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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Map of the United States with names and borders of states
The order in which the original 13 states ratified the 1787 Constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the union

A state of the United States of America is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government.[1] Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

States are the primary subdivisions of the United States and possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, such as regulating intrastate commerce, running elections, creating local governments, and ratifying constitutional amendments. Each state has its own constitution grounded in republican principles, and government consisting of executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[2]

All states and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state is represented by two Senators, while Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.[3] Additionally, each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that elects the President of the United States, equal to the total of Representatives and Senators in Congress from that state.[4]

Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1 of the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50. Each new state has been admitted on an equal footing with the existing states.[5]

The following table is a list of all 50 states and their respective dates of statehood. The first 13 became states in July 1776 upon agreeing to the United States Declaration of Independence, and each joined the first Union of states between 1777 and 1781, upon ratifying the Articles of Confederation, its first constitution.[6] (A separate table is included below showing AoC ratification dates.) These states are presented in the order in which each ratified the 1787 Constitution, thus joining the present federal Union of states. The date of admission listed for each subsequent state is the official date set by Act of Congress.[a]

List of U.S. states[edit]

State Date
(admitted or ratified)
Formed from
1  Delaware December 7, 1787[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Delaware[b]
2  Pennsylvania December 12, 1787[10]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Pennsylvania
3  New Jersey December 18, 1787[11]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of New Jersey
4  Georgia January 2, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Georgia
5  Connecticut January 9, 1788[12]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Connecticut
6  Massachusetts February 6, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Massachusetts Bay
7  Maryland April 28, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Maryland
8  South Carolina May 23, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of South Carolina
9  New Hampshire June 21, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of New Hampshire
10  Virginia June 25, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Virginia
11  New York July 26, 1788[13]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of New York
12  North Carolina November 21, 1789[14]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of North Carolina
13  Rhode Island May 29, 1790[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
14  Vermont March 4, 1791[15]
(admitted)
Vermont Republic[c]
15  Kentucky June 1, 1792[16]
(admitted)
Virginia (District of Kentucky: Fayette, Jefferson, and Lincoln counties[d])
16  Tennessee June 1, 1796[18]
(admitted)
Southwest Territory
17  Ohio March 1, 1803[19][e]
(admitted)
Northwest Territory (part)
18  Louisiana April 30, 1812[21]
(admitted)
Territory of Orleans
19  Indiana December 11, 1816
(admitted)
Indiana Territory
20  Mississippi December 10, 1817[22]
(admitted)
Mississippi Territory
21  Illinois December 3, 1818[23]
(admitted)
Illinois Territory (part)
22  Alabama December 14, 1819[24]
(admitted)
Alabama Territory
23  Maine March 15, 1820[25]
(admitted)
Massachusetts (District of Maine[f])
24  Missouri August 10, 1821[26]
(admitted)
Missouri Territory (part)
25  Arkansas June 15, 1836[27]
(admitted)
Arkansas Territory
26  Michigan January 26, 1837[28]
(admitted)
Michigan Territory
27  Florida March 3, 1845
(admitted)
Florida Territory
28  Texas December 29, 1845
(admitted)
Republic of Texas
29  Iowa December 28, 1846
(admitted)
Iowa Territory (part)
30  Wisconsin May 29, 1848[29]
(admitted)
Wisconsin Territory (part)
31  California September 9, 1850[30]
(admitted)
unorganized territory (part)
32  Minnesota May 11, 1858[31]
(admitted)
Minnesota Territory (part)
33  Oregon February 14, 1859
(admitted)
Oregon Territory (part)
34  Kansas January 29, 1861[32]
(admitted)
Kansas Territory (part)
35  West Virginia June 20, 1863[33]
(admitted)
Virginia (Trans-Allegheny region counties[g])
36  Nevada October 31, 1864
(admitted)
Nevada Territory
37  Nebraska March 1, 1867
(admitted)
Nebraska Territory
38  Colorado August 1, 1876[36]
(admitted)
Colorado Territory
39[h]   North Dakota November 2, 1889[38][i]
(admitted)
Dakota Territory (part)
40  South Dakota November 2, 1889[38][i]
(admitted)
Dakota Territory (part)
41  Montana November 8, 1889[39]
(admitted)
Montana Territory
42  Washington November 11, 1889[40]
(admitted)
Washington Territory
43  Idaho July 3, 1890
(admitted)
Idaho Territory
44  Wyoming July 10, 1890
(admitted)
Wyoming Territory
45  Utah January 4, 1896[41]
(admitted)
Utah Territory
46  Oklahoma November 16, 1907[42]
(admitted)
Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory
47  New Mexico January 6, 1912
(admitted)
New Mexico Territory
48  Arizona February 14, 1912
(admitted)
Arizona Territory
49  Alaska January 3, 1959
(admitted)
Territory of Alaska
50  Hawaii August 21, 1959
(admitted)
Territory of Hawaii

