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The Limbu People of Nepal
The Limbu People of Nepal
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: YWAM PERTH
10 Facts about Limbu people of Nepal
10 Facts about Limbu people of Nepal
Published: 2011/06/05
Channel: pahade
Limbu people Top  #6 Facts
Limbu people Top #6 Facts
Published: 2016/02/03
Channel: Rishika Janaki
DOCUMENTRY BASED ON LIMBU CULTURE
DOCUMENTRY BASED ON LIMBU CULTURE
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: Pathibhara Channel
Superhit Limbu Movie  Numafung | Alok Nembang | Most International Awarded Movie
Superhit Limbu Movie Numafung | Alok Nembang | Most International Awarded Movie
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: Music Nepal
10 facts of limbu people you must have to know
10 facts of limbu people you must have to know
Published: 2017/02/04
Channel: tiger libang
LIMBU DANCE Nepali Mela UK 2010
LIMBU DANCE Nepali Mela UK 2010
Published: 2010/08/29
Channel: Mani Ram Rai
Limbu people
Limbu people
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: WikiAudio
Flags of Magar Gurung Rai Limbu people of Nepal
Flags of Magar Gurung Rai Limbu people of Nepal
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: DilipMagarGurungRaiLimbu Gurkha
Words of Life Limbu: Phedappe People/Language Movie Trailer
Words of Life Limbu: Phedappe People/Language Movie Trailer
Published: 2013/09/14
Channel: World Language Movies
Funny Purbeli Limbu talk nepali funny animation cartoon
Funny Purbeli Limbu talk nepali funny animation cartoon
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: Nepupdates Production
Limbu wedding Clip
Limbu wedding Clip
Published: 2016/11/27
Channel: limbu N
Limbu Evangelistic Film
Limbu Evangelistic Film
Published: 2014/06/19
Channel: YWAM PERTH
Popular Limbu Songs ChhuiyaPakandee & MagheneeMela.
Popular Limbu Songs ChhuiyaPakandee & MagheneeMela.
Published: 2012/07/17
Channel: pangma damber
Limbu Dance (Chhuiya Pakandi )
Limbu Dance (Chhuiya Pakandi )
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: Mani Ram Rai
Dance parade by Himalayan communities - Rai, Limbu and Lepcha
Dance parade by Himalayan communities - Rai, Limbu and Lepcha
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: WildFilmsIndia
LIMBU Wedding In Dharan SUMAN weds SANGITA
LIMBU Wedding In Dharan SUMAN weds SANGITA
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: JPT Entertainment Nepal
Engagement "Magani" in our Limbu Culture
Engagement "Magani" in our Limbu Culture
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: Chemjong Chemjong
किरात लिम्बू जातिको महातीर्थ दर्शन​ | KIRAT LIMBU JATIKO MAHA TIRTHA DARSHAN | ARUN UPATYAKA
किरात लिम्बू जातिको महातीर्थ दर्शन​ | KIRAT LIMBU JATIKO MAHA TIRTHA DARSHAN | ARUN UPATYAKA
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Music Nepal
Magar Gurung Rai Limbu must stop Gurkha lahure tradition
Magar Gurung Rai Limbu must stop Gurkha lahure tradition
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: MONGOLIAN NEPALI MAGAR
Limbu People of Nepal Prayer Mini-Documentary
Limbu People of Nepal Prayer Mini-Documentary
Published: 2013/06/27
Channel: YWAM PERTH
Lhakpa Ongchu and Parul Limbu Sherpa
Lhakpa Ongchu and Parul Limbu Sherpa's Wedding Reception at hotel Shankar,KTM on Dec.7th,2015.
Published: 2016/02/01
Channel: Pemba Sherpa
Yangben faksa - Ethnic cuisine of Rai & Limbu
Yangben faksa - Ethnic cuisine of Rai & Limbu
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: the Gundruk
TUMYAHANG ..Limbu short movie
TUMYAHANG ..Limbu short movie
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: Pathibhara Channel
limbus of sikkim(hingman)
limbus of sikkim(hingman)
Published: 2011/03/25
Channel: Ya' Hyness
Limbu ritual "Fungsok" by "Yebas"
Limbu ritual "Fungsok" by "Yebas"
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Bishal Limbu
Kirat Limbu "King  Hilihang"
Kirat Limbu "King Hilihang"
Published: 2014/07/20
Channel: योङहाङ हर्क मिक्तोक
Limbu cultural traditional dance Chyabrung Kelang 1
