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These are biblical figures unambiguously identified in contemporary sources according to scholarly consensus.

Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)[edit]

The main sources for identifying people from the Hebrew Bible are Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions as well as seals and bullae (seal impressions) from the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. These date from the 9th century through the late 5th century BCE.

Note: fathers of biblical figures who have no important part in the biblical narrative are not listed separately. So while Baruch, son of Neriah is listed here, Neriah, Baruch's father is not.

  • Ahab, king of Israel: Mentioned extensively in Kings and Chronicles. Identified in the contemporary Kurkh Monolith inscription of Shalmaneser III [1] which describes the Battle of Qarqar and mentions 2,000 chariots, 10,000 soldiers of Ahab the Israelite defeated by Shalmaneser.[2]
  • Ahaz (Jehoahaz), king of Judah: Mentioned extensively in Kings, Chronicles and Isaiah as well as in Hosea 1:1 and Micah 1:1. Identified in the contemporary Summary Inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III which records that he received tribute from Jehoahaz the Judahite, as mentioned in 2 Kings 16:7-8 and 2 Chronicles 28:21.[3] Also identified in a contemporary clay bulla, reading of Ahaz [son of] Jotham king of Judah.[4] (A third bulla mentioning Ahaz as the father of Hezekiah is being investigated as a possible forgery.)
  • Apries (Hophra), pharaoh of Egypt: Mentioned in Jeremiah 44:30. Identified in numerous contemporary inscriptions including those of the capitals of the columns of his palace.[5][6] Herodotus speaks of him in Histories II, 161-171.[7]
  • Artaxerxes I of Persia is widely identified with Artaxerxes in the book of Nehemiah.[8][9] He is also found in the writings of contemporary historian Thucydides.[10] Scholars are divided over whether the king in Ezra's time was the same, or Artaxerxes II.
  • Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria is generally identified with 'the great and noble Osnappar', mentioned in Ezra 4:10.[11][12] He is named in numerous contemporary inscriptions,[13] including those that tell of his conquest of Elam and Babylon which accords with Ezra 4:9-10 where people that he exiled from these regions are mentioned.[14] Diodorus Siculus (book II, 21) preserved a fanciful account of him by Ctesias. (See Sardanapalus in.[15])
  • Baruch ben Neriah, a scribe in the time of Jeremiah. Two identical imprints of his seal were discovered in 1975 and 1996. They read 'to Berachyahu son of Neriyahu the scribe'.[16][17]
  • Belshazzar, coregent of Babylon, son of king Nabonidus,[18] see Nabonidus Cylinder.
  • Ben-hadad son of Hazael, king of Aram Damascus. He is mentioned in the Zakkur Stele.[19]
  • Cyrus II of Persia, appears in many ancient inscriptions, most notably the Cyrus Cylinder.[20]
  • Darius I, king of Persia, is mentioned in the books of Haggai, Zechariah and Ezra.[21][22] He is the author of the Behistun Inscription.
  • Esarhaddon, son of Sennacherib, was king of Assyria. His name survives in his own writings, as well as in those of his son Ashurbanipal.[13][23]
  • Evil Merodach, king of Babylon son of Nebuchadnezzar II. His name (Akkadian 'Amēl-Marduk') and title were found on a vase from his palace,[24] and on several cuneiform tablets.[25]
  • Hazael, king of Aram Damascus. According to the Book of Kings, he was anointed by the prophet Elijah (1 Kings 19:15). Shalmaneser III of Assyria records that he defeated Hazael in battle and captured many chariots and horses from him.[26] Most scholars think that Hazael was the author of the Tel Dan Stele.[27]
  • Hezekiah, king of Judah enacted religious reforms, countering the idol-worshipping of his predecessors (2 Kings 18:1-6). An account is preserved by Sennacherib of how he besieged 'Hezekiah, the Jew', who 'did not submit to my yoke', in his capital city of Jerusalem.[13] A bulla was also found bearing Hezekia's name and title.[28]
  • Hoshea, king of Israel, was put into power by Tilgath-Pileser III, king of Assyria, as recorded in his 'Annals', found in Calah.[13]
  • Jehoash, king of Israel, is mentioned in records of Adad-nirari III of Assyria as 'Jehoash of Samaria'.[29][30]
  • Jehoiachin, King of Judah, was taken captive to Babylon after Nebuchadrezzar first captured Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:15). Texts from Nebuchadrezzar's Southern Palace record the rations given to "Jehoiachin king of the Judeans" (Ya'ukin sar Yaudaya).[31]
  • Jehu, king of Israel; see: Black Obelisk[26]
  • Johanan was high priest during the reign of Darius II. His name is found in Nehemiah 12:22,23 and also in a letter from the Elephantine Papyri[13]
  • Manasseh, king of Judah, is mentioned in the writings of Esarhaddon, who lists him as one of the kings who had brought him gifts and aided his conquest of Egypt.[13][23]
  • Menahem, king of Israel is recorded both in 2 Kings 15:19 and in the annals of Tiglath-Pileser to have paid tribute to him.[13]
  • Mesha, king of Moab (2 Kings 3:4), was the author of the Mesha Stele.[32]
  • Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon is found in the Great Inscription of Sargon II in his palace at Khorsabat.[33]
  • Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon is mentioned in numerous contemporary sources, including the inscription of the Ishtar Gate, which he built.[34]
  • Necho II, pharaoh of Egypt, mentioned in the writings of Ashurbanipal[13]
  • Omri, king of Israel (1 Kings 16:23) is mentioned, together with his unnamed son or successor, on the Mesha Stele.[32]
  • Pekah, became king of Israel after assassinating Pekahiah, his predecessor. (2 Kings 15:25). He is mentioned in the annals of Tiglath-Pileser III.[13]
  • Rezin, king of Aram was a tributary of Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria.[35] According to the bible, he was later put to death by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 16:7-9).
  • Sanballat, governor of Samaria, was the leading figure of the opposition which Nehemiah encountered during the rebuilding of the walls around the temple in Jerusalem. Sanballat is mentioned in the Elephantine Papyri.[13][36]
  • Sargon II, king of Assyria besieged and conquered the city of Samaria and took many thousands captive, as recorded in the bible and in an inscription in his royal palace.[37] His name, however does not appear in the biblical account of this siege, but in Isaiah 20:1, in reference to his siege of Ashdod.
  • Sennacherib, king of Assyria is the author of a number of inscriptions discovered near Nineveh.[38]
  • Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:3) is mentioned on several royal palace weights found at Nimrud.[39] Another inscription was found that is thought to be his, but the name of the author is only partly preserved.[40]
  • Taharqa, pharaoh of Egypt and king of Kush (Isaiah 37:9), is mentioned in the books of Kings and Isaiah as 'Tirhaka, the king of Cush'.[12] Several contemporary sources mention him and fragments of three statues bearing his name were excavated at Nineveh.[41]
  • Tattenai, governor of 'Beyond the River' (Hebrew: עֲבַר-נַהֲרָה, Ezra 5:6) during the reign of Darius I, is known from contemporary Babylonian documents.[12][42]
  • Tiglath-Pileser III, king of Assyria exiled inhabitants of cities he captured in Israel (2 Kings 15:29). Numerous writings are ascribed to him and he is mentioned, among others, in an inscription by Barrakab, king of Sam'al[13] and also in the Assyrian king list.
  • Xerxes I (Ahasuerus), king of Persia, is named in the books of Ezra and Esther.[12][43] Xerxes is known in archaeology through a number of tablets and monuments,[44] notably the 'Gate of All Nations' in Persepolis.

