Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
What is LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS? What does LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS mean?
What is LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS? What does LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS mean?
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: The Audiopedia
What happen when Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Release from cylinder instantly...??!!
What happen when Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Release from cylinder instantly...??!!
Published: 2015/12/01
Channel: Vinteq96
Liquefied petroleum Gas (LPG) 2008
Liquefied petroleum Gas (LPG) 2008
Published: 2009/10/29
Channel: Ahmed Fathy Salah
LP Gas: Know the Facts
LP Gas: Know the Facts
Published: 2010/08/30
Channel: PublicResourceOrg
How to safely decant LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
How to safely decant LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
Published: 2014/02/26
Channel: Elgas
Liquid Petroleum LP Gas 1960
Liquid Petroleum LP Gas 1960
Published: 2010/12/24
Channel: markdcatlin
what is LPG - Part.1 - Sweetening Process
what is LPG - Part.1 - Sweetening Process
Published: 2015/12/12
Channel: AONG website
How to make L.P.G at home
How to make L.P.G at home
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Rajesh, awesome broo Rajput nice burnout
Difference Between CNG And LPG
Difference Between CNG And LPG
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: Difference Between
How It’s Made LPG conversion
How It’s Made LPG conversion
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: How It’s Made
LPG Car tank Explosion on Highway
LPG Car tank Explosion on Highway
Published: 2014/05/10
Channel: Dmitry
LPG PROCESS SIMPLIFIED ANIMATION
LPG PROCESS SIMPLIFIED ANIMATION
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: ShelterHSE
Testing Out LPG Cars - Fifth Gear
Testing Out LPG Cars - Fifth Gear
Published: 2015/02/03
Channel: Fifth Gear
LPG Vs CNG - Difference Between LPG And CNG
LPG Vs CNG - Difference Between LPG And CNG
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: MAD differences
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Burner - Pre Casting Unit #1
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Burner - Pre Casting Unit #1
Published: 2015/06/05
Channel: Gyver Leong
Charterparty Management for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Tankers
Charterparty Management for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Tankers
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: petroEDGE Asia
Sail Life - LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) aboard, part 1
Sail Life - LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) aboard, part 1
Published: 2015/09/06
Channel: Sail Life
LPG Cylinders Filling Plant
LPG Cylinders Filling Plant
Published: 2014/09/08
Channel: Ayhan Sönmez
The Pro
The Pro's & Con's Of LPG Conversions - With Richard Hammond
Published: 2014/04/12
Channel: Men and Motors
Explosion Bottles Gas LPG
Explosion Bottles Gas LPG
Published: 2014/05/11
Channel: Panagiotis Kalogeroudis
Converting your car to LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas)
Converting your car to LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas)
Published: 2014/02/08
Channel: brcgasru
Good Cars For LPG Conversions - With Richard Hammond
Good Cars For LPG Conversions - With Richard Hammond
Published: 2014/04/10
Channel: Men and Motors
MAZDA RX 8 with LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas z Gazem
MAZDA RX 8 with LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas z Gazem
Published: 2013/02/23
Channel: RotaryPowerForum
Liquefied Gas Transfer (LPG Storage Tank to Transport)
Liquefied Gas Transfer (LPG Storage Tank to Transport)
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: CORKEN
LPG Production Lines
LPG Production Lines
Published: 2013/10/22
Channel: KentPrecision
LPG Gas Tank Explosion in Manila Caught on Camera (July 7, 2013)
LPG Gas Tank Explosion in Manila Caught on Camera (July 7, 2013)
Published: 2013/07/10
Channel: Cool Buster
Liquefied Gas Transfer (LPG Storage Tank to Bobtail Truck)
Liquefied Gas Transfer (LPG Storage Tank to Bobtail Truck)
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: CORKEN
MAZDA RX 8 with LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas z Gazem
MAZDA RX 8 with LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas z Gazem
Published: 2013/03/05
Channel: RotaryPowerForum
LPG WARS: Liquefied Petroleum Gas consumers will might soon have to pay more for product
LPG WARS: Liquefied Petroleum Gas consumers will might soon have to pay more for product
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: KTN News Kenya
making of LPG Gas Cylinder[how to]
making of LPG Gas Cylinder[how to]
Published: 2015/08/13
Channel: Technical Error
lpg scooter plus liquefied petroleum gas
lpg scooter plus liquefied petroleum gas
Published: 2012/06/11
Channel: Sheng-Tu Hhang
Drivers convert their vehicles to run on Liquified Petroleum Gas
Drivers convert their vehicles to run on Liquified Petroleum Gas
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: AP Archive
Liquid Petroleum Gas ( LPG Gas ) Carrying Train - Indian Railways
Liquid Petroleum Gas ( LPG Gas ) Carrying Train - Indian Railways
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: Indian Railways - Journey On Rails
Arduino Based LPG Gas Detector
Arduino Based LPG Gas Detector
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: Circuit Digest
LPG gas me aag lgne pr kya krna chahiye
LPG gas me aag lgne pr kya krna chahiye
Published: 2016/11/01
Channel: Katrina dunduu
LPG SUBSIDY status online kaise check kare
LPG SUBSIDY status online kaise check kare
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: digitalhelp jay
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) train of Indian Railways skips Manmad junction..
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) train of Indian Railways skips Manmad junction..
Published: 2016/09/23
Channel: Mohit Sharma
LPG Gas saving Device
LPG Gas saving Device
Published: 2015/08/22
Channel: MOHINDER PAL Singh
NLNG Advocates The Use of Liquefied Petroleum  Gas (LPG) For Domestic Cooking.
NLNG Advocates The Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) For Domestic Cooking.
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: NTA News
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: Tom Mac
How to Fix Common LPG problems - vaporiser / reducer, injectors
How to Fix Common LPG problems - vaporiser / reducer, injectors
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: comeinhandynow
How to save LPG GAS and save Money
How to save LPG GAS and save Money
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: RUPESH KUMAR
Filling Liquid Petroleum Gas LPG in car
Filling Liquid Petroleum Gas LPG in car
Published: 2015/12/31
Channel: tktk686
CONSUMER DIGEST: Liquefied Petroleum Gas
CONSUMER DIGEST: Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Published: 2015/01/27
Channel: Wbs TvUganda
Oxy LPG Instruction
Oxy LPG Instruction
Published: 2011/05/10
Channel: ausweld1
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Tanks
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Tanks
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Storage Tank
LPG gas Cylinder or bomb Blast
LPG gas Cylinder or bomb Blast
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: UAE LABOURS
Motorcycle runs on LPG
Motorcycle runs on LPG
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Filling The LPG 730 john deere
Filling The LPG 730 john deere
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: onelonleyfarmer
How to check a HP or any LPG gas regulator
How to check a HP or any LPG gas regulator
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Abhilash V R
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Two 45 kg (99 lb) LPG cylinders in New Zealand used for domestic supply.
LPG minibuses in Hong Kong
LPG Ford Falcon taxicab in Perth