Limbu cultural traditional dance Chyabrung Kelang 1
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Sangam Subba
Finishing The Task:  Tim Taylor and the Limbu Partnership
Finishing The Task: Tim Taylor and the Limbu Partnership
Published: 2015/12/03
Channel: VisionSynergy
Words of Life LIMBU (ᤛᤡᤖᤡᤈᤨᤅ) People/Language Movie Trailer
Words of Life LIMBU (ᤛᤡᤖᤡᤈᤨᤅ) People/Language Movie Trailer
Published: 2009/08/05
Channel: World Language Movies
World Deadliest Warrior : The Kirat (the Mongolian People of Nepal) as the elite Gurkhas
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Published: 2013/08/10
Channel: NEPAL KIRATCHANNEL
Nepali Rai & Limbu :Wedding Reception Highlights:
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Published: 2016/06/14
Channel: rame rai
Kirat Limbu " King Hilihang"
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Published: 2014/08/25
Channel: योङहाङ हर्क मिक्तोक
Limbu dance from Nepal by young girls and boys
Limbu dance from Nepal by young girls and boys
Published: 2015/01/24
Channel: WildFilmsIndia
Kirat Rai Clan |different sub-groups of Rai people of Nepal|
Kirat Rai Clan |different sub-groups of Rai people of Nepal|
Published: 2014/10/20
Channel: Dilip Yakkha
Palam | Deshu Suhang ft Sumi Libang Limbu, Sita Tumbapo Limbu and Kishor Pandh Full HD
Palam | Deshu Suhang ft Sumi Libang Limbu, Sita Tumbapo Limbu and Kishor Pandh Full HD
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: Antara Production
Limbu dhan dance from Sikkim
Limbu dhan dance from Sikkim
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: WildFilmsIndia
limbu riti riwajaKhamlalung 2
limbu riti riwajaKhamlalung 2
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: broken heart
Limbu cultural marriage
Limbu cultural marriage
Published: 2014/12/03
Channel: Suman Limbu
Limbu Song:- E Hai Haa By Manu Nembang
Limbu Song:- E Hai Haa By Manu Nembang
Published: 2009/03/15
Channel: bhimfago
malim and morgan limbu wedding
malim and morgan limbu wedding
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: bhu faben
TRADITIONAL NEPALI WEDDING IN LIMBU CULTURE Final ashiss  jhareko by damai baje
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Published: 2016/12/03
Channel: limbu N
Narkumari Wannem Sendhang Limbu(Historical Photos)
Narkumari Wannem Sendhang Limbu(Historical Photos)
Published: 2014/04/21
Channel: Pregish Syangbo
Traditional Limbu cultural song
Traditional Limbu cultural song 'chotlung'
Published: 2012/10/22
Channel: Guru Padma Sambhawa Gururinpochhe
My Voice Dr Apekchhya Limbu Thebe Episode 26
My Voice Dr Apekchhya Limbu Thebe Episode 26
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: Gurkha Channel Ltd
limbu git
limbu git
Published: 2006/09/24
Channel: Deu Limbu
New Limbu Song || Langdak Sewaro - Kirat Song by Brabim Limbu | Kirat Music
New Limbu Song || Langdak Sewaro - Kirat Song by Brabim Limbu | Kirat Music
Published: 2012/12/27
Channel: Music Nepal
New Limbu Song || LIMBUWAN ||  Kirat Song by Brabim Limbu | Kirat Music
New Limbu Song || LIMBUWAN || Kirat Song by Brabim Limbu | Kirat Music
Published: 2012/12/27
Channel: Music Nepal
SeTaMaGuRaLi or Sherpa Tamang Magar Gurung Rai Limbu must now build Nepal
SeTaMaGuRaLi or Sherpa Tamang Magar Gurung Rai Limbu must now build Nepal
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: MONGOLIAN NEPALI MAGAR
Limbu.Sakmura Wademma Sewa ,Bansbotay..Darjeeling
Limbu.Sakmura Wademma Sewa ,Bansbotay..Darjeeling
Published: 2015/01/25
Channel: Ashes
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Limbu, Yakthung, Subba, ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ
Limboo group, aboriginal, trans himalayan Nipal.jpg
Limboo group, aboriginal, trans himalayan Nepal
Total population
(663,100)
Regions with significant populations
   Nepal 487,300[1]
 India 173,000
Languages
Limbu (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n]), Limbu script (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ ᤐᤠᤣ)
Religion
Kirant Mundhum, Shamanism,