New Testament[edit]

The central figure of the New Testament is Jesus of Nazareth. Despite ongoing debate concerning the authorship of many of its books, there is a consensus[9][12] among modern scholars that at least some were written by a contemporary of Jesus,[45][46] namely the so-called 'undisputed' epistles of Paul. However, outside of the 27 books and letters collected into the New Testament, no contemporary references to Jesus are known, unless a very early dating is assumed of some uncanonical gospel such as the Gospel of Thomas. Nevertheless, some authentic first century and many second century writings exist in which Jesus is mentioned,[note 1] leading scholars to conclude that the historicity of Jesus is well established by historical documents.[47][48][49] First-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus also mentions John the Baptist and his execution by Herod Antipas[50] (Matthew 14:1-12), although Josephus was not a contemporary of John.

Gospels[edit]

  • Annas, was a Jewish high priest (Luke 2:3), appointed by Quirinius as recorded by Josephus.[50] Although he was officially removed from office by procurator Gratus, he continued to hold considerable influence,[51] and was involved in the trial of Jesus (John 18:24). Annas was the father-in-law of Caiaphas (John 18:13).
  • Augustus Caesar, emperor of Rome (Luke 2:1), reigned between 27 BCE and 14 CE, during which time Jesus was born. He left behind a wealth of buildings, coins and monuments,[52] including a funerary inscription in which he described his life and accomplishments.
  • Caiaphas, or 'Joseph, who was called Caiaphas', was reigning high priest during the ministry and death of Jesus. Based on Josephus' Antiquities,[50] it is estimated that he held the office between 18 and 36 CE.[53] He is mentioned in Matthew, Luke and John and presided over the trial of Jesus (Matthew 25:57-65, John 18:24). In 1990 Israeli archeologists discovered near Jerusalem what is believed to be the family tomb of Caiaphas. One of the ossuaries bears the inscription 'Yosef Bar Kayafa' and contained the bones of a 60 year old man.[54]
  • Herod the Great, king of Judea (Matthew 2:1), Galilea and Samaria is mentioned extensively in the writings of Josephus[50] and others. Among his numerous building projects was the restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem and his name is found on contemporary Jewish coins.[55]
  • Herod Archelaus, etnarch of Judea, Samaria and Edom, was the son of Herod the Great (Matthew 2:22). He is known from the writings of Flavius Josephus[50] and from contemporary coins.[55]
  • Herod Antipas, was tetrarch (Matthew 14:1) of Galilee and Perea, as recorded in Josephus' Antiquities[50] and War of the Jews.[56]
  • Herodias was the wife of Herod Antipas[50] (Mark 6:17). According to the synoptic gospels, she was formerly married to Herod Antipas's brother Philip, apparently Philip the Tetrarch. However, Josephus writes that her first husband was Herod II. Many scholars view this as a contradiction, but some have suggested that Herod II was also called Philip.[57]
  • James the brother of Jesus (Mark 6:3) was a leading figure of the early Christian community in Jerusalem (Galatians 1:19) and is traditionally considered the author of the Epistle of James. Josephus records that he was condemned by the Sanhedrin led by the high priest Ananus ben Ananus and then stoned to death c. 62 CE.[58][59]
  • Philip the Tetrarch was a son of Herod the Great and ruled over Iturea and Trachonitis (Luke 3:1). Josephus writes that he shared the kingdom of his father with his brothers Herod Antipas and Herod Archelaus.[50] His name and title appear on coinage from the period.[60][61]
  • Pontius Pilate, procurator and prefect of Judea, ordered Jesus' execution (John 19:15-16). A stone inscription was found that mentions his name and title: "[Po]ntius Pilatus, [Praef]ectus Iuda[ea]e" (Pontius Pilate, prefect of Judaea),[62][63] see Pilate Stone.