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant[1] and a refrigerant,[2] replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as autogas.

Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are mostly propane (C
3
H
8
), mostly butane (C
4
H
10
) and, most commonly, mixes including both propane and butane. In the northern hemisphere winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain more butane.[3][4] In the United States, mainly two grades of LPG are sold: commercial propane and HD-5. These specifications are published by the Gas Processors Association (GPA)[5] and the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).[6] Propane/butane blends are also listed in these specifications.

Propylene, butylenes and various other hydrocarbons are usually also present in small concentrations. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG to 5%, and is utilized as an autogas specification. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that leaks can be detected easily. The internationally recognized European Standard is EN 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiophene (thiophane) or amyl mercaptan are also approved odorants,[7] although neither is currently being utilized.

LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground. It was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It currently provides about 3% of all energy consumed, and burns relatively cleanly with no soot and very few sulfur emissions. As it is a gas, it does not pose ground or water pollution hazards, but it can cause air pollution. LPG has a typical specific calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg compared with 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium grade petrol (gasoline).[8] However, its energy density per volume unit of 26 MJ/L is lower than either that of petrol or fuel oil, as its relative density is lower (about 0.5–0.58 kg/L, compared to 0.71–0.77 kg/L for gasoline).

As its boiling point is below room temperature, LPG will evaporate quickly at normal temperatures and pressures and is usually supplied in pressurised steel vessels. They are typically filled to 80–85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporized gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition, pressure, and temperature, but is typically around 250:1. The pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure, likewise varies depending on composition and temperature; for example, it is approximately 220 kilopascals (32 psi) for pure butane at 20 °C (68 °F), and approximately 2,200 kilopascals (320 psi) for pure propane at 55 °C (131 °F). LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, and thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. There are two main dangers from this. The first is a possible explosion if the mixture of LPG and air is within the explosive limits and there is an ignition source. The second is suffocation due to LPG displacing air, causing a decrease in oxygen concentration.

Uses[edit]

LPG has a very wide variety of uses, mainly used for cylinders across many different markets as an efficient fuel container in the agricultural, recreation, hospitality, calefaction, construction, sailing and fishing sectors. It can serve as fuel for cooking, central heating and to water heating and is a particularly cost-effective and efficient way to heat off-grid homes.

