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Lexical Items and Concepts
Lexical Items and Concepts
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
Lexical item Meaning
Lexical item Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
Lexical items - Vocabulary & Reading - اللغة الانجليزية - الصف الثانى عشر
Lexical items - Vocabulary & Reading - اللغة الانجليزية - الصف الثانى عشر
Published: 2013/12/15
Channel: Duroosi
EFL Teacher Training Video - Conveying Lexical Meaning (Video 1)
EFL Teacher Training Video - Conveying Lexical Meaning (Video 1)
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: Ross Thorburn
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
#19: Filling Your Lexical Gaps Since the 90s
#19: Filling Your Lexical Gaps Since the 90s
Published: 2012/01/19
Channel: Rosianna Halse Rojas
Lexical category Meaning
Lexical category Meaning
Published: 2015/05/01
Channel: ADictionary
What Is The Meaning Of Lexical Semantics?
What Is The Meaning Of Lexical Semantics?
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Funny Question
Lexical sets
Lexical sets
Published: 2012/05/17
Channel: Arturo92bsc
Lexical verses functional categories
Lexical verses functional categories
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: kamala tiwari
Word classes (open and closed classes)
Word classes (open and closed classes)
Published: 2013/10/31
Channel: Language at UWE
Lexical unit Meaning
Lexical unit Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
Asl lexical items
Asl lexical items
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: caecae r
Lexical Meaning
Lexical Meaning
Published: 2015/04/14
Channel: SDictionary
Teaching Lexical Items to Kids
Teaching Lexical Items to Kids
Published: 2012/01/23
Channel: Banchakarn. Sameephet
Lexical and Auxiliary verb
Lexical and Auxiliary verb
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: haveagood day
What Is A Lexeme In Linguistics?
What Is A Lexeme In Linguistics?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
VIDEOAULA Analise Funcional do item lexical "aí
VIDEOAULA Analise Funcional do item lexical "aí'
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Nehte UFPE
What is LEXICAL RECOGNITION? What does LEXICAL RECOGNITION mean? LEXICAL RECOGNITION meaning
What is LEXICAL RECOGNITION? What does LEXICAL RECOGNITION mean? LEXICAL RECOGNITION meaning
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: The Audiopedia
What Is The Lexical Morpheme?
What Is The Lexical Morpheme?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: Last Question
What is LEXICON? What does LEXICON mean? LEXICON meaning & definition - How to pronounce LEXICON?
What is LEXICON? What does LEXICON mean? LEXICON meaning & definition - How to pronounce LEXICON?
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
What is LEXICAL DEFINITION? What does LEXICAL DEFINITION mean? LEXICAL DEFINITION meaning
What is LEXICAL DEFINITION? What does LEXICAL DEFINITION mean? LEXICAL DEFINITION meaning
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: The Audiopedia
How to say
How to say 'lexical item' in Spanish?
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: How to say in Spanish?
How to say
How to say 'lexical item' in French?
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: How to say in French?
A Word List for Lexical Cohesion
A Word List for Lexical Cohesion
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Andrew Drummond
Lexical definition Meaning
Lexical definition Meaning
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: SDictionary
Lexical Stress ☆ Linguistics Lecture
Lexical Stress ☆ Linguistics Lecture
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Lernvideos und Vorträge
Seleção Lexical - Linguagens, Códigos e Suas Tecnologias - Mundo ENEM Online
Seleção Lexical - Linguagens, Códigos e Suas Tecnologias - Mundo ENEM Online
Published: 2013/02/19
Channel: Mundo ENEM
What is GENERATIVE LEXICON? What does GENERATIVE LEXICON mean? GENERATIVE LEXICON meaning
What is GENERATIVE LEXICON? What does GENERATIVE LEXICON mean? GENERATIVE LEXICON meaning
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: The Audiopedia
Lexical Units 18
Lexical Units 18
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: Solution Wizard
ASection 7 4 Lexical Relations
ASection 7 4 Lexical Relations
Published: 2015/06/15
Channel: Trevor Gulliver
Effect of using scenarios in EFL Chilean adult learners
Effect of using scenarios in EFL Chilean adult learners' comprehension of lexical items
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Patricio Pino Castillo
What is SET PHRASE? What does SET PHRASE mean? SET PHRASE meaning, definition & explanation
What is SET PHRASE? What does SET PHRASE mean? SET PHRASE meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: The Audiopedia
LEXICAL PARAMETER
LEXICAL PARAMETER
Published: 2015/05/13
Channel: Chandra Onlines
How to teach vocabulary (PPP) TESOL / CELTA
How to teach vocabulary (PPP) TESOL / CELTA
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: Andrew Drummond
teaching lexical stress of English
teaching lexical stress of English
Published: 2011/11/20
Channel: kent lee
Bilingualism
Bilingualism
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Bilingual Mediation Center
Oxford Advanced Learner
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (9th Edition) Letter A
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: Jacob Chu
Your Space 5 Lexical approach
Your Space 5 Lexical approach
Published: 2014/08/27
Channel: NakladatelstviFraus
ELITE ENGLISH...tURN uR eYES ON 8 Parts of speech........._# # #
ELITE ENGLISH...tURN uR eYES ON 8 Parts of speech........._# # #
Published: 2012/04/04
Channel: eASYtIPS4YOU
Como pronunciar
Como pronunciar 'elemento lexical' en ingles?
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: Como pronunciar
Aula 7 Campo lexical
Aula 7 Campo lexical
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: ENEM 2017 Carecas de Saber Videoaulas
What Is A Presupposition Trigger
What Is A Presupposition Trigger
Published: 2017/11/05
Channel: Jrwom Japt
Como dizer
Como dizer 'elemento lexical' em ingles?
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: Como dizer
A General Algebraic Semantics for Sentential Logics Lecture Notes in Logic
A General Algebraic Semantics for Sentential Logics Lecture Notes in Logic
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: Phocas
What Is Borrowing In Language?
What Is Borrowing In Language?
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: crazy sparky
Lexical Relations in Semantics
Lexical Relations in Semantics
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: Houda Kaoukab
Onset r coda l
Onset r coda l
Published: 2013/12/16
Channel: ArticulatoryIPA
What Is A Derivational Morpheme?
What Is A Derivational Morpheme?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
Lexicon Meaning
Lexicon Meaning
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: SDictionary
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit/ LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (= catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon (≈ vocabulary). Examples are cat, traffic light, take care of, by the way, and it's raining cats and dogs. Lexical items can be generally understood to convey a single meaning, much as a lexeme, but are not limited to single words. Lexical items are like semes in that they are "natural units" translating between languages, or in learning a new language. In this last sense, it is sometimes said that language consists of grammaticalized lexis, and not lexicalized grammar. The entire store of lexical items in a language is called its lexis.

