A Limbu woman
|Regions with significant populations|
|Limbu (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n]), Nepali|
|Mundhum, Hinduism, Shamanism, Buddhism|
The Limbu or Yakthung (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]) tribes and clans are a Kirati people indigenous to the hill and mountainous regions of East Nepal between the Arun and Mechi rivers to as far as South Tibet, Bhutan, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Assam, Nagaland and Burma.
The name Limbu is an exonym of an uncertain origin. They call themselves Yakthumba (IPA: [yakthuŋbɑ]. In Standard Tibetan, they are referred to as "Sikkimese" (Tibetan: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་སྐད་, Wylie: 'bras ljongs pa) and in Sikkimese as Shong or Tsong "Tsang people"). Their estimated population of 700,000 is centered in the districts of Sankhuwasabha, Tehrathum, Dhankuta, Taplejung, Morang, Sunsari, Jhapa, Panchthar, Ilam District, Kathmandu District, Lalitpur District, Bhaktapur District' in Nepal, These are all within the Mechi and Kosi Zones or "Limbuwan".
Portions of the Limbu population are also located in the east and west districts of Sikkim. A smaller number are scattered throughout the cities of Darjeeling and Kalimpong in West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland and in north and south Sikkim, Bhutan and Burma.
Limbu clans and tribes are divided into two gotras indicating their origin: Lhasa and Yunnan. The Limbu are known as Yakthung Thibong (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ thibo:ŋ]) or "Ten Limbu", from which thirteen Limbu subgroups have emerged. According to legend, five of the groups came from Yunnan and the other eight from Lhasa.
Unlike the caste system which was brought to the Nepal region after the invasion of the Hindu Gorkhas, a caste system is not practiced among the Limbu people and Limbu sub-groups. However, there are numerous different clans and family-sects.
The word Yakthungba is most likely a combination of three Limbu syllables: yak, the animal; thum, "herder"; and ba or pa, "inhabitant" (feminine ma). Together these syllables may be translated as "hill people". They are also known as "yak herders" because some clans belonging to the Lhasa Gotra people have legends about their migration from southeast Tibet through the Olang Tshung Gola pass (above Taplejung District).
The Tsong people are a division of Limbu clans in Sikkim. They claim to have migrated from Tsang, Tibet, following their guru, Matog Lama, settling in Sikkim.
Limbu language went through its own unique evolution from the Tibetan and Devanagiri writing systems. Far more Limbus are literate in Nepali than in Limbu, thus many Limbu publications are accompanied by Nepali translation.
Limbu language is one of the major spoken and written languages of Nepal, Sikkim, and other parts of Northern India. Today, linguists have reached the conclusion that pronominalization is an indigenous development of the Tibeto-Burman language, and Limbu language bears a close resemblance with Khambu Sampang and other unique Tibetan dialects. Limbu language has four main dialects: Panchthare, Tamarkhole, Phedappe and Chatthare.
Before the introduction of Sirijonga script among Limbu Kiratas, Rong script was popular in East Nepal, especially in the early Maurong state. Sirijonga script nearly disappeared for 800 years, but it was brought back into practice by Te-Ongsi Sirijonga Thebe of Tellok Sinam.
Limbu language is one of developed and school and college language(Sikkim and Eastern part/Limbuwan of Nepal) with its own literature, grammars and dictionaries.
Accounts with Sirijonga
Limbu, Lepcha and Newar are the only Sino-Tibetan languages of the Central Himalayas to possess their own scripts. (Sprigg 1959: 590), (Sprigg 1959: 591-592 & MS: 1-4) The Kiranti or Limbu script was devised during the period of the Buddhist expansion in Sikkim during the early 18th century when Limbuwan still constituted part of Sikkimese territory. The Kiranti script was probably composed during the same time as the Lepcha script, which was created by the third King of Sikkim, Phyag-rdor rNam-rgyal between 1700 and 1717. The Kiranti script is ascribed to the Limbu hero, Te-Ongsi Sirijonga (translated: "Re-incarnated Sirijonga", refers to Sirijonga Haang). Stiller 141,153). Both Kiranti and Lepcha were ostensibly devised with the intent of furthering the spread of Buddhism. However, Sirijonga was a Limbu Buddhist who studied under Sikkimese high Lamas. Sirijanga was given the title 'the Dorje Lama of Yangrup'.