Cooking[edit]

LPG is used for cooking in many countries for economic reasons, for convenience or because it is the preferred fuel source.

In India, nearly 8.9 million tons LPG was consumed during April to September 2016 (six months) in domestic sector mainly for cooking. The number of domestic connections are 215 million (i.e. one connection for every six people) with a circulation of more than 350 million LPG cylinders.[9] Most of the LPG requirement is imported. Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale. LPG is subsidised by the government in India for domestic users. Increase in LPG prices has been a politically sensitive matter in India as it potentially affects the middle class voting pattern.

LPG was once a standard cooking fuel in Hong Kong; however, the continued expansion of town gas to newer buildings has reduced LPG usage to less than 24% of residential units. However, other than electric, induction or infrared stove; LPG-fueled stove is the only type available in most suburban villages and many public housing estates.

LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, being used in virtually all households, with the exception of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, which have a natural gas pipeline infrastructure. Poor families receive a government grant ("Vale Gás") used exclusively for the acquisition of LPG.

LPG is commonly used in North America for domestic cooking and outdoor grilling.

Rural heating[edit]

Cylinders with LP gas in India

Predominantly in Europe and rural parts of many countries, LPG can provide an alternative to electric heating, heating oil, or kerosene. LPG is most often used in areas that do not have direct access to piped natural gas.

LPG can be used as a power source for combined heat and power technologies (CHP). CHP is the process of generating both electrical power and useful heat from a single fuel source. This technology has allowed LPG to be used not just as fuel for heating and cooking, but also for decentralized generation of electricity.

LPG can be stored in a variety of manners. LPG, as with other fossil fuels, can be combined with renewable power sources to provide greater reliability while still achieving some reduction in CO2 emissions.

Motor fuel[edit]

LPG filling connector on a car
White bordered green diamond symbol used on LPG-powered vehicles in China

When LPG is used to fuel internal combustion engines, it is often referred to as autogas or auto propane. In some countries, it has been used since the 1940s as a petrol alternative for spark ignition engines. In some countries, there are additives in the liquid that extend engine life and the ratio of butane to propane is kept quite precise in fuel LPG. Two recent studies have examined LPG-fuel-oil fuel mixes and found that smoke emissions and fuel consumption are reduced but hydrocarbon emissions are increased.[10][11] The studies were split on CO emissions, with one finding significant increases,[10] and the other finding slight increases at low engine load but a considerable decrease at high engine load.[11] Its advantage is that it is non-toxic, non-corrosive and free of tetraethyllead or any additives, and has a high octane rating (102–108 RON depending on local specifications). It burns more cleanly than petrol or fuel-oil and is especially free of the particulates present in the latter.

LPG has a lower energy density per liter than either petrol or fuel-oil, so the equivalent fuel consumption is higher. Many governments impose less tax on LPG than on petrol or fuel-oil, which helps offset the greater consumption of LPG than of petrol or fuel-oil. However, in many European countries this tax break is often compensated by a much higher annual tax on cars using LPG than on cars using petrol or fuel-oil. Propane is the third most widely used motor fuel in the world. 2013 estimates are that over 24.9 million vehicles are fueled by propane gas worldwide. Over 25 million tonnes (over 9 billion US gallons) are used annually as a vehicle fuel.

Not all automobile engines are suitable for use with LPG as a fuel. LPG provides less upper cylinder lubrication than petrol or diesel, so LPG-fueled engines are more prone to valve wear if they are not suitably modified. Many modern common rail diesel engines respond well to LPG use as a supplementary fuel. This is where LPG is used as fuel as well as diesel. Systems are now available that integrate with OEM engine management systems.

Conversion to gasoline[edit]

LPG can be converted into alkylate which is a premium gasoline blending stock because it has exceptional antiknock properties and gives clean burning.

Refrigeration[edit]

LPG is instrumental in providing off-the-grid refrigeration, usually by means of a gas absorption refrigerator.

