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Unknown Facts About  Maha Shivaratri | Orginal  Shiva Lingam
Unknown Facts About Maha Shivaratri | Orginal Shiva Lingam
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Belive Universe Channel
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India's Oldest Lingam - Evidence of Ancient Machining Technology?
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Channel: Phenomenal Travel Videos
Brahma murari surarchita lingam : Shiva Ganga Stotra Devotional Video Song
Brahma murari surarchita lingam : Shiva Ganga Stotra Devotional Video Song
Published: 2012/04/13
Channel: Vega Music
ONLY IN THAILAND - LINGAM. (keep it, not use it)
ONLY IN THAILAND - LINGAM. (keep it, not use it)
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Rishi Kapoor
Rishi Kapoor's Controversial Tweet On Lingam Swami
Published: 2015/09/11
Channel: The Bombay Times
The Shiva Lingam Stone and why you should own one ♥
The Shiva Lingam Stone and why you should own one ♥
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Channel: dreamingofavalon
Lingam
Lingam
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Channel: Bharath Gyan
Lingam & Yoni
Lingam & Yoni
Published: 2012/03/31
Channel: Acrimage
కదులుతున్న దేవుడు సైన్స్ కు అంతుపట్టని రహస్యం I Mysterious Moving Shiva Lingam II Temple Rahasyalu
కదులుతున్న దేవుడు సైన్స్ కు అంతుపట్టని రహస్యం I Mysterious Moving Shiva Lingam II Temple Rahasyalu
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Temple Rahasyalu
ലിംഗം നീളം വണ്ണം കൂട്ടാന്‍ പത്ത് വഴികള്‍ | Health tips in Malayalam | Life style related  video |
ലിംഗം നീളം വണ്ണം കൂട്ടാന്‍ പത്ത് വഴികള്‍ | Health tips in Malayalam | Life style related video |
Published: 2016/12/22
Channel: Just Read Media
Lingastakam - Brahma Murari Surarchita Lingam
Lingastakam - Brahma Murari Surarchita Lingam
Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: Sreenath Nair
పురుష అంగాన్ని పోలి ఉండే ఏడు అడుగుల శివ లింగం | OLDEST SHIVA LINGAM |GUDIMALLAM LORD SHIVA TEMPLE |
పురుష అంగాన్ని పోలి ఉండే ఏడు అడుగుల శివ లింగం | OLDEST SHIVA LINGAM |GUDIMALLAM LORD SHIVA TEMPLE |
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: Bhakthi Channel - Bhakthi TV
Shiva Lingam Represents Ancient Nuclear Reactor
Shiva Lingam Represents Ancient Nuclear Reactor
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: Td Tv
కలలో శివలింగం కనిపిస్తే దేనికి సంకేతం | Meaning of Seeing Shiva Lingam In Dream || Gopuram
కలలో శివలింగం కనిపిస్తే దేనికి సంకేతం | Meaning of Seeing Shiva Lingam In Dream || Gopuram
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Shiva Lingam - Pandit Rajin
Shiva Lingam - Pandit Rajin
Published: 2011/08/17
Channel: KALiDEVOtEEx3
BTS with Suhanya Lingam | Photoshoot | Toronto | Pragathi Guruprasad
BTS with Suhanya Lingam | Photoshoot | Toronto | Pragathi Guruprasad
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: Pragathi Guruprasad
అంతుచిక్కని  కదిలే శివలింగం రహస్యం || Shocking Moving Shiva Lingam in Rudrapoo ||
అంతుచిక్కని కదిలే శివలింగం రహస్యం || Shocking Moving Shiva Lingam in Rudrapoo ||
Published: 2016/12/14
Channel: Eyecon Facts
Shiva lingam in Home | Chirravuri foundation |
Shiva lingam in Home | Chirravuri foundation |
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: CHIRRAVURI FOUNDATION
Why Shiva lingam is black in colour ?
Why Shiva lingam is black in colour ?
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Captivating Stuff/Telugu
Mysterious Moving Shiva Lingam || కదిలే శివలింగం వెనుక అంతుచిక్కని రహస్యం || With Subtitles
Mysterious Moving Shiva Lingam || కదిలే శివలింగం వెనుక అంతుచిక్కని రహస్యం || With Subtitles
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: Planet Leaf
What is the real meaning of Shiva lingam in Hinduism  శివ లింగం ఎలా ఏర్పడింది శివలింగం అర్థం ఏంటి |
What is the real meaning of Shiva lingam in Hinduism శివ లింగం ఎలా ఏర్పడింది శివలింగం అర్థం ఏంటి |
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Sanathana Dharma
Siva Lingam | Lord Shiva Songs | Vani Jairam | Tamil Devotional Songs | Tamil God Songs
Siva Lingam | Lord Shiva Songs | Vani Jairam | Tamil Devotional Songs | Tamil God Songs