The script's structure are a mixture of Tibetan and Devanagari. Unlike most other Brahmic scripts, it does not have separate independent vowel characters, instead using a vowel carrier letter with the appropriate dependent vowel attached.
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Main article: Mundhum
The Limbu people practice shamanism, calling it "Yuma[disambiguation needed] (yumaˀ) religion". The Limbus follow Mundhum. Their holy text is the Mundhum, also known as the Kirat Veda. Limbu people worship nature and their ancestors.
Limbu people believe in a supreme god called Tagera Ningwaphuma, who is also known as the supreme knowledge. The Kirat ancestor Yuma Sammang (sɑmmɑŋ) and god of war Theba Sammang (sammaŋ) are the second most important deities.
Limbus practice many of their own rituals. They believe that lineage is not transmitted patrilineally. Rather, a woman inherits her mother's goods, and when she marries and lives with her husband she brings with her the deities that will then be recognized as the household deities.
Limbu bury their dead and observe for two-to-three days through practiced death rituals. The length of the mourning period varies depending on the gender of the deceased. Weddings, mourning, gift exchanges, and settlement of conflicts involve consumption of liquor, especially the Limbu traditional beer popularly known as Tongba. Dancing parties are arranged for visitors to the village. These affairs give the young Limbu girls and boys a chance to meet and enjoy dancing and drinking.
The traditional dress of the Limbus are mekhli and taga.
Dhaka is the traditional fabric of the Limbus which are made by weaving it in geometric patterns in a handloomm. The art of making dhaka is taught by one generation to another although this practice is disappearing as fabrics can be easily bought in the market. You will always see a Limbu man clad in dhaka hat and scarf, and a Limbu lady in dhaka saree, mekhli, Blouse or scarf.
In the olden days, the Limbus were skilled in silk farming. The Kiratis were also known as silk traders. According to JB Subba and Iman Xin Chemjong, the Kirat is a corrupt form of kereta,silkworm.
Limbu women are famed for their use of gold jewellery. Aside from samyangTemplate:Sɑmyɑŋ (gold), they use yuppa (silver), luung Template:Luŋ(glass stones), ponche (coral/amber), and mudhin (turquoise). Most Limbu ornaments are nature inspired. As many other global indigenous people, they are shamanistic and worship nature.
This form of clothing was worn until Nepal forced "one religion, one dress, one language" policy which is why many Limbus in Nepal wear the traditional Nepalese dress, chaubandi cholo and daura sural. The Yakthung of Sikkim still wear traditional Limbu clothing. Many efforts are being made by groups such as Yakthung Chumlung to raise awareness on the cultural dress and heritage.
The Limbu people have their own flag. The blue represents the bodies of water and the sky, the white represents air and peace, and the red represents the earth and pure blood of the Limbu people. The sun in the centre represents various Limbu spiritual practices and everyday living. The use and recognition of the flag ended in the eighteenth century during the Gorkha invasion. Recently, Limbuwan organisations have started to publish the flag in Limbuwan laaje areas.
The Limbus traditionally practiced subsistence farming. Rice and maize comprised their principal crops. Although there is an abundance of arable land, productivity is greatly limited by insufficient technology. Excess crops are often traded for food that cannot be grown in the region.
A sizable number of Limbu youths are enlisted in the British and Indian Gurkha regiments, providing their families with a steady stream of income. This income from military service helped to improve the Limbu community as a whole in terms of health and education.
Limbus generally marry within their own community (Jones and Jones, 1976). Cross-cousin marriage is not allowed in Limbu culture. Marriage between a man and the widow of his elder brother can take place if they mutually agree. Marriage between a man and a woman outside the clan is also possible either by arrangement or by mutual consent of the man and woman in question. It is conventionally said that the customs and traditions of Limbus were established in the distant past by Sawa Yethang (council of eight kings). The marriages are mostly arranged by parents or they can also result when a man elopes with a woman. Asking for a woman's hand is an important ceremony. In that system, the woman can ask for anything, including an amount of gold, silver, etc. This confirms to the woman's family that the man is financially secure enough to keep their daughter happy. A few days after the wedding, the man's family members have to visit the woman's house with a piglet and some alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, depending upon the financial standard of his house. The most important ceremonies of a Limbu wedding take place in the groom's house rather than the bride's because the bride has to stay with her husband. There are two special dances in this ceremony, one is called "yalakma" or dhan nach in Nepali (rice harvest dance) and "Kelangma" or ChyabrungTemplate:Cyɑbruŋ in Nepali. The YalakmaTemplate:Yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ is characterized by men and women dancing in a slow circle, whereas the Kelangma Template:Ke lɑ:ŋmɑ consists of complex footwork synchronized with the beat of the drums. Anyone can join the dance, which can last for many hours. The YalakmaTemplate:Yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ can also be a celebration of the harvest season or other social occasions.