Blended of pure, dry propane (refrigerant designator R-290) and isobutane (R-600a) the blend "R-290a" has negligible ozone depletion potential and very low global warming potential and can serve as a functional replacement for R-12, R-22, R-134a and other chlorofluorocarbon or hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants in conventional stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems.[12]

Such substitution is widely prohibited or discouraged in motor vehicle air conditioning systems, on the grounds that using flammable hydrocarbons in systems originally designed to carry non-flammable refrigerant presents a significant risk of fire or explosion.[13][14]

Vendors and advocates of hydrocarbon refrigerants argue against such bans on the grounds that there have been very few such incidents relative to the number of vehicle air conditioning systems filled with hydrocarbons.[15][16] One particular test, conducted by a professor at the University of New South Wales, unintentionally tested the worst-case scenario of a sudden and complete refrigerant expulsion into the passenger compartment followed by subsequent ignition. He and several others in the car sustained minor burns to their face, ears, and hands, and several observers received lacerations from the burst glass of the front passenger window. No one was seriously injured.[17]

Global production[edit]

Global LPG production reached over 292 million metric tons/yr in 2015, while global LPG consumption to over 284 mn t/yr.[18] 62% LPG is extracted from natural gas while the rest is produced by the petrochemical refineries from crude oil.[19] 44% of global consumption is in domestic sector. USA is the leading producer and exporter of LPG.[20]

Security of supply[edit]

Because of the natural gas and the oil-refining industry, Europe is almost self-sufficient in LPG. Europe's security of supply is further safeguarded by:

  • a wide range of sources, both inside and outside Europe;
  • a flexible supply chain via water, rail and road with numerous routes and entry points into Europe;

According to 2010–12 estimates, proven world reserves of natural gas, from which most LPG is derived, stand at 300 trillion cubic meters (10,600 trillion cubic feet). Added to the LPG derived from cracking crude oil, this amounts to a major energy source that is virtually untapped and has massive potential. Production continues to grow at an average annual rate of 2.2%, virtually assuring that there is no risk of demand outstripping supply in the foreseeable future.[citation needed]

History of cylinders[edit]

LPG cylinders have been developed over time and their heritage can be seen in the various generations.

The first generation of cylinders were introduced between 1870-1880, to store liquid carbon dioxide for industrial gas businesses. They were long steel tubes without handles and very hard to handle. Later on, the second generation was introduced to bridge some gaps in the first one. They were also made from steel, but with a handle, shorter but wider and the shape has been refined. This generation of cylinder is the most popular and is known as the “traditional” cylinder.

Third generation cylinders improved upon type II, using plastic for coating the metal exterior allowing the exterior to be customised. However, these cylinders continue to have the same drawbacks as Generation I and II.

Aburi Composite LPG cylinders

Generation IV cylinders are the latest on the market. They were developed with aerospace technology and represent a real advance in technology, that otherwise has effectively remained unchanged over 75 years.

There are a couple of companies which have started to work on LPG composite cylinders, including Aburi Composites, London based, and Hexagon Ragasco in Norway. Hyundai has also started in Asia and in India there are some new factories.

According to the Global Composite LPG Cylinders Industry 2016 Market Research Report, the market of composite LPG cylinders is dominated by Hexagon Ragasco and Aburi Composites, both are the global and major manufacturers of composite cylinders. Following the report, Hexagon Ragasco has a production capacity line of 1.600.000 and Aburi Composites of 1.200.000.

Comparison with natural gas[edit]

LPG is composed mainly of propane and butane, while natural gas is composed of the lighter methane and ethane. LPG, vaporised and at atmospheric pressure, has a higher calorific value (94 MJ/m3 equivalent to 26.1kWh/m3) than natural gas (methane) (38 MJ/m3 equivalent to 10.6 kWh/m3), which means that LPG cannot simply be substituted for natural gas. In order to allow the use of the same burner controls and to provide for similar combustion characteristics, LPG can be mixed with air to produce a synthetic natural gas (SNG) that can be easily substituted. LPG/air mixing ratios average 60/40, though this is widely variable based on the gases making up the LPG. The method for determining the mixing ratios is by calculating the Wobbe index of the mix. Gases having the same Wobbe index are held to be interchangeable.

LPG-based SNG is used in emergency backup systems for many public, industrial and military installations, and many utilities use LPG peak shaving plants in times of high demand to make up shortages in natural gas supplied to their distributions systems. LPG-SNG installations are also used during initial gas system introductions, when the distribution infrastructure is in place before gas supplies can be connected. Developing markets in India and China (among others) use LPG-SNG systems to build up customer bases prior to expanding existing natural gas systems.

LPG-based SNG or natural gas with localized storage and piping distribution network to the house holds for catering to each cluster of 5000 domestic consumers can be planned under initial phase of city gas network system. This would eliminate the last mile LPG cylinders road transport which is a cause of traffic and safety hurdles in Indian cities. These localized natural gas networks are successfully operating in Japan with feasibility to get connected to wider networks in both villages and cities.