  • Quirinius was governor of Syria (Luke 2:2). The Gospel of Luke connects the birth of Jesus with a census conducted during his governorship, which is, based on Josephus' works, dated to 6/7 CE.[50] That Quirinius conducted a census while governing Syria is also confirmed by a tomb inscription of one Quintus Aemilius Secundus, who had served under him.[64] However the Gospel of Matthew places Jesus' birth about a decade earlier (c. 4 BCE), during the rule of Herod the Great. Bible scholars have traditionally sought to reconcile these accounts; while most current scholars regard this as an error by the author of the Gospel of Luke.[65]
  • Tiberius Caesar, emperor of Rome (Luke 3:1), is named in many inscriptions and on Roman coins. Among other accounts, some of his deeds are described by contemporary historian Velleius (died c. 31 CE).[66]
  • Salome was a daughter of Herodias[50] (Matthew 14:6). Although she is not named in the Gospels, but referred to as 'the daughter of Herodias', she is commonly identified with Salome, Herodias' daughter, mentioned in Josephus' Antiquities.[67]

Acts of the Apostles and Epistles[edit]

  • Ananias son of Nedebaios was high priest between c. 47 and 59 CE, as recorded by Josephus.[50] He presided over the trial of Paul (Acts 23:2).
  • Antonius Felix, was governor of Judea (Acts 23:24), which is also recorded by historians Josephus,[50] Suetonius[68] and Tacitus[69]
  • Aretas IV Philopatris was king of the Natabeans from c. 9 BCE - 40 CE. According to Paul, Aretas' governor in Damascus tried to arrest him (2 Corinthians 11:32). Besides being mentioned by Josephus,[50] his name is found in several contemporary inscriptions[70] and on numerous coins.[71]
  • Berenice, daughter of Herod Agrippa I is mentioned together with her brother Herod Agrippa II (Acts 25:23), with whom she was accused of having an incestuous relation, according to Josephus.[50] She appears to have had almost equal power to her brother and is indeed called 'Queen Berenice' in Tacitus' Histories.[72]
  • Claudius Caesar was emperor of Rome (Acts 11:28) from 41 - 54 CE. Like other Roman emperors, his name is found on numerous coins[73] and monuments, such as the Porta Maggiore in Rome.
  • Drusilla, daughter of Herod Agrippa I, was married to Antonius Felix (Acts 24:24), as is also recorded by Josephus.[50]
  • Gamaliel the Elder, rabbi of the Sanhedrin (Acts 5:34), teacher of the apostle Paul (Acts 22:3). He is named as the father of Simon by Flavius Josephus in his autobiography.[74] In the Talmud he is also described as a prominent member of the Sanhedrin.[75]
  • Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great, was king (Acts 12:1) of Judaea, Galilee, and other regions in Palestine. Although his name is given as 'Herod' by Luke, and as 'Agrippa' by Josephus,[50] the accounts both writers give about his death are so similar that they are commonly accepted to refer to the same person.[19][76] Hence many modern scholars call him 'Herod Agrippa (I)'.
  • Herod Agrippa II, was king of Judaea (Acts 25:23), and ruled alongside his sister Berenice. Josephus writes about him in his Antiquities,[50] and his name is found inscribed on contemporary Jewish coins.[55]
  • Judas of Galilee was the leader of a Jewish revolt. Both the Book of Acts (5:37) and Josephus[50] tell of a rebellion he instigated in the time of the census of Quirinius.
  • Lucius Iunius Gallio Annaeanus, proconsul of Achaea (Acts 18:12). Seneca, his brother, mentions him, among others, in his epistles.[77] In Delphi, an inscription, dated to 52 CE, was discovered that records a letter by emperor Claudius, in which Gallio is also named as proconsul[78]
  • Porcius Festus, governor of Judea, succeeded Antonius Felix (Acts 24:27), which is also recorded by Josephus.[50]

Tentatively identified[edit]

These are Biblical figures for which tentative but likely identifications have been found in contemporary sources based on matching names and credentials. The possibility of coincidental matching of names cannot be ruled out however.

Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)[edit]

  • Azaliah son of Meshullam, scribe in the Temple in Jerusalem: Mentioned in 2 Kings 22:3 and 2 Chronicles 34:8. A bulla reading "belonging to Azaliabu son of Meshullam." is likely to be his, according to archaeologist Nahman Avigad.[79]
  • Azariah son of Hilkiah and grandfather of Ezra: Mentioned in 1 Chronicles 6:13,14; 9:11 and Ezra 7:1. A bulla reading Azariah son of Hilkiah is likely to be his, according to Tsvi Schneider.[80]
  • Baalis king of Ammon is mentioned in Jeremiah 40:14. In 1984 an Ammonite seal, dated to c. 600 BCE, was excavated in Tell El-`Umeiri, Jordan that reads "belonging to Milkomor, the servant of Baalisha". Identification of 'Baalisha' with the biblical Baalis is likely,[81] but it is not currently known if there was only one Ammonite king of that name.[82]
  • Darius II of Persia, is mentioned by the contemporary historian Xenophon of Athens,[83] in the Elephantine Papyri,[13] and other sources. 'Darius the Persian', mentioned in Nehemiah 12:22, is probably Darius II, although some scholars identify him with Darius I or Darius III.[84][85]
  • Gedaliah son of Ahikam, governor of Judah. A seal impression with the name 'Gedaliah who is over the house' is commonly identified with Gedaliah, son of Ahikam.[86]
  • Gedaliah son of Pashhur, an opponent of Jeremiah. A bulla bearing his name was found in the City of David [87]
  • Gemariah, son of Shaphan the scribe. A bulla was found with the text "To Gemaryahu ben Shaphan". This may have been the same person as "Gemariah son of Shaphan the scribe" mentioned in Jeremiah 36:10,12.[88]
  • Geshem (Gusham) the Arab, mentioned in Nehemia 6:1,6 is likely the same person as Gusham, king of Kedar, found in two inscriptions in Dedan and Tell el-Mashkutah (near the Suez Canal)[89]
  • Hilkiah, high priest in the Temple in Jerusalem: Mentioned throughout 2 Kings 22:8-23:24 and 2 Chronicles 34:9-35:8 as well as in 1 Chronicles 6:13; 9:11 and Ezra 7:1. Hilkiah in extra-biblical sources is attested by the clay bulla naming a Hilkiah as the father of an Azariah,[80] and by the seal reading Hanan son of Hilkiah the priest.[90]
  • Jehucal son of Shelemiah, an opponent of Jeremiah. Archaeologists excavated a bulla with his name,[91] but some scholars question the dating of the seal to the time of Jeremiah. According to Robert Deutsch the bulla is from the late 8th to early 7th century BCE, before the time of Jeremiah.[citation needed]
  • Jerahmeel, prince of Judah. A bulla bearing his name was found.[16]
  • Jeroboam (II), king of Israel. A seal belonging to 'Shema, servant of Jeroboam', probably refers to king Jeroboam II,[92] although some scholars think it was Jeroboam I.[82]
  • Jezebel, wife of king Ahab of Israel. A seal was found that may bear her name, but the dating and identification with the biblical Jezebel is a subject of debate among scholars.[93]
  • Josiah, king of Judah. Three seals were found that may have belonged to his son Eliashib.[13]
  • Jotham, king of Judah. An 8th-century BCE signet ring with his name was found, but it is not certain if it belonged to the biblical Jotham.[94]
  • Nebo-Sarsekim, official at the court of Nebuchadnezzar II. A tablet was found recording a temple donation by Nabu-sharrussu-ukin, chief eunuch of Nebuchadnezzar.[95] See Nebo-Sarsekim Tablet
  • Nergal-sharezer, king of Babylon is probably identical to an official of Nebuchadnezzar II mentioned in Jeremiah 39:2.[61] A record of his war with Syria was found on a tablet from the 'Neo-Babylonian Chronicle texts'.[96]
  • Seraiah son of Neriah. He was the brother of Baruch. Nahman Avigad identified him as the owner of a seal with the name " to Seriahu/Neriyahu".[80]
The so-called Shebna Lintel
  • Shebna (or Shebaniah), royal steward of Hezekiah: only the last two letters of a name (hw) survive on the so-called Shebna lintel, but the title of his position ("over the house" of the king) and the date indicated by the script style, have inclined many scholars to identify the person it refers to with Shebna.[97]
  • Sheshonq I, Pharaoh of Egypt, is normally identified with king Shishaq in the Hebrew Bible. The account of Shishaq's invasion in the 5th year of Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:25-28) is thought to correspond to an inscription found at Karnak of Shoshenq's campaign into Palestine.[98] However, a minority of scholars reject this identification.[99]
  • Uzziah, king of Judah. The writings of Tiglath-Pileser III may refer to him, but this identification is disputed.[100] There is also an inscription that refers to his bones, but it dates from the 1st century CE.
  • Zedekiah, son of Hananiah (Jeremiah 36:12). A seal was found of "Zedekiah son of Hanani", identification is likely, but uncertain.[101]