The Limbu (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ) (exonym) or Yakthung (endonym) (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]) are a Kirati people of Tibetan origin indigenous to the hills and mountainous regions of eastern Nepal between the Arun and Mechi rivers and as far as southern Tibet, Burma, Bhutan and the Indian states of West Bengal (particularly Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Jalpaiguri districts), Sikkim, Assam and Nagaland.

The name Limbu is an exonym of an uncertain origin. They call themselves Yakthumba or Yakthungba (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ) (IPA: [yakthuŋbɑ]). Their estimated population of 700,000 is mainly centred in the districts of Sankhuwasabha, Tehrathum, Dhankuta, Taplejung, Morang, Sunsari, Jhapa, Panchthar, Ilam, Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur in Nepal, These are all within the Mechi and Kosi Zones or "Limbuwan".

Portions of the Limbu population are also located in the east and west districts of Sikkim. A smaller number are scattered throughout the cities of Darjeeling and Kalimpong in West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland and in north and south Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma, and others have recently migrated to the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, the United States and many other countries.

Limbu clans and tribes are divided into two gotras (clans) indicating their origin: Lhasa and Yunnan. The Limbu are known as Yakthung Thibong (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ thibo:ŋ]), or "Ten Limbu", from which thirteen Limbu subgroups have emerged. According to legend, five of the groups came from Yunnan and the other eight from Lhasa.

The Chinese text Po-ou-Yeo-Jing,[which?] translated in 308 AD, refers to the Yi-ti-Sai (barbarians bordering on the north), a name which is an exact equivalent of Kiratas.[2][3] The Limbus were also one of the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim.[4][5]

Language[edit]

Accounts with Sirijunga

Limbu, Lepcha and Newar are the only Sino-Tibetan languages of the Central Himalayas to possess their own pre-20th century scripts. (Sprigg 1959: 590), (Sprigg 1959: 591-592 & MS: 1-4)

Vowels and consonants[edit]

Vowels:

ʌ, ɑ, i, u, e, ɑi, o, ɑu, ɛ, ɔ

Consonants:

k, kh, g, gh, ŋ, c/ts, ch/tsh, j/dz, jh/dz, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, m, j, r, l, w, sh, s, h, tr

Universal vocabulary[edit]

1. Sun : nam; 2. Moon: la:ba; 3. Star: tanchoˀba; 4. Soil: kham; 5. Water: cwat; 6. Stone: luŋ; 7. Fire: mi; 8. Home: him; 9. Tree: sinŋbuŋ; 10. Mother: mamaˀ; 11. Father: ambo; 12. Path: lam; 13. Flower: phuŋ; 14. Head: thibokpa; 15. Eye: mik; 16. Leg: laŋ; 17. Hand: huk; 18. Eat: cama; 19. Drink: thuŋma; 20. Walk: laŋghekma; 21. Sleep: imma;

Religion[edit]

kiratism or Kirat Dharma

Culture[edit]

Limbu women with traditional clothing and traditional tongba drink.

Limbus practice many of their own life cycle rituals. They believe that lineage is not transmitted patrilineally. Rather, a woman inherits her mother's gods, and when she marries and lives with her husband she brings with her the deities that will then be recognized as the household deities.

Limbu bury their dead and observe for two-to-three days through practiced death rituals. The length of the mourning period varies depending on the gender of the deceased. Weddings, mourning, gift exchanges, and settlement of conflicts involve consumption of alcohol i.e. liquor, especially the Limbu traditional beer popularly known as thee which is also drunk in a container called Tongba. Dancing parties are arranged for visitors to the village. These affairs give the young Limbu girls and boys a chance to meet and enjoy dancing and drinking.

Attire and ornaments[edit]

YalangTemplate:Yɑˀlɑ:ŋ (Nep. Dhan nach), paddy dance, in Taplejung, Nepal

The traditional dress of the Limbus are mekhli and taga.

While performing mangsewa IPA: [mɑŋsewɑ] (God+worship), Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] people wear mekhli and taga in white colour as it symbolizes purity.

