Play Video
1
Most destructive earthquakes in history of mankind
Most destructive earthquakes in history of mankind
::2014/01/27::
Play Video
2
9/05/2011 -- 10 LARGE earthquakes in the past 2 weeks
9/05/2011 -- 10 LARGE earthquakes in the past 2 weeks
::2011/09/05::
Play Video
3
The USGS is lying to you, censoring, downgrading, and deleting earthquakes.
The USGS is lying to you, censoring, downgrading, and deleting earthquakes.
::2012/08/28::
Play Video
4
New Zealand Earthquake Watch Feb 21-23, 2014
New Zealand Earthquake Watch Feb 21-23, 2014
::2014/01/23::
Play Video
5
Refuting Potholer54 and the truth of earthquake activity
Refuting Potholer54 and the truth of earthquake activity
::2011/05/08::
Play Video
6
earthquakes & bucket lists.
earthquakes & bucket lists.
::2011/12/02::
Play Video
7
Japanese Legend Rare Oarfish Beach Themselves To Warn Of Impending Earthquakes!!
Japanese Legend Rare Oarfish Beach Themselves To Warn Of Impending Earthquakes!!
::2013/10/22::
Play Video
8
Dolphins Fleeing Earthquakes? Bison Fleeing? Yellowstone News!
Dolphins Fleeing Earthquakes? Bison Fleeing? Yellowstone News!
::2014/04/04::
Play Video
9
3d Earthquake Report USGS (6.3 Mauritius-Reunion Region) 16 August 2010
3d Earthquake Report USGS (6.3 Mauritius-Reunion Region) 16 August 2010
::2010/08/17::
Play Video
10
Shenk earthquakes Floods Storms disasters free survival guide food insurance
Shenk earthquakes Floods Storms disasters free survival guide food insurance
::2014/03/21::
Play Video
11
EARTHQUAKE FUKUSHIMA MASS DEATH OF ANIMALS U.S.ARMY COVER UP.wmv
EARTHQUAKE FUKUSHIMA MASS DEATH OF ANIMALS U.S.ARMY COVER UP.wmv
::2011/05/16::
Play Video
12
About the Japan Great Earthquake and Tsunami (11 March 2011)
About the Japan Great Earthquake and Tsunami (11 March 2011)
::2012/06/02::
Play Video
13
Seismologist:  Fracking Injection Wells Linked to Earthquakes
Seismologist: Fracking Injection Wells Linked to Earthquakes
::2014/01/31::
Play Video
14
Earthquake - The Big One at Universal Studios Hollywood
Earthquake - The Big One at Universal Studios Hollywood
::2010/11/15::
Play Video
15
New Reports say Earthquakes man-made by Fracking
New Reports say Earthquakes man-made by Fracking
::2012/04/11::
Play Video
16
Perspective: a graphical comparison of earthquake energy release
Perspective: a graphical comparison of earthquake energy release
::2014/04/10::
Play Video
17
(BULLETIN) Breaking News - 5.4 Earthquake Shakes Southern California Area
(BULLETIN) Breaking News - 5.4 Earthquake Shakes Southern California Area
::2010/07/08::
Play Video
18
Crude Oil, Fracking and Earthquakes
Crude Oil, Fracking and Earthquakes
::2014/02/14::
Play Video
19
Earthquake Watch March 19-20-21, 2011
Earthquake Watch March 19-20-21, 2011
::2011/03/19::
Play Video
20
Seafloor Mapping Lines Surrounding Easter Island Encompass LAST 100 Earthquakes
Seafloor Mapping Lines Surrounding Easter Island Encompass LAST 100 Earthquakes
::2014/02/14::
Play Video
21
Tori Amos - Little Earthquakes
Tori Amos - Little Earthquakes
::2010/12/29::
Play Video
22
California
California's Educational Earthquake
::2013/03/13::
Play Video
23
Twitter, faster than earthquakes
Twitter, faster than earthquakes
::2011/08/27::
Play Video
24
2MIN News August 18, 2012: Solar Flares & 6.6 Earthquake
2MIN News August 18, 2012: Solar Flares & 6.6 Earthquake
::2012/08/18::
Play Video
25
"Hydraulic Fracking linked to hundreds of earthquakes"
"Hydraulic Fracking linked to hundreds of earthquakes"
::2012/11/09::
Play Video
26
[Pt-1]  JFK Assassination, Helen Thomas, dogs, earthquakes.
[Pt-1] JFK Assassination, Helen Thomas, dogs, earthquakes.
::2011/01/13::
Play Video
27