New Testament[edit]

  • 'The Egyptian', who was according to Acts 21:38 the instigator of a rebellion, also appears to be mentioned by Josephus, although this identification is uncertain.[102][103]
  • Sergius Paulus was proconsul of Cyprus (Acts 13:4-7), when Paul visited the island around 46-48 CE.[104] Although several individuals with this name have been identified, no certain identification can be made. One Quintus Sergius Paulus, who was proconsul of Cyprus probably during the reign of Claudius (41-54 CE) is however compatible with the time and context of Luke's account.[104][105]
  • Lysanias, was tetrarch of Abila around 28 CE, according to Luke (3:1). Because Josephus only mentions a Lysanias of Abila who was executed in 36 BCE, some scholars have considered this an error by Luke. However, one inscription from Abila, which is tentatively dated 14-29 CE, appears to record the existence of a later tetrach called Lysanias.[106][107]
  • Theudas. The sole reference to Theudas presents a problem of chronology. In Acts of the Apostles, Gamaliel, a member of the sanhedrin, defends the apostles by referring to Theudas (Acts 5:36-8). The difficulty is that the rising of Theudas is here given as before that of Judas of Galilee, which is itself dated to the time of the taxation (c. 6-7 AD). Josephus, on the other hand, says that Theudas was 45 or 46, which is after Gamaliel is speaking, and long after Judas the Galilean.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ These sources include (but are not limited to) 1st century: Paul, Peter, Josephus, Clement and the Synoptic Gospels; 2nd century: Tacitus, Lucian, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp, Hegesippus, Justin Martyr and a number of apocryphal works. For a compilation of scholars' datings for the New Testament books, see here.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rainey, Anson F. Stones for Bread: Archaeology versus History [1] in Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 64, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 140-149
  2. ^ Hallo, William W. ed., The Context of Scripture, Brill Academic Publishers, 1997-2002
  3. ^ Caiger, Stephen L. Bible and Spade, Oxford University Press, 1936
  4. ^ Deutsch, Robert First Impression: What We Learn from King Ahaz’s Seal [2] in Biblical Archaeology Review, July 1998, pp. 54-56, 62
  5. ^ The palace of Apries, University College London, 2002
  6. ^ Petrie, W. M. Flinders & Walker, J. H., The palace of Apries (Memphis II) [3], published by School of Archaeology in Egypt, University College, 1909)
  7. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki, Stephen Quirke, Narushige Shiode, Digital Egypt for Universities [4], University College London, 2000
  8. ^ Rogerson, John William; Davies, Philip R.; The Old Testament world, Continuum International, 2005, p. 89 [5]
  9. ^ a b Dunn, James D. G. & Rogerson, John William, Eerdmans commentary on the Bible, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003, Artaxerxes: p. 321 [6]; Pauline epistles: p. 1274 [7]
  10. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Thomas Hobbes, Book 1, Chapter 137 [8]
  11. ^ Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John; The Cambridge ancient history Volume IV, Cambridge University Press, 1988, p. 149 [9]
  12. ^ a b c d e Coogan, M.D., Brettler, M.Z. & Newsom. C.A., The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, Oxford University Press, 2007, Ashurbanipal: p. 676 [10], Jesus: p. 240 [11], Taharqa: p. 565 [12] Tattenai: p. 678 [13], Xerxes: p. 678 [14]
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Pritchard, James B. ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton University Press, third edition with supplement 1969: Ashurbanipal: pp. 294-298, 300 etc.; Benhadad and Tiglath-Pileser III: p. 655; Darius, Johanan and Sanballat: p. 492; Essarhaddon and Necho: p. 297; Hezekiah: p. 288; Hoshea and Pekah: p. 284; Josiah: p. 569; Manasseh: pp. 291, 294; Menahem: p. 283;
  14. ^ Goodspeed, George, A History of the Babylonians and Assyrians, New York NY, C. Scribners Sons, 1902
  15. ^ Peck, Harry Thurston, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities [15], New York, Harper and Brothers, 1898
  16. ^ a b Avigad, Nahman, Baruch the Scribe and Jerahmeel the King's Son [16] in The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Spring, 1979), pp. 114-118
  17. ^ Shanks, Hershel, Fingerprint of Jeremiah’s Scribe in Biblical Archeology Review 2 (1996): 36-38.
  18. ^ Nabonidus Cylinder [17] translation by Paul-Alain Beaulieu, author of The Reign of Nabonidus, King of Babylon 556-539 B.C. (1989)
