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Lexical Items and Concepts
Lexical Items and Concepts
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
Lexical item Meaning
Lexical item Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
Lexical items - Vocabulary & Reading - اللغة الانجليزية - الصف الثانى عشر
Lexical items - Vocabulary & Reading - اللغة الانجليزية - الصف الثانى عشر
Published: 2013/12/15
Channel: Duroosi
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
Lexical unit Meaning
Lexical unit Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
EFL Teacher Training Video - Conveying Lexical Meaning (Video 1)
EFL Teacher Training Video - Conveying Lexical Meaning (Video 1)
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: Ross Thorburn
What is LEXICON? What does LEXICON mean? LEXICON meaning & definition - How to pronounce LEXICON?
What is LEXICON? What does LEXICON mean? LEXICON meaning & definition - How to pronounce LEXICON?
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
Asl lexical items
Asl lexical items
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: caecae r
A Word List for Lexical Cohesion
A Word List for Lexical Cohesion
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Andrew Drummond
Lexical Relations in Semantics
Lexical Relations in Semantics
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: Houda Kaoukab
Lexical category Meaning
Lexical category Meaning
Published: 2015/05/01
Channel: ADictionary
What Is The Meaning Of Lexical Semantics?
What Is The Meaning Of Lexical Semantics?
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Funny Question
What is LEXICAL DEFINITION? What does LEXICAL DEFINITION mean? LEXICAL DEFINITION meaning
What is LEXICAL DEFINITION? What does LEXICAL DEFINITION mean? LEXICAL DEFINITION meaning
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: The Audiopedia
Lexical Units 18
Lexical Units 18
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: Solution Wizard
Teaching Lexical Items to Kids
Teaching Lexical Items to Kids
Published: 2012/01/23
Channel: Banchakarn. Sameephet
LEXICAL PARAMETER
LEXICAL PARAMETER
Published: 2015/05/13
Channel: Chandra Onlines
Lexical sets
Lexical sets
Published: 2012/05/17
Channel: Arturo92bsc
#19: Filling Your Lexical Gaps Since the 90s
#19: Filling Your Lexical Gaps Since the 90s
Published: 2012/01/19
Channel: Rosianna Halse Rojas
Word classes (open and closed classes)
Word classes (open and closed classes)
Published: 2013/10/31
Channel: Language at UWE
Lexical Meaning
Lexical Meaning
Published: 2015/04/14
Channel: SDictionary
VIDEOAULA Analise Funcional do item lexical "aí
VIDEOAULA Analise Funcional do item lexical "aí'
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Nehte UFPE
Modifying lexical entries in Lexus
Modifying lexical entries in Lexus
Published: 2014/07/11
Channel: TheLanguageArchive
Lexical definition Meaning
Lexical definition Meaning
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: SDictionary
Item Meaning
Item Meaning
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: SDictionary
What is GENERATIVE LEXICON? What does GENERATIVE LEXICON mean? GENERATIVE LEXICON meaning
What is GENERATIVE LEXICON? What does GENERATIVE LEXICON mean? GENERATIVE LEXICON meaning
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: The Audiopedia
Lexical verses functional categories
Lexical verses functional categories
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: kamala tiwari
How to teach vocabulary (PPP) TESOL / CELTA
How to teach vocabulary (PPP) TESOL / CELTA
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: Andrew Drummond
six ways of teaching vocabulary
six ways of teaching vocabulary
Published: 2017/07/15
Channel: تعلم اللغة الانجليزية
Using AntConc to look for a list of specific words
Using AntConc to look for a list of specific words
Published: 2013/04/16
Channel: Ron Martinez
Writing a letter - lexical set
Writing a letter - lexical set
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: crowhurst22
ELITE ENGLISH...tURN uR eYES ON 8 Parts of speech........._# # #
ELITE ENGLISH...tURN uR eYES ON 8 Parts of speech........._# # #
Published: 2012/04/04
Channel: eASYtIPS4YOU
Effect of using scenarios in EFL Chilean adult learners
Effect of using scenarios in EFL Chilean adult learners' comprehension of lexical items
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Patricio Pino Castillo
teaching lexical stress of English
teaching lexical stress of English
Published: 2011/11/20
Channel: kent lee
Bilingualism
Bilingualism
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Bilingual Mediation Center
What is WORD-SENSE DISAMBIGUATION? What does WORD-SENSE DISAMBIGUATION mean?
What is WORD-SENSE DISAMBIGUATION? What does WORD-SENSE DISAMBIGUATION mean?
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: The Audiopedia
What Is A Lexeme In Linguistics?
What Is A Lexeme In Linguistics?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
Lexinote Demo
Lexinote Demo
Published: 2014/08/11
Channel: Hiroya TANAKA
What Is A Presupposition Trigger?
What Is A Presupposition Trigger?
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: sparky marketips
What is SET PHRASE? What does SET PHRASE mean? SET PHRASE meaning, definition & explanation
What is SET PHRASE? What does SET PHRASE mean? SET PHRASE meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: The Audiopedia
Why Is It Called Saturday?
Why Is It Called Saturday?
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: Queen Queen
Compiler Design Lecture 10 -- LR parsing, LR(0) items and LR(0) parsing table
Compiler Design Lecture 10 -- LR parsing, LR(0) items and LR(0) parsing table
Published: 2014/05/23
Channel: Gate Lectures by Ravindrababu Ravula
Lexical analyzer Meaning
Lexical analyzer Meaning
Published: 2015/04/30
Channel: ADictionary
What Is Borrowing In Language?
What Is Borrowing In Language?
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: crazy sparky
What Is A Derivational Morpheme?
What Is A Derivational Morpheme?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
Compiler Design Lecture: Introduction to Lexical Analyzer Tokens, Patterns, Lexemes | 23
Compiler Design Lecture: Introduction to Lexical Analyzer Tokens, Patterns, Lexemes | 23
Published: 2015/08/18
Channel: Gate Instructors
What Does Explain The Features Mean?
What Does Explain The Features Mean?
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Robert Robert
Oxford Advanced Learner
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (9th Edition) Letter A
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: Jacob Chu
Phrase structure & Lexical  Rules (Linguistics / Dilbilim 79)
Phrase structure & Lexical Rules (Linguistics / Dilbilim 79)
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: Eyüp Dilber
What Is The Lexical Morpheme?
What Is The Lexical Morpheme?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: Last Question
Unconventional lexical meaning construction in a French(...)
Unconventional lexical meaning construction in a French(...)
Published: 2015/04/30
Channel: uvigo
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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In lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit/ LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (= catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon (≈ vocabulary). Examples are cat, traffic light, take care of, by the way, and it's raining cats and dogs. Lexical items can be generally understood to convey a single meaning, much as a lexeme, but are not limited to single words. Lexical items are like semes in that they are "natural units" translating between languages, or in learning a new language. In this last sense, it is sometimes said that language consists of grammaticalized lexis, and not lexicalized grammar. The entire store of lexical items in a language is called its lexis.