Articles of Confederation ratification dates[edit]

The Second Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation for ratification by the individual states on November 15, 1777. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states. On March 4, 1789, the general government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the present Constitution.[43]

State Date
1 Seal of Virginia.svg Virginia December 16, 1777
2 Seal of South Carolina.svg South Carolina February 5, 1778
3 Seal of New York.svg New York February 6, 1778
4 Seal of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island February 9, 1778
5 Seal of Connecticut.svg Connecticut February 12, 1778
6 Seal of Georgia.svg Georgia February 26, 1778
7 Seal of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 4, 1778
8 Seal of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania March 5, 1778
9 Seal of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts March 10, 1778
10 Seal of North Carolina.svg North Carolina April 5, 1778
11 Seal of New Jersey.svg New Jersey November 19, 1778
12 Seal of Delaware.svg Delaware February 1, 1779
13 Seal of Maryland (reverse).svg Maryland February 2, 1781

See also[edit]

  • Enabling Act of 1802, authorizing residents of the eastern portion of the Northwest Territory to form the state of Ohio
  • Missouri Compromise, 1820 federal statute enabling the admission of Missouri (a slave state) and Maine (a free state) into the Union
  • Toledo War, 1835–36 boundary dispute between Ohio and the adjoining Michigan Territory, which delayed Michigan's admission to the Union
  • Texas annexation, the 1845 incorporation of the Republic of Texas into the United States as a state in the Union
  • Compromise of 1850, a package of congressional acts, one of which provided for the admission of California to the Union
  • Bleeding Kansas, a series of violent conflicts in Kansas Territory involving anti-slavery and pro-slavery factions in the years preceding Kansas statehood, 1854–61
  • Enabling Act of 1889, authorizing residents of Dakota, Montana, and Washington territories to form state governments (Dakota to be divided into two states) and to gain admission to the Union
  • Enabling Act of 1906 authorizing residents of Oklahoma, Indian, New Mexico, and Arizona territories to form state governments (Indian and Oklahoma territories to be combined into one state) and to gain admission to the Union
  • Alaska Statehood Act, admitting Alaska as a state in the Union as of January 3, 1959