Environmental effects[edit]

Commercially available LPG is currently derived mainly from fossil fuels. Burning LPG releases carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The reaction also produces some carbon monoxide. LPG does, however, release less CO
2
per unit of energy than does coal or oil. It emits 81% of the CO
2
per kWh produced by oil, 70% of that of coal, and less than 50% of that emitted by coal-generated electricity distributed via the grid.[citation needed] Being a mix of propane and butane, LPG emits less carbon per joule than butane but more carbon per joule than propane.

LPG burns more cleanly than higher molecular weight hydrocarbons because it releases less particulates.[citation needed]

Fire/explosion risk and mitigation[edit]

A spherical gas container typically found in refineries

In a refinery or gas plant, LPG must be stored in pressure vessels. These containers are either cylindrical and horizontal or spherical. Typically, these vessels are designed and manufactured according to some code. In the United States, this code is governed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

LPG containers have pressure relief valves, such that when subjected to exterior heating sources, they will vent LPGs to the atmosphere or a flare stack.

If a tank is subjected to a fire of sufficient duration and intensity, it can undergo a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). This is typically a concern for large refineries and petrochemical plants that maintain very large containers. In general, tanks are designed so that the product will vent faster than pressure can build to dangerous levels.

One remedy, that is utilized in industrial settings, is to equip such containers with a measure to provide a fire-resistance rating. Large, spherical LPG containers may have up to a 15 cm steel wall thickness. They are equipped with an approved pressure relief valve. A large fire in the vicinity of the vessel will increase its temperature and pressure, following the basic gas laws. The relief valve on the top is designed to vent off excess pressure in order to prevent the rupture of the container itself. Given a fire of sufficient duration and intensity, the pressure being generated by the boiling and expanding gas can exceed the ability of the valve to vent the excess. If that occurs, an overexposed container may rupture violently, launching pieces at high velocity, while the released products can ignite as well, potentially causing catastrophic damage to anything nearby, including other containers.

People can be exposed to LPG in the workplace by breathing it in, skin contact, and eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for LPG exposure in the workplace as 1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 2000 ppm, 10% of the lower explosive limit, LPG is considered immediately dangerous to life and health (due solely to safety considerations pertaining to risk of explosion).[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alvi, Moin ud-Din. "Aerosol Propellant | Aerosol Propellant Gas | Aerosol Supplies Dubai – Brothers Gas". www.brothersgas.com. Retrieved 2016-06-14. 
  2. ^ "Performance and Safety of LPG Refrigerants" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-03-10. 
  3. ^ ed, ed. by George E. Totten, (2003). Fuels and lubricants handbook : technology, properties, performance, and testing (2nd printing. ed.). West Conshohocken, Pa.: ASTM International. ISBN 9780803120969. 
  4. ^ Unipetrol. "Analysis of seasonal mixtures - Propane-butane Fuel Mixture (Summer, Winter)". Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "Liquefied Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test Methods". Gas Processors Association. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  6. ^ "ASTM D1835 - 11 Standard Specification for Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases". American Society for Testing & Materials. 
  7. ^ 49 C.F.R. 173.315(b)(1) Note 2
  8. ^ Horst Bauer, ed. (1996). Automotive Handbook (4th ed.). Stuttgart: Robert Bosch GmbH. pp. 238–239. ISBN 0-8376-0333-1. 
  9. ^ "LPG Profile" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Zhang, Chunhua; Bian, Yaozhang; Si, Lizeng; Liao, Junzhi; Odbileg, N (2005). "A study on an electronically controlled liquefied petroleum gas-diesel dual-fuel automobile". Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering. 219 (2): 207. doi:10.1243/095440705X6470. 
  11. ^ a b Qi, D; Bian, Y; Ma, Z; Zhang, C; Liu, S (2007). "Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas–fuel-oil blended fuel". Energy Conversion and Management. 48 (2): 500. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2006.06.013. 
  12. ^ "European Commission on retrofit refrigerants for stationary applications" (PDF). Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  13. ^ "U.S. EPA hydrocarbon-refrigerants FAQ". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  14. ^ "Society of Automotive Engineers hydrocarbon refrigerant bulletin". Sae.org. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  15. ^ "New South Wales (Australia) Parliamentary record, 16 October 1997". Parliament.nsw.gov.au. 16 October 1997. Archived from the original on 1 July 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  16. ^ "New South Wales (Australia) Parliamentary record, 29 June 2000". Parliament.nsw.gov.au. Archived from the original on 22 May 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  17. ^ VASA news report on hydrocarbon refrigerant demonstrations (from the Internet Archive; retrieved 24 May 2012)
  18. ^ "Statistical Review of Global LPG 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  19. ^ "WLPGA Annual Report 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  20. ^ "BPN Butane - Propane news". Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  21. ^ "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - L.P.G.". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-28. 

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license