Dhaka is the traditional fabric of the Limbus which are made by weaving it in geometric patterns in a handloom. The art of making dhaka is taught by one generation to another. You will always see a Limbu man clad in dhaka topi (hat) and scarf, and a Limbu lady in dhaka saree, mekhli, blouse and shawl.

In the olden days, the Limbus were skilled in silk farming.[6] The Kiratis were also known as silk traders.[7] According to JB Subba and Iman Xin Chemjong, the Kirat is a corrupt form of kereta, silkworm.

Female dresses and ornament[edit]

  • Mekhli- Long dress worn with a horizontal strip of cloth (phɔˀi:) with collars crossing over or in a Vneck style.(Laghea)
  • Chunglokek/sunghamba- Blouse
  • Chaubandi Cholo- Blouse with collars overlapping each other
  • Sim- 'gunyo' in Nepali. A long strip of cloth wrapped around like a skirt.
  • Phaoee IPA: [phɔˀi:]- waist belt

Limbu women are famed for their use of gold jewellery. Aside from samyang IPA: [sɑmyɑŋ] (gold), they use yuppa (silver), luung IPA: [luŋ](glass stones), ponche (coral/amber), and mudhin (turquoise). Most Limbu ornaments are nature inspired. As many other global indigenous people, they are shamanistic and worship nature.

  • Samyanfung IPA: [sɑmyɑŋphuŋ](Gold flower)- Huge circular disc like in gold. The common design features a coral on the centre. Amongst Limbus, Samyangfung IPA: [sɑmyɑŋphuŋ] represents sun.
  • Nessey IPA: [nɛssɛˀ] ( ne>nekho ear +se>to bulge)- Large circular flattened gold earring. Common designs are water springs with coral or glass stones.
  • Laksari- Gold earrings worn continuously on the ear lobes In the shape of leaves, diamonds etc.
  • Namloyee or yogakpa- Large silver necklace in the shape of a square or circle embedded with coral stones. Same as Tibetan ghau.
  • Yangyichi or Reji - Long necklace with coins
  • Sesephung (Bright Flower) - A forehead piece with coral moon. Nepali Sirbandi.
  • Yarling- Lotus bud shaped earrings
  • Pongwari or kantha- Necklace with golden beads and red felt.
  • Hukpangi- Silver bangle
  • Swagep- Finger ring
  • Ponche-Red coral beads

Male dresses and ornaments[edit]

  • Paga- Head wear that is pointy and tied at the back with long strips.
  • Ningkheng- Muffler
  • Phaoee IPA: [phɔˀi:]- Waist belt
  • Sandokpa- Upper body dress
  • Sungrehba- coat like upper body dress
  • Lapetta and pagappa- Upper body dress
  • Paohao- Main body dress
  • Hangchang- Upper body dress for royal family
  • -Te't
  • Hangpen- Lower body dress for royal family*

-Shumbaa

  • toppree- cap

This form of clothing was worn until Nepal forced "one religion, one dress, one language" policy which is why many Limbus in Nepal wear the traditional Nepalese dress, chaubandi cholo and daura sural. The Yakthung of Sikkim still wear traditional Limbu clothing. Many efforts are being made by groups such as Yakthung Chumlung to raise awareness on the cultural dress and heritage.

Flag[edit]

.|right|thumb]] The Limbu people have their own flag. The blue represents the bodies of water and the sky, the white represents air and peace, and the red represents the earth and pure blood of the Limbu people. The sun in the centre represents various Limbu spiritual practices and everyday living. The use and recognition of the flag ended in the eighteenth century during the Gorkha invasion. Recently, Limbuwan organisations have started to publish the flag in Limbuwan laaje IPA: [la:jeˀ] areas.

Economy[edit]

Gurkha Soldier Monument at London

The Limbus traditionally practiced subsistence farming. Rice and maize comprised their principal crops. Although there is an abundance of arable land, productivity is greatly limited by insufficient technology. Excess crops are often traded for food that cannot be grown in the region.

A sizable number of Limbu youths are enlisted in the British and Indian Gurkha regiments, providing their families with a steady stream of income. This income from military service helped to improve the Limbu community as a whole in terms of health and education.