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Bhakti Maalai
Sri Chaganti about Swayamu lingam | స్వయంబు లింగాల స్థల పురాణం ఎందుకు తెలుసుకోవాలి
Sri Chaganti about Swayamu lingam | స్వయంబు లింగాల స్థల పురాణం ఎందుకు తెలుసుకోవాలి
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Sri Vishwamitra
Amarnath Cave Pigeons Mystery || Amarnath yatra || Ice Shiva Lingam || Muslim || Real Mysteries
Amarnath Cave Pigeons Mystery || Amarnath yatra || Ice Shiva Lingam || Muslim || Real Mysteries
Published: 2017/08/05
Channel: Real Mysteries
Shiva Lingam Devotions How To
Shiva Lingam Devotions How To
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: Ambaa Choate
Ice Shiva Lingam at Amarnath Temple, Jammu and Kashmir
Ice Shiva Lingam at Amarnath Temple, Jammu and Kashmir
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: World Viewers Stop
Shocking Facts Behind Moving Shiva Lingam - Rahasyavaani Unknown Telugu Facts
Shocking Facts Behind Moving Shiva Lingam - Rahasyavaani Unknown Telugu Facts
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Rahasyavaani - Unknown Telugu Facts
How is the Shiva Lingam Formed at Amarnath? || అమరనాధ్ లో మంచులింగం ఎలా ఏర్పడుతోంది?
How is the Shiva Lingam Formed at Amarnath? || అమరనాధ్ లో మంచులింగం ఎలా ఏర్పడుతోంది?
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: Rahasyavaani - Unknown Telugu Facts
Lingam _ இலிங்கம்
Lingam _ இலிங்கம்
Published: 2015/07/27
Channel: sivayogi
SHIVA LINGAM • Rob
SHIVA LINGAM • Rob's Stone Healing
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: Aloha Spiritual
LINGASTAKAM - Brahma Murari Surarchita Lingam by Suprabha KV
LINGASTAKAM - Brahma Murari Surarchita Lingam by Suprabha KV
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Suprabha KV
Shiva lingam in Home | శివలింగం ఇంట్లో పెట్టుకోవ‌డంపై భిన్నభిప్ర‌యాలు | నిత్య పూజ ఇలా | rajasudha
Shiva lingam in Home | శివలింగం ఇంట్లో పెట్టుకోవ‌డంపై భిన్నభిప్ర‌యాలు | నిత్య పూజ ఇలా | rajasudha
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: RAJASUDHA
Shocking Moving Shiva Lingam in Rudrapoor | Shiva Lingam Mystery || Remix King
Shocking Moving Shiva Lingam in Rudrapoor | Shiva Lingam Mystery || Remix King
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Remix King
How To do Shiva Lingam Puja In Home | Karthika Masam Special Video | Eagle Media Works
How To do Shiva Lingam Puja In Home | Karthika Masam Special Video | Eagle Media Works
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Eagle Media Works
శివలింగంపై  పడగవిప్పిన శ్వేతనాగు | Snake Worships Shiva Lingam in Srikakulam | TV5 News
శివలింగంపై పడగవిప్పిన శ్వేతనాగు | Snake Worships Shiva Lingam in Srikakulam | TV5 News
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: TV5 News
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Published: 2013/11/08
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Sri Sathya Sai Baba Shivaratri 2002 Hiranyagarbha Lingam
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Published: 2011/03/09
Channel: aadmia
HILARIOUS SPOOF ON "Hindu HATER" JOHN BENNY LINGAM | ANSWER TO EVERY QUESTION
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Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: HMK
(NEW) Lingashtakam ( Great Prayer to The Eternal Lingam )
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Unbelievable Moving Shiva Lingam in Rudrapur || కదిలే శివలింగం ఎక్కడ ఉందో మీకు తెలుసా?
Unbelievable Moving Shiva Lingam in Rudrapur || కదిలే శివలింగం ఎక్కడ ఉందో మీకు తెలుసా?
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Rahasyavaani - Unknown Telugu Facts
How to do Shiva Lingam Pooja at Home - Mahashivratri Dharma Sandehalu
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Women Abhishekam to Shiva Lingam | Dharma sandehalu - Episode 642_Part 1
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Hooded Snake Worshiped Shiva Lingam in Srikakulam || 2day 2morrow
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Real Meaning of Shiva Lingam Symbol | Garikapati Narasimha Rao Pravachanalu | TV5 News
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Traditional flower offering to a lingam in Varanasi