  19. ^ a b Geoffrey W. Bromiley International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D, Agrippa: p. 42; Ben-Hadad III: p. 459
  20. ^ Cyrus cylinder [18], translation by Irving Finkel, at the British Museum
  21. ^ Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi; The Jewish study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 1243 [19]
  22. ^ Stead, Michael R.; Raine, John W.; The intertextuality of Zechariah 1-8, Continuum International, 2009, p. 40 [20]
  23. ^ a b Thompson, R. Campbell, The prisms of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal found at Nineveh [21], Oxford University Press, 1931, p. 9 and 25
  24. ^ Barton, George A., Archæology and the Bible, American Sunday-school union, 1917, p. 381 [22]
  25. ^ Beaulieu, Paul-Alain, The pantheon of Uruk during the neo-Babylonian period, BRILL, 2003, pp. 151, 329 [23]
  26. ^ a b The Black Obelisk at the British Museum. Translation adapted by K.C. Hanson from Luckenbill, Daniel David Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. Vol. 1. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1927
  27. ^ Hagelia, Hallvard, The First Dissertation of the Tel Dan Inscription [24] in the Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, Volume 18, Issue 1 January 2004 , page 136
  28. ^ Cross, Frank Moore, King Hezekiah's Seal Bears Phoenician Imagery [25] in Biblical Archaeology Review, March–April, 1999
  29. ^ Tetley, M. Christine, The reconstructed chronology of the Divided Kingdom, Eisenbrauns, 2005, p. 99 [26]
  30. ^ Bryce, Trevor, The Routledge Handbook of The People and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Earky Bronze Age to the fall of the Persians Empire, Routledge, 2009, p. 342 [27]
  31. ^ Wiseman, D. J., Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon [28], Oxford University Press 1991, pp. 81-82
  32. ^ a b The Mesha Stele at the Louvre Museum. Translation by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Albright 1969:320-21)
  33. ^ Birch, Samuel & Sayce, A.H., Records of the past : being English translations of the Ancient monuments of Egypt and western Asia [29], published under the sanction of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1873), p. 13
  34. ^ The Ishtar Gate, translation from The Ishtar Gate, The Processional Way, The New Year Festival of Babylon. by Joachim Marzahn, Mainz am Rhein, Germany: Philipp von Zaubern, 1995
  35. ^ Grabbe, Lester L., Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It? (New York: T&T Clark, 2007): 134
  36. ^ VanderKam, James C., An introduction to early Judaism, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2001, p. 7 [30]
  37. ^ The Annals of Sargon, Excerpted from "Great Inscription in the Palace of Khorsabad," Julius Oppert, tr., in Records of the Past, vol. 9 (London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1877), pp. 3-20
  38. ^ Reade, Julian, Sources for Sennacherib: The Prisms [31] in Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Oct., 1975), pp. 189-196
  39. ^ Lipiński, Edward et al., Immigration and emigration within the ancient Near East [32], Peeters Publishers & Department of Oriental Studies, Leuven 1995, pp. 36-41, 48
  40. ^ Luckenbill, D. D. The First Inscription of Shalmaneser V [33], The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Apr., 1925), pp. 162-164
  41. ^ Thomason, Allison Karmel From Sennacherib's Bronzes to Taharqa's Feet: Conceptions of the Material World at Nineveh [34], Iraq, Vol. 66, Nineveh. Papers of the 49th Rencontre Assriologique Internationale, Part One (2004), pp. 151-162
  42. ^ Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John; The Cambridge ancient history Volume VI, Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 268 [35]
  43. ^ Fensham, Frank Charles, The books of Ezra and Nehemiah, Eerdmans, 1982, p. 69 [36]
  44. ^ Briant, Pierre, From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, Eisenbrauns, 2006, p. 554 [37]
  45. ^ Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Paul: a critical life, Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 4 [38]
  46. ^ Cate, Robert L., One untimely born: the life and ministry of the Apostle Paul Mercer University Press, 2006, p. 48 [39]
  47. ^ Levine, Amy-Jill ed., Allison, Dale C. Jr. ed., Crossan, John Dominic ed., The Historical Jesus in Context, Princeton University Press, 2008, [40] "Most scholars agree that Jesus was baptized by John, (...) engaged in healings and exorcisms, taught in parables, (...) and was crucified by Roman soldiers during the governorship of Pontius Pilate (26-36 CE)"
  48. ^ Stanton, Graham, The Gospels and Jesus Oxford University Press, 2nd ed. 2002, p. 145. He writes: "Today nearly all historians, whether Christians or not, accept that Jesus existed and that the gospels contain plenty of valuable evidence which has to be weighed and assessed critically."
