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This list of JVM Languages comprises notable computer programming languages that are used to produce computer software that runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM). Some of these languages are interpreted by a Java program, and some are compiled to Java bytecode and JIT-compiled during execution as regular Java programs to improve performance.

The JVM was initially designed to support only the programming language Java. However, as time passed, even more languages were adapted or designed to run on the Java platform.

JVM languages[edit]

High-profile languages[edit]

Apart from the Java language, the most common or well-known other JVM languages are:

JVM implementations of existing languages[edit]

Language Java implementations
Arden Syntax Arden2ByteCode
COBOL Micro Focus Visual COBOL[2]
ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) Adobe ColdFusion
Open BlueDragon
Common Lisp Armed Bear Common Lisp[3]
Cypher Neo4j[4]
JavaScript Rhino


LLVM Bitcode Sulong[6]
Mercury Mercury (Java grade)
Oberon Component Pascal
Pascal MIDletPascal
Perl 6 Rakudo Perl 6
PHP Quercus[7][8]
Prolog JIProlog
Python Jython



R Renjin


Rexx NetRexx
Ruby JRuby


Scheme Bigloo
Tcl Jacl
Visual Basic Jabaco[note 1]

New languages with JVM implementations[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ [12][13][14] is a freeware IDE in beta-testing since 2009, with a partly open source [15] Jabaco framework runtime. Jabaco compiles VB 6 syntax source to Java bytecode.


  1. ^ Wampler, Dean (15 January 2009). "Adopting New JVM Languages in the Enterprise (Updated)". Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  2. ^ "Visual COBOL Brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  3. ^ Armed Bear Common Lisp
  4. ^ "New on Neo4j: The Neo4j 2.3.0 Milestone 2 Release Is Here". Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Oracle Labs GraalVM: Programming Languages and Runtimes Overview". Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  6. ^ "graalvm/sulong". GitHub. Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  7. ^ "Introducing Quercus, a Java based PHP". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  8. ^ "Running PHP With Quercus in Sun Java System Web Server". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "ssllab / ZipPy — Bitbucket". Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  10. ^ "oracle/fastr". GitHub. Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  11. ^ "oracle/truffleruby". GitHub. Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  12. ^ "Jabaco entry at Basics section". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  13. ^ "Article about Jabaco at German Pro-Linux publication". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  14. ^ "Basic meet Java". Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  15. ^ "Framework". Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  16. ^ "Ateji PX: Java Parallel Programming Made Simple". Ateji. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  17. ^ "The Eta Programming Language". Retrieved 10 May 2017. 
  18. ^ "Fantom Programming Language". Fantom. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Frege". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  20. ^ " - Golo – A Lightweight Dynamic Language for the JVM". Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  21. ^ "Golo nominated for JAX Awards 2014". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  22. ^ "Golo entry at JAX Awards 2014". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  23. ^ "The Mirah Programming Language". GitHub. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "Mirah". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 

External links[edit]


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