Wedding practices[edit]

Limbus generally marry within their own community (Jones and Jones, 1976). Cross-cousin marriage is not allowed in Limbu culture. Marriage between a man and the widow of his elder brother can take place if they mutually agree. Marriage between a man and a woman outside the clan is also possible either by arrangement or by mutual consent of the man and woman in question. It is conventionally said that the customs and traditions of Limbus were established in the distant past by Sawa Yethang IPA: [sawa yethaŋ] (council of eight kings). The marriages are mostly arranged by parents or they can also result when a man elopes with a woman. Asking for a woman's hand is an important ceremony. In that system, the woman can ask for anything, including an amount of gold, silver, etc. This confirms to the woman's family that the man is financially secure enough to keep their daughter happy. A few days after the wedding, the man's family members have to visit the woman's house with a piglet and some alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, depending upon the financial standard of his house. The most important ceremonies of a Limbu wedding take place in the groom's house rather than the bride's because the bride has to stay with her husband. There are two special dances in this ceremony, one is called "yalakma" or dhan nach in Nepali (rice harvest dance) and "Kelangma" IPA: [ke la:ŋma] or Chyabrung IPA: [cyɑbruŋ] in Nepali. The Yalakma IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ] is characterized by men and women dancing in a slow circle, whereas the Kelangma IPA: [ke lɑ:ŋmɑ] consists of complex footwork synchronized with the beat of the drums. Anyone can join the dance, which can last for many hours. The Yalakma IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ] can also be a celebration of the harvest season or other social occasions.

Religion and festivals[edit]

The Limbus follow the social rules and regulation of Mundhum oral 'scripture' similar to the Bön, shaman. However, their religion is also influenced by Tibetan Buddhism and mainstream Hinduism. Their beliefs are known as "Yumaˀ Samyo" or "Yumaˀism". They also have many different classes of ritual specialists, of which "Phedangma IPA: [phɛdɑŋmɑ]", "Yema/Yeba" IPA: [yɛma/yɛba], and "Shamba" are some. Their supreme deity is Tagera Ningwaˀphuma IPA: [niŋwɑˀphu:mɑŋ], but the deity Yuma IPA: [yumɒˀ] (literally: "Grandmother" or "Mother Earth") is the most important and popular among the Limbus and is worshiped in all occasions. Yuma IPA: [yumɒˀ]is the mother of all the Limbus, therefore one regards his or her mother as a goddess. Their religion is enshrined in the evergreen Cynodondactylon (Dubo) grass. Traditionally, the Limbu bury their dead, but due to the influence from other Hindus, cremation is becoming more popular. Limbu people also have their own clergy, such as Phedangma IPA: [phɛdaŋmɑ], Samba, Yeba (male) Yeba-Yema IPA: [yɛba/yɛma] (female).But now most of the Limbu people follow Kirat religion also.As of the changing time some of the Limbu people are Christian and Hindu also but it is believed that their main religion is Kirat.

Traditional music and singing styles[edit]

Kirati Limbu women performing Kelang IPA: [ke:lɑ:ŋ]dance during the festival of Kirat festival Udhauli 2012 in Sydney.

Limbus residing in Sikkim, Darjeeling, Assam, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma have their own identity because of a strong belief in "Yumawad". Yumawad is a type of religious scripture which has been kept alive by their religious leaders and handed down verbally from generation to generation. Some of the retellings of Yumawad are also included in Limbu traditional music with social stories, dreams, and everyday life. There has been a rich tradition of Limbus singing their folk songs. Their folk songs can be divided into the following groups:

  1. Khyali - a conversational song in which young lash and lads sing in very poetic expressions and in a very sweet tone.
  2. Traditional Love Songs -
    1. Sakpa Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm]Samlo - This song is sung during the Kusakpa Yaalang IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:ŋ] dance in a fast beat.
    2. Kemba Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm]Samlo - This song is sung during the Kemba Yeaaˀlang dance in a slow beat.
    3. Domke Akma Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm] Samlo - It is sung when doing the normal chores and also during the Domke Akma dance.
  3. Hakpare Samlo - this song is sung by middle-aged men and women who have interest in Mundhum and who are well versed in it. One can find spiritual and worldly specialties in this song.
  4. Nisammang IPA: [nisɑmmɑŋ]Sewa Samlo - This song is sung during religious functions. It is a devotional song. Dancing is an important aspect of life among Limbus. Based on acting style, the following types of dances are performed:
    1. Dance performed after origin of life: This type of dance is known as Ke Lang or Chyabrung dance. The dance imitates the actions of animals, insects and any form of living beings.
    2. Agricultural dance: Under this type of dance there are -
      1. Yea Kakma- This dance is performed in the evening after the crops are reaped.
      2. Damke Akme- This dance is performed while sowing crops.
    3. War dance: This form of dance is known as 'Nahangma IPA: [nɑ.hɑŋmɑ]' and is performed during "Nahangma IPA: [nɑ.hɑŋmɑ]"- their religious function. In this dance, only adult males and "Shamani" priests can take part. During the dance, they carry a sword in their right hand and a shield in their left hand, or an arrow in their right hand and a bow in their left hand.
    4. Historical dance: In this dance form, the historical war of ten Limbus fought in Aambepojoma IPA: [ɑmbɛˀpɔjɔˀmɑ] Kamketlungma is depicted.
    5. Mysterious and ancient dance performed by Shamani priests: this type of dance is known as Yagrangsing, Phungsok Lang, Tongsing Lang. The dance is performed only by the Shamani priests.