The Limbus follow the Kirant Mundhum oral 'scripture' similar to the Bön, shaman. However, their religion is also influenced by Tibetan Buddhism and Hinduism. They have their own distinct religion known as "Yuma Samyo" or "Yumaism". They also have many different classes of ritual specialists, of which "PhedangmaTemplate:Phɛdɑŋmɑ", "Yema/Yeba", and "Shamba" are some. Their supreme deity is Tagera NingwaphumaTemplate:Niŋwɑphu:mɑŋ, but the deity YumaTemplate:Yumɒˀ (literally: "Grandmother" or "Mother Earth") is the most important and popular among the Limbus and is worshiped in all occasions. Yuma Template:Yumɒˀis the mother of all the Limbus, therefore one regards his or her mother as a goddess. Their religion is enshrined in the evergreen Cynodondactylon (Dubo) grass. Traditionally, the Limbu bury their dead, but due to the influence from their Hindu neighbours, cremation is becoming more popular. Limbu people also have their own clergy, such as PhedangmaTemplate:Phɛdaŋmɑ, Samba, Yeba (male) Yewa-Yema (female). According to the Nepal Census of 2001, out of 359,379 Limbu, 86.29% were identified as practising the traditional Kiranti religion, and 11.32% were identified as Hindu and other religions. Modern Limbus have also been influenced by Christianity, especially those living in parts of India. There are some Limbu Ordained and Pastors in some parts of Indian state.
Limbus residing in Sikkim, Darjeeling, Assam, Nepal and Bhutan, have their own identity because of a strong belief in "Yumawad". Yumawad is a type of religious scripture which has been kept alive by their religious leaders and handed down verbally from generation to generation. Some of the retellings of Yumawad are also included in Limbu traditional music with social stories, dreams, and everyday life. There has been a rich tradition of Limbus singing their folk songs. Their folk songs can be divided into the following groups:
Limbu musical instruments include the Niyari Hongsing Ke,Ting,Drum, Chyabrung, Miklakom, Simikla, Chethya/Yethala, Ta, Tungeba, Ungdung, Yalambar Baja, TetlafakwaTemplate:Tɛˀlɑphɛkwɑ, Mephrama, Negra, Yea Pongey, Puttungey, Phakwa, Phamuk, Phenjekom, and Megphama.
For the Limbu people, Archery has always been considered as the main traditional sport. Archery often involves religious demonstrations and rituals. Historically, Limbu cavalry archers were the important when resisting invasions before the pre-Nepal era. The word Limbu itself came from the word Lim-pfungh which in translation means "Shooting-Arrows" or "Act of archery".
There are legends about the beginning of the Limbuwan Gorkha war. In these legends, a Gorkha Military General met a YakthungTemplate:Yɑkthuŋ hunter in a forest. When the General asked the hunter about his presence and what he was doing, the YakthungTemplate:Yɑkthuŋ hunter replied "Lim-pfungh". The Gorkha army later experienced the fierceness from the YakthungTemplate:Yɑkthuŋ-Tribes' horseback archers for years during the Gorkha-Limbu war. Thus, the name "Limbu" was recorded on the papers of the Gorkhas to describe the YakthungTemplate:Yɑkthuŋ people. However, after the success of Gorkha invasion, horse breeding and keeping declined swiftly in Limbu territories.
Bare-hand Wrestling has also been practised among the Limbu men during festivals. This was also used to settle personal matters after a festive drinking in which the losing wrestler would have to pay the winner by buying him a drink or inviting him to his house for a drink of traditional tongbaTemplate:Tɔ:ŋbɑ. Lakhpa is the term for wrestling in Yakthung-panTemplate:Yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n.
Although Limbus aren't Hindu, they are recognized in the Hindu Society. Nepal's pre-eminent sociologist, Professor Dor Bahadur Bista, asserted that of all the proverbial thirty-six caste and ethnic groups of Nepal, the Hindu caste system made the least impact on the Limbu. In part, this reflected not only their geographical distance from the seat of power in the capital city of Kathmandu but also their cultural independence.
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