The lingam (IAST: liṅgaṃ, linga, ling, Shiva linga, Shiv ling, meaning sign, symbol or mark) is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity, Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects.[1][2] In traditional Indian society, the linga is seen as a symbol of the energy and potential of Shiva himself.[3][4]

The lingam is often represented as resting on yoni (Sanskrit word, literally "vulva"[5], "origin" or "source"[6]), a symbol of Durga.[7]

Definition[edit]

A 10th-century four-headed stone lingam (Mukhalinga) from Nepal

The lingam is a column-like or oval (egg-shaped) symbol of Shiva, the Formless All-pervasive Reality, made of stone, metal, or clay. The Shiva Linga is a symbol of Lord Shiva – a mark that reminds of the Omnipotent Lord, which is formless.[8] In Shaivite Hindu temples, the linga is a smooth cylindrical mass symbolising Shiva. It is found at the centre of the temple, often resting in the middle of a rimmed, disc-shaped structure, a representation of Shakti.[3] There is an inclination to reduce the Shiva linga and Shakti yoni, the two main Tantric symbols of ascending and descending forces – which are often represented by upright conical stones for the Shiva linga and ring stones or basis for the Shakti yoni – to merely the male and female sex organs, which is but one of their many reflections, and their erotic glorification. There is a tradition of Tantric sexuality of mithuna which uses sacred sex as part of Yoga practice. But it is not the only practice of Tantric Yoga, much less the highest, and when done is integrated into a much larger array of practices.[citation needed]

Origin[edit]

Lingodbhava Shiva: God Shiva appears as in an infinite Linga fire-pillar, as Vishnu as Varaha tries to find the bottom of the Linga while Brahma tries to find its top. This infinite pillar conveys the infinite nature of Shiva.[9]

Terracotta Shiva Linga figurines found in excavations at Indus Valley Civilization site of Kalibangan and other sites provide evidence of early Shiva Linga worship from circa 3500 BCE to 2300 BCE.[10][11]

Anthropologist Christopher John Fuller wrote that although most sculpted images (murtis) are anthropomorphic, the aniconic Shiva Linga is an important exception.[12] Some believe that linga-worship was a feature of indigenous Indian religion.[13]

There is a hymn in the Atharvaveda that praises a pillar (Sanskrit: stambha), and this is one possible origin of linga worship.[13] Some associate Shiva-Linga with this Yupa-Stambha, the sacrificial post. In the hymn, a description is found of the beginning-less and endless Stambha or Skambha, and it is shown that the said Skambha is put in place of the eternal Brahman. The Yupa-Skambha gave place in time to the Shiva-Linga.[14][15] In the Linga Purana the same hymn is expanded in the shape of stories meant to establish the glory of the great Stambha and the supreme nature of Mahâdeva (the Great God, Shiva).[15]