  49. ^ Bockmuehl, Markus N. A., The Cambridge companion to Jesus, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 124 [41] "The fact that Jesus existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate (...) seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition. If nothing else, the non-Christian evidence can provide us with certainty on that score"
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, translated by William Whitson, Ananias: Book XX, Chapter 5, Section 2; Felix, Berenice, Drusilla, Agrippa II: B. XX, Ch. 7; Festus: Book XX, Ch. 8, § 9; Annas: Book XVIII, Ch. 2, § 1; Caiaphas: Book XVIII, Ch. 2 § 2 & Ch. 4 § 3; Philip: B. XVII, Ch. 11 § 4; Archelaus: i.e. B. XVII, Ch. 13, § 1; Antipas: B. XVII, Ch. 8, § 1; Herodias,Salome: Book XVIII Ch. 5 § 4; Herod Agrippa I: B. XVIII Ch. 6 § 1; Quirinius, John the Baptist: B. XVIII Ch. 5 § 2, Judas of Galilee: B. XVIII Ch. 1 § 1; Aretas: B. XVIII Ch. 5 § 1
  51. ^ Annas in the Catholic Encyclopedia
  52. ^ Augustus (Roman Emperor) in the Encyclopædia Britannica
  53. ^ Caiaphas in the Jewish Encyclopedia
  54. ^ Specter, Michael Tomb May Hold the Bones Of Priest Who Judged Jesus in The New York Times, August 14, 1992
  55. ^ a b c Kanael, Baruch Ancient Jewish Coins and Their Historical Importance in The Biblical Archaeologist Vol. 26, No. 2 (May, 1963), p. 52
  56. ^ Flavius Josephus, War of the Jews, translated by William Whiston, Book 2, Ch. 6, Par. 3
  57. ^ Hoehner, Harold W., Herod Antipas: A Contemporary of Jesus Christ, Zondervan, 1980, p. 133-134
  58. ^ Davids, P.H. in The Oxford Companion to the Bible, edited by Metzger, B.M. and Coogan, M.D., Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 339-340
  59. ^ Chilton, B.D. (ed.), Evans, C.A. (ed.), Bauckam, R., James The Just and Christian Origins, BRILL, 1999, pp. 4, 199
  60. ^ Myers, E. A., The Ituraeans and the Roman Near East: Reassessing the Sources [42], Cambridge University Press 2010, p. 111
  61. ^ a b Freedman, D.N. (ed), Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible [43], Wm. B. Eerdmans 2000, Philip the Tetrarch: p. 584, Nergal-Sharezer: p. 959
  62. ^ Taylor, Joan E., Pontius Pilate and the Imperial Cult in Roman Judaea in New Testament Studies, 52:564-565, Cambridge University Press 2006
  63. ^ Pilate Stone, translation by K. C. Hanson & Douglas E. Oakman
  64. ^ Levick, Barbara, The Government of the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook [44], 2nd ed. Routledge 2000, p. 75
  65. ^ Raymond Brown, Christ in the Gospels of the Liturgical Year, (Liturgical Press, 2008), page 114. See, for example, James Douglas Grant Dunn, Jesus Remembered, (Eerdmans, 2003) p344. Similarly, Erich S. Gruen, 'The expansion of the empire under Augustus', in The Cambridge ancient history Volume 10, p157, Geza Vermes, The Nativity, Penguin 2006, p.96, W. D. Davies and E. P. Sanders, 'Jesus from the Jewish point of view', in The Cambridge History of Judaism ed William Horbury, vol 3: the Early Roman Period, 1984, Anthony Harvey, A Companion to the New Testament (Cambridge University Press 2004), p221, Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Doubleday, 1991, v. 1, p. 213, Brown, Raymond E. The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke. London: G. Chapman, 1977, p. 554, A. N. Sherwin-White, pp. 166, 167, Millar, Fergus (1990). "Reflections on the trials of Jesus". A Tribute to Geza Vermes: Essays on Jewish and Christian Literature and History (JSOT Suppl. 100) [eds. P.R. Davies and R.T. White]. Sheffield: JSOT Press. pp. 355–81.  repr. in Millar, Fergus (2006). "The Greek World, the Jews, and the East". Rome, the Greek World and the East (University of North Carolina Press) 3: 139–163. 
  66. ^ Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, Book 2, Ch. 122
  67. ^ Salome in the Encyclopædia Britannica
  68. ^ Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, The Twelve Caesars, translated by J. C. Rolfe, Book V, par. 28
  69. ^ Cornelius Tacitus, Annals, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb, Book XII Ch. 54
  70. ^ Healey, John F., Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, Volume IV: Aramaic Inscriptions and Documents of the Roman Period, Oxford University Press 2009, pp. 55-57, 77-79, etc.
  71. ^ Galil, Gershon & Weinfeld, Moshe, Studies in Historical Geography and Biblical Historiography: Presented to Zechariah Kallai (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum), Brill Academic Publishers 2000, p. 85
  72. ^ Cornelius Tacitus, The Histories, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb, Book II, par. 2