7.2 earthquake strikes Baja California
7.2 earthquake strikes Baja California
::2010/04/05::
Play Video
28
Preparing your office for an earthquake
Preparing your office for an earthquake
::2009/06/07::
Play Video
29
Video: Aftermath of deadly 7.4 quake in Guatemala
Video: Aftermath of deadly 7.4 quake in Guatemala
::2012/11/08::
Play Video
30
Earthquakes, Fire, Murder, Bombs, And Virgin Mary
Earthquakes, Fire, Murder, Bombs, And Virgin Mary
::2013/08/08::
Play Video
31
Crude Oil, Fracking and Earthquakes
Crude Oil, Fracking and Earthquakes
::2014/04/23::
Play Video
32
Crude Oil, Fracking and Earthquakes
Crude Oil, Fracking and Earthquakes
::2014/04/22::
Play Video
33
[英語のブログ」寄付する方法 I
[英語のブログ」寄付する方法 I'm Okay/Earthquake/Tsunami Relief Fund
::2011/03/12::
Play Video
34
New Daily Doom News Filter & New Madrid NLE Earthquake DOOM - Daily Doom 021
New Daily Doom News Filter & New Madrid NLE Earthquake DOOM - Daily Doom 021
::2011/05/20::
Play Video
35
Powerful 5.7 EARTHQUAKE Rattle I-C-E-L-A-N-D & SWARM - NORTH & MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE 10.20.21
Powerful 5.7 EARTHQUAKE Rattle I-C-E-L-A-N-D & SWARM - NORTH & MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE 10.20.21
::2012/10/21::
Play Video
36
3-15-2011 Spaceweather Lists X 20.0 Class Solar Flare?  Would Be Disaster!  New 6.2 Quake In Japan
3-15-2011 Spaceweather Lists X 20.0 Class Solar Flare? Would Be Disaster! New 6.2 Quake In Japan
::2011/03/15::
Play Video
37
Branded and referred email lists that perform well for DR Marketing List Broker
Branded and referred email lists that perform well for DR Marketing List Broker
::2014/02/26::
Play Video
38
FAULT LINES IN PHILIPPINES - EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN MANILA
FAULT LINES IN PHILIPPINES - EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN MANILA
::2011/03/15::
Play Video
39
Fight against Fracking Romania villagers resist US energy giant Chevron
Fight against Fracking Romania villagers resist US energy giant Chevron
::2014/04/17::
Play Video
40
1/2 2/2 pls see link intro: Anti fracking rally in Albany June 24, 2013
1/2 2/2 pls see link intro: Anti fracking rally in Albany June 24, 2013
::2013/07/02::
Play Video
41
NORTH ATLANTIC RIDGE Quadruple!! .. EARTHQUAKE SWARM .. - Risk to USA EAST COAST 10.6.12
NORTH ATLANTIC RIDGE Quadruple!! .. EARTHQUAKE SWARM .. - Risk to USA EAST COAST 10.6.12
::2012/10/06::
Play Video
42
Top 10 Infamous Natural Disasters of the Last 100 Years
Top 10 Infamous Natural Disasters of the Last 100 Years
::2012/03/20::
Play Video
43
MTV Commercails, Viacom, Fema Lists
MTV Commercails, Viacom, Fema Lists
::2011/03/30::
Play Video
44
Troubling!! EARTHQUAKE SWARM on NORTH ATLANTIC RIDGE - Risk to USA EAST COAST 10.6.12
Troubling!! EARTHQUAKE SWARM on NORTH ATLANTIC RIDGE - Risk to USA EAST COAST 10.6.12
::2012/10/06::
Play Video
45
Toothpick Tower Earthquake Project - 178 lbs! Springvalley Middle School Section 7-6 Part 2
Toothpick Tower Earthquake Project - 178 lbs! Springvalley Middle School Section 7-6 Part 2
::2010/06/08::
Play Video
46
6.3 Earthquake SW of Avalon CA
6.3 Earthquake SW of Avalon CA
::2012/12/15::
Play Video
47
Tsunami Caught On Camera FULL MOVIE
Tsunami Caught On Camera FULL MOVIE
::2013/02/05::
Play Video
48
Spain
Spain's Worst Quake Since 1954 Precedes EU Nuclear Decision - 4.4 and 5.2
::2011/05/12::
Play Video
49
Maori elder predicts great earthquake
Maori elder predicts great earthquake
::2011/02/07::
Play Video
50
2012 official  Earthquake scene
2012 official Earthquake scene
::2009/10/04::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of earthquakes)
Jump to: navigation, search