Lexical items composed of more than one word are also sometimes called lexical chunks, gambits, lexical phrases, lexical units, lexicalized stems, or speech formulae. The term polyword listemes is also sometimes used.

Types[edit]

Common types of lexical items/chunks include[1]

  1. Words, e.g. cat, tree
  2. Parts of words, e.g. -s in trees, -er in worker, non- in nondescript, -est in loudest
  3. Phrasal verbs, e.g. put off or get out
  4. Polywords, e.g. by the way, inside out
  5. Collocations, e.g. motor vehicle, absolutely convinced.
  6. Institutionalized utterances, e.g. I'll get it, We'll see, That'll do, If I were you, Would you like a cup of coffee?
  7. Idioms, e.g. break a leg, was one whale of a, a bitter pill to swallow
  8. Sayings, e.g. The early bird gets the worm, The devil is in the details
  9. Sentence frames and heads, e.g. That is not as...as you think, The problem was
  10. Text frames, e.g., In this paper we explore...; Firstly...; Secondly...; Finally ....

An associated concept is that of noun-modifier semantic relations, wherein certain word pairings have a standard interpretation. For example, the phrase cold virus is generally understood to refer to the virus that causes a cold, rather than to a virus that is cold.

Form-meaning correspondence[edit]

Many lexical items are either a whole word or part of a word, whereas many other lexical items consist of parts of one or more words or of multiple words in their entirety. A basic question in this area concerns the form-meaning correspondence. Many multi-word lexical items cannot be construed as constituents in syntax in any sense. But if they are not constituents, then how does one classify them? A relatively recent development in the field of syntax envisages lexical items stored in the lexicon as catenae, whereby a given catena may or may not be a constituent.[2] In syntax, a catena is any element or combination of elements (words or parts of words) that are continuous in the vertical dimension, that is, in the hierarchy of words. The elements form a catena insofar as they are linked together by dependencies. Some dependency grammar trees containing multiple-word lexical items that are catenae but not constituents are now produced. The following trees illustrate phrasal verbs:

Lexical item trees 1

The verb and particle (in red) in each case constitute a particle verb construction, which is a single lexical item. The two words remain a catena even as shifting changes their order of appearance. The following trees illustrate polywords:

Lexical item trees 2

The component words of the polywords (in red) are continuous in the vertical dimension and are therefore catenae. They cannot, however, be construed as constituents since they do not form complete subtrees. The following trees illustrate idioms:

Lexical item trees 3

The fixed words constituting the idiom (in red) build a catena each time. Note that your is not part of the idiom in the first tree (tree a) because the possessor is variable, e.g. He is pulling my/her/his/someone's/etc. leg. An important caveat concerning idiom catenae is that they can be broken up in the syntax, e.g. Your leg is being pulled. The claim, however, is that these lexical items are stored as catenae in the lexicon; they do not always appear as catenae in the actual syntax.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Concerning types of lexical chunks, see M. Lewis (1997).
  2. ^ William O'Grady (1998) introduced the catena unit to linguistics; others have developed the concept further. See for instance Osborne and Groß (2012).

References[edit]

  • Lewis, M. 1997. Implementing the Lexical Approach. Language Teaching Publications. Hove, England.
  • O’Grady, W. 1998. The syntax of idioms. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16, 79-312.
  • Osborne, T. and T. Groß 2012. Constructions are catenae: Construction Grammar meets Dependency Grammar. Cognitive Linguistics 23, 1, 163-214.

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