Lexical items composed of more than one word are also sometimes called lexical chunks, gambits, lexical phrases, lexical units, lexicalized stems, or speech formulae. The term polyword listemes is also sometimes used.

Types[edit]

Common types of lexical items/chunks include[1]

  1. Words, e.g. cat, tree
  2. Parts of words, e.g. -s in trees, -er in worker, non- in nondescript, -est in loudest
  3. Phrasal verbs, e.g. put off or get out
  4. Polywords, e.g. by the way, inside out
  5. Collocations, e.g. motor vehicle, absolutely convinced.
  6. Institutionalized utterances, e.g. I'll get it, We'll see, That'll do, If I were you, Would you like a cup of coffee?
  7. Idioms, e.g. break a leg, was one whale of a, a bitter pill to swallow
  8. Sayings, e.g. The early bird gets the worm, The devil is in the details
  9. Sentence frames and heads, e.g. That is not as...as you think, The problem was
  10. Text frames, e.g., In this paper we explore...; Firstly...; Secondly...; Finally ....

An associated concept is that of noun-modifier semantic relations, wherein certain word pairings have a standard interpretation. For example, the phrase cold virus is generally understood to refer to the virus that causes a cold, rather than to a virus that is cold.

Form-meaning correspondence[edit]

Many lexical items are either a whole word or part of a word, whereas many other lexical items consist of parts of one or more words or of multiple words in their entirety. A basic question in this area concerns the form-meaning correspondence. Many multi-word lexical items cannot be construed as constituents in syntax in any sense. But if they are not constituents, then how does one classify them? A relatively recent development in the field of syntax envisages lexical items stored in the lexicon as catenae, whereby a given catena may or may not be a constituent.[2] In syntax, a catena is any element or combination of elements (words or parts of words) that are continuous in the vertical dimension, that is, in the hierarchy of words. The elements form a catena insofar as they are linked together by dependencies. Some dependency grammar trees containing multiple-word lexical items that are catenae but not constituents are now produced. The following trees illustrate phrasal verbs:

Lexical item trees 1

The verb and particle (in red) in each case constitute a particle verb construction, which is a single lexical item. The two words remain a catena even as shifting changes their order of appearance. The following trees illustrate polywords:

Lexical item trees 2

The component words of the polywords (in red) are continuous in the vertical dimension and are therefore catenae. They cannot, however, be construed as constituents since they do not form complete subtrees. The following trees illustrate idioms:

Lexical item trees 3

The fixed words constituting the idiom (in red) build a catena each time. Note that your is not part of the idiom in the first tree (tree a) because the possessor is variable, e.g. He is pulling my/her/his/someone's/etc. leg. An important caveat concerning idiom catenae is that they can be broken up in the syntax, e.g. Your leg is being pulled. The claim, however, is that these lexical items are stored as catenae in the lexicon; they do not always appear as catenae in the actual syntax.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Concerning types of lexical chunks, see M. Lewis (1997).
  2. ^ William O'Grady (1998) introduced the catena unit to linguistics; others have developed the concept further. See for instance Osborne and Groß (2012).

References[edit]

  • Lewis, M. 1997. Implementing the Lexical Approach. Language Teaching Publications. Hove, England.
  • O’Grady, W. 1998. The syntax of idioms. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16, 79-312.
  • Osborne, T. and T. Groß 2012. Constructions are catenae: Construction Grammar meets Dependency Grammar. Cognitive Linguistics 23, 1, 163-214.

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