The Hindu scripture Shiva Purana describes the origin of the lingam, known as Shiva-linga, as the beginning-less and endless cosmic pillar (Stambha) of fire, the cause of all causes.[16] Lord Shiva is pictured as emerging from the Lingam – the cosmic pillar of fire – proving his superiority over the gods Brahma and Vishnu.[9] This is known as Lingodbhava. The Linga Purana also supports this interpretation of lingam as a cosmic pillar, symbolizing the infinite nature of Shiva.[9][14][15][17] According to the Linga Purana, the lingam is a complete symbolic representation of the formless Universe Bearer – the oval-shaped stone is the symbol of the Universe, and the bottom base represents the Supreme Power that holds the entire Universe in it.[18] A similar interpretation is also found in the Skanda Purana: "The endless sky (that great void which contains the entire universe) is the Linga, the Earth is its base. At the end of time the entire universe and all the Gods finally merge in the Linga itself." [19] In yogic lore, the linga is considered the first form to arise when creation occurs, and also the last form before the dissolution of creation. It is therefore seen as an access to Shiva or that which lies beyond physical creation.[20] In the Mahabharata, at the end of Dwaraka Yuga, Lord Shiva says to his desciples that in the coming Kali Yuga, He would not appear in any particular form, but instead as the formless and omnipresent.

Historical period[edit]

A Shiva lingam worshipped at Jambukesvara temple in Thiruvanaikaval (Thiruaanaikaa)

According to Shaiva Siddhanta, which was for many centuries the dominant school of Shaiva theology and liturgy across the Indian subcontinent (and beyond it in Cambodia), the linga is the ideal substrate in which the worshipper should install and worship the five-faced and ten-armed Sadāśiva, the form of Shiva who is the focal divinity of that school of Shaivism.[21]

1,008 lingas carved on a rock surface at the shore of the Tungabhadra River, Hampi, India

The oldest example of a lingam that is still used for worship is in Gudimallam. It dates to the 2nd century BC.[22] A figure of Shiva is carved into the front of the lingam.[23]

Debates around Lingam as phallic symbol[edit]

In 1825 Horace Hayman Wilson's work on the lingayat sect of South India attempted to refute British notions[specify] that the lingam graphically represented a human organ and that it aroused erotic emotions in its devotees.[24][25]

Monier-Williams wrote in Brahmanism and Hinduism that the symbol of linga is "never in the mind of a Shaiva (or Shiva-worshipper) connected with indecent ideas, nor with sexual love".[26] In contrast, Jeaneane Fowler believes the linga is "a phallic symbol which represents the potent energy which is manifest in the cosmos".[2] Some scholars, including David James Smith, believe that throughout its history the lingam has represented the phallus; others, including N. Ramachandra Bhatt, believe the phallic interpretation to be a later addition.[27] M.K.V. Narayan distinguishes the Siva-linga from anthropomorphic representations of Shiva, and notes its absence from Vedic literature, and its interpretation as a phallus in Tantric sources.[28]

At the Paris Congress of the History of Religions in 1900, Ramakrishna's follower Swami Vivekananda argued that the Shiva-Linga had its origin in the idea of the Yupa-Stambha or Skambha, the sacrificial post, idealized in Vedic ritual as the symbol of the Eternal Brahman.[14][15][29] This interpretation was in response to a paper read by Gustav Oppert, a German Orientalist, who traced the origin of the Shalagrama-Shila and the Shiva-Linga to phallicism.[30] According to Vivekananda, the explanation of the Shalagrama-Shila as a phallic emblem was an imaginary invention. Vivekananda argued that this explanation of the Shiva-Linga as a phallic emblem was brought forward by the most thoughtless, and was forthcoming in India in her most degraded times, those of the downfall of Buddhism.[15]

According to Swami Sivananda, the view that the Shiva lingam represents the phallus is a mistake.[18] The same sentiments were also expressed by H. H. Wilson in 1840.[31] Diana Eck believes that translators of Shiva Purana erroneously translated linga as "phallic emblem". She compares the mistranslation "as inadequate as it would be an interpretation of the Christian Eucharist that saw the rite first and foremost as ritual cannibalism, eating the body and drinking its blood".[32]

According to Hélène Brunner,[33] the lines traced on the front side of the linga, which are prescribed in medieval manuals about temple foundation and are a feature even of modern sculptures, appear to be intended to suggest a stylised glans, and some features of the installation process seem intended to echo sexual congress. Scholars such as S. N. Balagangadhara have disputed the sexual meaning of lingam.[34]

Naturally occurring lingams[edit]

Lingam in the cave at Amarnath

An ice lingam at Amarnath in the western Himalayas forms every winter from ice dripping on the floor of a cave and freezing like a stalagmite. It is very popular with pilgrims.