Traditional food[edit]

Limbu clan people traditional dish are made from pork. In general, they consume rice, dal( beans soup) meat and achar(pickle) . However, in order to perform ritual; pork is essential Limbu people famous dishes are: Kenama(fermented beans), Sukuti(dry meat), Jhyau (mushrooms), Pork feet, Chimpbin, Gundruk, Timbur(himalayan schezwan pepper). Limbu people also have their traditional home made bread called dhedu(Dhedu). They also use a variety of other wild and wild-cultivated species for food and medicine.[8]

Folk musical instruments[edit]

Limbu musical instruments include the Niyari Hongsing Ke(Chyabrung), Ting, Drum, Miklakom, Simikla, Chethya/Yethala, Ta, Tungeba, Ungdung, Yalambar Baja, Tetlafakwa IPA: [tɛˀlɑphɛkwɑ], Mephrama, Negra, Yea Pongey, Puttungey, Phakwa, Phamuk, Phenjekom, and Megphama.

An aged man playing Chyabrung Drum, Yuksom, West Sikkim.

Traditional sports[edit]

For the Limbu people, Archery has always been considered as the main traditional sport. Archery often involves religious demonstrations and rituals. Historically, Limbu cavalry archers were the important when resisting invasions before the pre-Nepal era. The word Limbu itself came from the word Lim-pfungh which in translation means "Shooting-Arrows" or "Act of archery".

There are legends about the beginning of the Limbuwan Gorkha war. In these legends, a Gorkha Military General met a Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] hunter in a forest. When the General asked the hunter about his presence and what he was doing, the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] hunter replied "Lim-pfungh". The Gorkha army later experienced the fierceness from the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]-Tribes' horseback archers for years during the Gorkha-Limbu war. Thus, the name "Limbu" was recorded on the papers of the Gorkhas to describe the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] people. However, after the success of Gorkha invasion, horse breeding and keeping declined swiftly in Limbu territories.

Bare-hand Wrestling has also been practised among the Limbu men during festivals. This was also used to settle personal matters after a festive drinking in which the losing wrestler would have to pay the winner by buying him a drink or inviting him to his house for a drink of traditional tongba IPA: [tɔ:ŋbɑ]. na:nchiŋma is the term for wrestling in Yakthung-pan IPA: [yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n].

Notable Limbu people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Government of Nepal.National Planning Commission Secretariat.Central Bureau of Statistics. National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report), November 2012 (PDF). Kathmandu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-18. 
  2. ^ Saklani, Dinesh Prasad Ancient communities of the Himalaya Indus Publishing Company, India (1 Mar 2002) ISBN 978-81-7387-090-3 p. 36
  3. ^ Levi, Sylvain Le Nepal Asian Educational Services, India; Facsimile edition (20 Dec 2007)ISBN 978-81-206-0580-0 p. 78
  4. ^ Sanyal, Dr. Chanru Chandra (1979). The Limbus: A South Eastern Himalayan Kirata People. Dipti Printing. p. 7. 
  5. ^ Skoda, Uwe (2014). Navigating Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Contemporary India and Beyond: Structures, Agents, Practices (Anthem South Asian Studies). Anthem Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-1783083404. 
  6. ^ Chaintanya Subba, The Culture and Religion of Limbus, K.B. Subba, 1995
  7. ^ Kumar Pradhan, The Gurkha Conquests, Oxford University Press, 1991
  8. ^ O'Neill, Alexander; et al. (2017-03-29). "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 13 (21). doi:10.1186/s13002-017-0148-9. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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