  73. ^ Burgers, P., Coinage and State Expenditure: The Reign of Claudius AD 41-54 [45] in Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte Vol. 50, No. 1 (1st Qtr., 2001), pp. 96-114
  74. ^ Flavius Josephus, The Life of Flavius Josephus, translated by William Whiston, paragraph 38.
  75. ^ Gamaliel I in the Jewish Encyclopedia
  76. ^ Bruce, F.F. The Book of Acts (revised), part of The New international commentary on the New Testament, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1988
  77. ^ Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Letter 104 from Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium, translation by Richard M. Gummere
  78. ^ Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Gallio Inscription, translation by K. C. Hanson (adapted from Conzelmann and Fitzmyer).
  79. ^ Avigad, Nahman, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals, (p. 237 WSS 90), published by the Israel Academy of Sciences & Humanities
  80. ^ a b c Schneider, Tsvi, Six Biblical Signatures: Seals and seal impressions of six biblical personages recovered', Biblical Archeology Review, July/August 1991
  81. ^ Grabbe, Lester L., Can a 'History of Israel' Be Written?, Continuum International, 1997, pp. 80-82 [46]
  82. ^ a b Mykytiuk, Lawrence J., Identifying Biblical persons in Northwest Semitic inscriptions of 1200-539 B.C.E., Society of Biblical Literature, 2004, Baalis: p. 242 [47]; Jeroboam: p. 136 [48]
  83. ^ Xenophon of Athens, Hellenica, Book 1, Chapter 2
  84. ^ VanderKam, James C., From revelation to canon: studies in the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple literature, Volume 2000, BRILL, 2002, p. 181 [49]
  85. ^ Freedman, David N., The Unity of the Hebrew Bible, University of Michigan Press, 1993, p. 93 [50]
  86. ^ Wright, G. Ernest, Some Personal Seals of Judean Royal Officials [51] in The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 1, No. 2 (May, 1938), pp. 10-12
  87. ^ Unique biblical discovery at City of David excavation site [52], Israel Ministry of Foreign affairs; 18-Aug-2008. Retrieved 2009-11-16
  88. ^ Ogden, D. Kelly Bulla *2 "To Gemaryahu ben Shaphan", published by Brigham Young University. Dept. of Religious Education
  89. ^ Wright, G. Ernest Judean Lachish in The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 18, No. 1 (Feb., 1955), pp. 9-17
  90. ^ Josette Elayi, New Light on the Identification of the Seal of Priest Hanan, son of Hilqiyahu (2 Kings 22), Bibliotheca Orientalis, 5/6, September–November 1992, 680-685.
  91. ^ Clay seal connects to Bible in The Washington Times, Wednesday, October 1, 2008
  92. ^ Boardman, John, The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 3 Part 1, p. 501 [53]
  93. ^ Korpel, Marjo C.A., Scholars Debate “Jezebel” Seal, Biblical Archeology Review
  94. ^ Avigad, Nahman. The Jotham Seal from Elath Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 163 (Oct., 1961), pp. 18-2
  95. ^ article in The Times about the discovery of the Nebo-Sarsekim tablet.
  96. ^ The Chronicle Concerning Year Three of Neriglissar [54], translation adapted from A.K. Grayson & Jean-Jacques Glassner
  97. ^ Deutsch, Robert, Tracking Down Shebnayahu, Servant of the King in Biblical Archeology Review May/Jun 2009
  98. ^ Grabbe, Lester L., Israel in transition: from late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250-850 B.C.E.), Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010, p. 84 [55]
  99. ^ Schreiber, N., The Cypro-Phoenician pottery of the Iron Age, Brill, 2003 p. 87 [56]
  100. ^ Haydn, Howell M. Azariah of Judah and Tiglath-Pileser III in Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 28, No. 2 (1909), pp. 182-199
  101. ^ Day, John In search of pre-exilic Israel: proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament Seminar p. 376
  102. ^ Vanderkam, James C., in The Continuum History of Apocalypticism [57] (edited by McGinn, Bernard J.; Collins, John J.; Stein, Stephen J.), Continuum, 2003, p. 133
  103. ^ Frankfurter, David, Pilgrimage and Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt [58], BRILL, 1998, p. 206
  104. ^ a b Gill, David W. J. (ed.) & Gempf, Conrad (ed.), The Book of Acts in Its Graeco-Roman Setting [59] Wm. B. Eerdmans 1994, p. 282
  105. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (ed.), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Vol. III: K-P [60] Wm. B. Eerdmans 1986, p. 729-730 (entry Paulus, Sergius)
  106. ^ Kerr, C.M., International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Wm. B. Eerdmans 1939, entry Lysanias [61]
  107. ^ Morris, Leon, Luke: an introduction and commentary [62] Wm. B. Eerdmans 1988, p. 28
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