Shivling, 6,543 metres (21,467 ft), is a mountain in Uttarakhand (the Garhwal region of Himalayas). It arises as a sheer pyramid above the snout of the Gangotri Glacier. The mountain resembles a Shiva linga when viewed from certain angles, especially when travelling or trekking from Gangotri to Gomukh as part of a traditional Hindu pilgrimage.

A lingam is also the basis for the formation legend (and name) of the Borra Caves in Andhra Pradesh.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johnson, W.J. (2009). A dictionary of Hinduism (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191726705. Retrieved 5 January 2016. (Subscription required (help)). (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  2. ^ a b Fowler, Jeaneane (1997). Hinduism : beliefs and practices. Brighton [u.a.]: Sussex Acad. Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 9781898723608. 
  3. ^ a b "lingam". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. 
  4. ^ Sivananda (1996). Lord Siva and His Worship. Worship of Siva Linga: The Divine Life Trust Society. ISBN 81-7052-025-8. 
  5. ^ Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase publishing. p. 156. ISBN 0816075646. 
  6. ^ "Sanskrit Wiktionary for Yoni". Sanskrit Wiktionary. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Zimmer, Heinrich Robert (1946). Campbell, Joseph, ed. Myths and symbols in Indian art and civilization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-691-01778-6. But the basic and most common object of worship in Shiva shrines is the lingam. 
  8. ^ Das, Subhamoy. "What is Shiva Linga?". About.com. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c Blurton, T. R. (1992). "Stone statue of Shiva as Lingodbhava". Extract from Hindu art (London, The British Museum Press). British Museum site. Retrieved 2 July 2010. 
  10. ^ Tanga, Surbhi Gupta (August 2016). "Call for an International Museum & Research Center for Harrapan Civilization, at Rakhigarhi" (PDF). INTACH Haryana newsletter. Haryana State Chapter of INTACH: 33–34. 
  11. ^ Lipner, Julius J. (2017). Hindu Images and Their Worship with Special Reference to Vaisnavism: A Philosophical-theological Inquiry. London ; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 39. ISBN 9781351967822. OCLC 985345208. 
  12. ^ The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and society in India, pg. 58 at Books.Google.com
  13. ^ a b Singh, Nagendra Kr. (1997). Encyclopaedia of Hinduism (1st ed.). New Delhi: Centre for International Religious Studies. p. 1567. ISBN 9788174881687. 
  14. ^ a b c Harding, Elizabeth U. (1998). "God, the Father". Kali: The Black Goddess of Dakshineswar. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-81-208-1450-9. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Vivekananda, Swami. "The Paris Congress of the History of Religions". The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Vol.4. 
  16. ^ Chaturvedi. Shiv Purana (2006 ed.). Diamond Pocket Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-7182-721-3. 
  17. ^ "The linga Purana". astrojyoti. Retrieved 10 April 2012. . It was almost as if the linga had emerged to settle Brahma and Vishnu’s dispute. The linga rose way up into the sky and it seemed to have no beginning or end. 
  18. ^ a b Sivananda, Swami (1996). "Worship of Siva Linga". Lord Siva and His Worship. The Divine Life Trust Society. 
  19. ^ "Reading the Vedic Literature in Sanskrit". is1.mum.edu. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  20. ^ "Linga – A Doorway to No-thing". 18 July 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  21. ^ Dominic Goodall, Nibedita Rout, R. Sathyanarayanan, S.A.S. Sarma, T. Ganesan and S. Sambandhasivacarya, The Pañcāvaraṇastava of Aghoraśivācārya: A twelfth-century South Indian prescription for the visualisation of Sadāśiva and his retinue, Pondicherry, French Institute of Pondicherry and Ecole française d'Extréme-Orient, 2005, p.12.
  22. ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2007). A Survey of Hinduism (3. ed.). Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4. 
