic cup which, in turn, forms the retina. As these cells are from an independent developmental origin, they are typically unaffected by the genetic cause of leucism.

Genes that, when mutated, can cause leucism include, c-kit,[6] mitf[7] and EDNRB.[8]

Etymology[edit]

The terms leucistic and leucism are derived from medical terminology (leuc- + -ism). The stem leuc- is the Latin variant of leuk- from the Greek leukos meaning "white" (see Stedman’s, Dorland’s or Taber’s medical dictionaries).

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "leucism". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. 
  2. ^ "leucistic". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, (Subscription required (help)). 
  4. ^ White crows at Cornell University.
  5. ^ Piebald ball pythons at Constrictors.com (archived 9 October 2006, from the original, accessed 18–22 July 2006).
  6. ^ Coat colour, dominant white at Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals.
  7. ^ An L1 element intronic insertion in the black-eyed white (Mitf[mi-bw]) gene: the loss of a single Mitf isoform responsible for the pigmentary defect and inner ear deafness at Human Mulecular Genetics.
  8. ^ Waardenburg syndrome at Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology (archived 26 December 2005, from the original, accessed 18–22 July 2006).

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