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This list does not account for the secession of 11 states (Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas) during the Civil War to form the Confederate States of America, nor for the subsequent restoration of those states to the Union, or each state's "readmission to representation in Congress" after the war, as the federal government does not give legal recognition to their having left the Union. Also, the Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to secede from the Union, but the Supreme Court held that a state cannot unilaterally do so in Texas v. White (1869).[7]
  2. ^ Also known as the "Three Lower Counties Upon Delaware." Delaware became a state on June 15, 1776, when the Delaware Assembly formally adopted a resolution declaring an end to Delaware's status as a colony of Great Britain and establishing the three counties as an independent state under the authority of "the Government of the Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex Upon Delaware."[9]
  3. ^ Between 1749 and 1764 the provincial governor of New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth, issued approximately 135 grants for unoccupied land claimed by New Hampshire west of the Connecticut River (in what is today southern Vermont), territory that was also claimed by New York. The resulting "New Hampshire Grants" dispute led to the rise of the Green Mountain Boys, and the later establishment of the Vermont Republic. New Hampshire's claim upon the land was extinguished in 1764 by royal order of George III, and in 1790 the State of New York ceded its land claim to Vermont for 30,000 Dollars.
  4. ^ The Virginia General Assembly adopted legislation on December 18, 1789 separating its "District of Kentucky" from the rest of the State and approving its statehood.[17]
  5. ^ The exact date upon which Ohio became a state is unclear. On April 30, 1802 the 7th Congress had passed an act "authorizing the inhabitants of Ohio to form a Constitution and state government, and admission of Ohio into the Union." (Sess. 1, ch. 40, 2 Stat. 173) On February 19, 1803 the same Congress passed an act "providing for the execution of the laws of the United States in the State of Ohio." (Sess. 2, ch. 7, 2 Stat. 201) Neither act, however, set a formal date of statehood. An official statehood date for Ohio was not set until 1953, when the 83rd Congress passed a Joint resolution "for admitting the State of Ohio into the Union", (Pub.L. 83–204, 67 Stat. 407, enacted August 7, 1953) which designated March 1, 1803, as that date.[20]
  6. ^ The Massachusetts General Court passed enabling legislation on June 19, 1819 separating the "District of Maine" from the rest of the State (an action approved by the voters in Maine on July 19, 1819 by 17,001 to 7,132); then, on February 25, 1820, passed a follow-up measure officially accepting the fact of Maine's imminent statehood.[17]
  7. ^ On May 13, 1862, the General Assembly of the Restored Government of Virginia passed an act granting permission for creation of West Virginia.[34] Later, by its ruling in Virginia v. West Virginia (1871), the Supreme Court implicitly affirmed that the breakaway Virginia counties did have the proper consents necessary to become a separate state.[35]
  8. ^ When President Benjamin Harrison signed the statehood proclamations for North and South Dakota he shuffled the papers on his desk and covered up all but the signature line of the documents. No one knows which state he signed into existence first. North Dakota's proclamation was published first in the Statutes at Large, as it is first in alphabetical order.[37]
  9. ^ a b Brought into existence within moments of each other on the same day, North and South Dakota are the nation's only twin-born states.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Erler, Edward. "Essays on Amendment XIV: Citizenship". The Heritage Foundation. 
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About the Minnesota Legislature". Minnesota State Legislature. 
  3. ^ Kristin D. Burnett. "Congressional Apportionment (2010 Census Briefs C2010BR-08)" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. 
  4. ^ Elhauge, Einer R. "Essays on Article II: Presidential Electors". The Heritage Foundation. 
  5. ^ "Doctrine of the Equality of States". Justia.com. 
  6. ^ Jensen, Merrill (1959). The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. xi, 184. ISBN 978-0-299-00204-6. 
  7. ^ "Texas v. White 74 U.S. 700 (1868)". Justia.com. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Vile, John R. (2005). The Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of America's Founding (Volume 1: A-M). ABC-CLIO. p. 658. ISBN 1-85109-669-8. 
  9. ^ "Delaware Government". Delaware.gov. Government Information Center, Delaware Department of State. 
  10. ^ "Overview of Pennsylvania History - 1776-1861: Independence to the Civil War". PA.gov. Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission. 
  11. ^ "1787 Convention Minutes". NJ.gov. New Jersey Department of State. 
  12. ^ "Today in History: January 9". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  13. ^ "Today in History: July 26". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  14. ^ "Today in History: November 21". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  15. ^ "The 14th State". Vermont History Explorer. Vermont Historical Society. 
  16. ^ "Constitution Square Historic Site". Danville/Boyle County Convention and Visitors Bureau. 
  17. ^ a b "Official Name and Status History of the several States and U.S. Territories". TheGreenPapers.com. 
  18. ^ "State History Timeline". TN.gov. Tennessee Department of State. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. 
  19. ^ Blue, Frederick J. (Autumn 2002). "The Date of Ohio Statehood". Ohio Academy of History Newsletter. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010. 
  20. ^ Clearing up the Confusion surrounding Ohio's Admission to Statehood
  21. ^ "About Louisiana: quick facts". louisiana.gov. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  22. ^ "Welcome from the Mississippi Bicentennial Celebration Commission". Mississippi Bicentennial Celebration Commission. Retrieved February 16, 2017. 
  23. ^ "Today in History: December 3". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  24. ^ "Alabama History Timeline: 1800-1860". alabama.gov. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 
  25. ^ "Today in History: March 15". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  26. ^ "Today in History: August 10". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  27. ^ "Today in History: June 15". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  28. ^ "Today in History: January 26". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  29. ^ "Today in History: May 29". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  30. ^ "California Admission Day September 9, 1850". CA.gov. California Department of Parks and Recreation. 
  31. ^ "Today in History: May 11". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  32. ^ "Today in History: January 29". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  33. ^ "Today in History: June 20". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  34. ^ "A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia, Chapter Twelve, Reorganized Government of Virginia Approves Separation". Wvculture.org. West Virginia Division of Culture and History. 
  35. ^ "Virginia v. West Virginia 78 U.S. 39 (1870)". Justia.com. 
  36. ^ "Today in History: August 1". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  37. ^ MacPherson, James; Burbach, Kevin (November 2, 2014). "At 125 years of Dakotas statehood, rivalry remains". Bismarck Tribune. 
  38. ^ a b "Today in History: November 2". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  39. ^ Wishart, David J. (ed.). "Montana". Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Retrieved February 15, 2017. 
  40. ^ "Today in History: November 11". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  41. ^ Thatcher, Linda Thatcher (2016). "Struggle For Statehood Chronology". historytogo.utah.gov. State of Utah. 
  42. ^ "Today in History: November 16". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 
  43. ^ Rodgers, Paul (2011). United States Constitutional Law: An Introduction. McFarland. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-7864-6017-5. 

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