  23. ^ Elgood, Heather (2000). Hinduism and the Religious Arts. London: Cassell. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-8264-9865-6. 
  24. ^ p132
  25. ^ Rajarajan, R.K.K. (2017). "The Liṅga and Bronzes of the Perunakar Temple". Nidān: International Journal for Indian Studies. 2.1: 13–33 – via https://journals.co.za/content/journal/10520/EJC-852007d0f. 
  26. ^ Carus, Paul (1969). The History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil. Forgotten Books. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-60506-556-4. 
  27. ^ Hinduism and Modernity by David James Smith p. 119
  28. ^ Flipside of Hindu Symbolism, pp. 86–87, by M. K. V. Narayan, Books.Google.com
  29. ^ Nathaniel Schmidt (Dec 1900). "The Paris Congress of the History of Religion". The Biblical World. 16 (6): 447–450. JSTOR 3136952. doi:10.1086/472718. 
  30. ^ Sen, Amiya P. (2006). "Editor's Introduction". The Indispensable Vivekananda. Orient Blackswan. pp. 25–26. During September–October 1900, he [Vivekananda] was a delegate to the Religious Congress at Paris, though oddly, the organizers disallowed discussions on any particular religious tradition. It was rumoured that his had come about largely through the pressure of the Catholic Church, which worried over the 'damaging' effects of Oriental religion on the Christian mind. Ironically, this did not stop Western scholars from making surreptitious attacks on traditional Hinduism. Here, Vivekananda strongly contested the suggestion made by the German Indologist Gustav Oppert that the Shiva Linga and the Salagram Shila, stone icons representing the gods Shiva and Vishnu respectively, were actually crude remnants of phallic worship. 
  31. ^ Wilson, HH. "Classification of Puranas". Vishnu Purana. John Murray, London, 2005. pp. xli–xlii. 
  32. ^ Eck, Diana L. (2012-01-01). India: A Sacred Geography. Harmony Books. pp. 203, 207–209. ISBN 978-0-385-53190-0. 
  33. ^ Hélène Brunner, The sexual Aspect of the linga Cult according to the Saiddhāntika Scriptures, pp.87–103 in Gerhard Oberhammer's Studies in Hinduism II, Miscellanea to the Phenomenon of Tantras, Vienna, Verlag der oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1998.
  34. ^ Balagangadhara, S. N. (2007). Antonio De Nicholas, Krishnan Ramaswamy, Aditi Banerjee, eds. Invading the Sacred. Rupa & Co. pp. 431–433. ISBN 978-81-291-1182-1. 

Sources[edit]

  • Basham, A. L. The Wonder That Was India: A survey of the culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the coming of the Muslims, Grove Press, Inc., New York (1954; Evergreen Edition 1959).
  • Schumacher, Stephan and Woerner, Gert. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Hinduism, Shambhala, Boston, (1994) ISBN 0-87773-980-3.
  • Chakravarti, Mahadev. The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through the Ages, Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass (1986), ISBN 8120800532.
  • Davis, Richard H. (1992). Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Śiva in Medieval India. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691073866. 
  • Drabu, V.N. Śaivāgamas: A Study in the Socio-economic Ideas and Institutions of Kashmir (200 B.C. to A.D. 700), New Delhi: Indus Publishing (1990), ISBN 8185182388.
  • Ram Karan Sharma. Śivasahasranāmāṣṭakam: Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva. With Introduction and Śivasahasranāmākoṣa (A Dictionary of Names). (Nag Publishers: Delhi, 1996). ISBN 81-7081-350-6. This work compares eight versions of the Śivasahasranāmāstotra. The preface and introduction (in English) by Ram Karan Sharma provide an analysis of how the eight versions compare with one another. The text of the eight versions is given in Sanskrit.
  • Kramrisch, Stella (1988). The Presence of Siva. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120804913. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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