The following is a list of earthquake lists, and of top earthquakes by magnitude and fatalities.

Main lists[edit]

Lists of earthquakes by country[edit]

Largest earthquakes by magnitude[edit]

A pie chart comparing the seismic moment release of the three largest earthquakes for the hundred year period from 1906 to 2005 with that for all earthquakes of magnitudes <6, 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and >8 for the same period
Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater since 1900. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities.[1]

Listed below are all known earthquakes measured or estimated to have a moment magnitude scale or Richter magnitude scale of 8.5 and above.

This list is biased towards recent years due to development and widespread deployment of seismometers. Also, records that were detailed enough to make magnitude estimates (est.) were not generally available before 1900.[2]

Date Location Name Magnitude
May 22, 1960 Valdivia, Chile 1960 Valdivia earthquake 9.5
March 27, 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA 1964 Alaska earthquake 9.2
December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 9.1–9.3
November 4, 1952 Kamchatka, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union 1952 Kamchatka earthquakes 9.0[3]
March 11, 2011 Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 2011 Tōhoku earthquake 9.0[4][5][6]
December 2, 1611 Pacific ocean, Hokkaido, Japan 1611 Sanriku earthquake 8.9- (est.)
September 16, 1615 Arica, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1615 Arica earthquake 8.8 (est.)
April 2, 1762 Chittagong, Bangladesh (then Kingdom of Mrauk U) 1762 Arakan earthquake 8.8 (est.)
November 25, 1833 Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1833 Sumatra earthquake 8.8–9.2 (est.)
January 31, 1906 Ecuador – Colombia 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake 8.8
February 27, 2010 Bio-Bio, Chile 2010 Chile earthquake 8.8
January 26, 1700 Pacific Ocean, USA and Canada (then part of the British Empire) 1700 Cascadia earthquake 8.7–9.2 (est.)[7]
October 28, 1707 Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan 1707 Hōei earthquake 8.7-9.3 (est.)
July 8, 1730 Valparaiso, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1730 Valparaiso earthquake 8.7 (est.)[8]
November 1, 1755 Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1755 Lisbon earthquake 8.7 (est.)[9]
February 4, 1965 Rat Islands, Alaska, USA 1965 Rat Islands earthquake 8.7
July 9, 869 Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 869 Sanriku earthquake 8.6-9.0 (est.)
October 28, 1746 Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1746 Lima-Callao earthquake 8.6-8.8 (est.)
March 28, 1787 Oaxaca, Mexico (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1787 Mexico earthquake 8.6-8.7 (est.)
April 1, 1946 Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake 8.6
August 15, 1950 Assam, India – Tibet, China 1950 Assam - Tibet earthquake 8.6
March 9, 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska, USA 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake 8.6
March 28, 2005 Sumatra, Indonesia 2005 Sumatra earthquake 8.6
April 11, 2012 Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia 2012 Aceh earthquake 8.6
December 16, 1575 Valdivia, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1575 Valdivia earthquake 8.5 (est.)
November 24, 1604 Arica, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1604 Arica earthquake 8.5 (est.)
May 13, 1647 Santiago, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1647 Santiago earthquake 8.5 (est.)
May 24, 1751 Concepción, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1751 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
November 19, 1822 Valparaíso, Chile 1822 Valparaíso earthquake 8.5 (est.)
February 20, 1835 Concepción, Chile 1835 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
February 16, 1861 Sumatra, Indonesia 1861 Sumatra earthquake 8.5
August 13, 1868 Arica, Chile (then Peru) 1868 Arica earthquake 8.5–9.0 (est.)[10]
May 9, 1877 Iquique, Chile (then Peru) 1877 Iquique earthquake 8.5-9.0 (est.)
November 10, 1922 Atacama Region, Chile 1922 Vallenar earthquake 8.5[11]
February 1, 1938 Banda Sea, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1938 Banda Sea earthquake 8.5
October 13, 1963 Kuril Islands, Russia (USSR) 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake 8.5[12]
September 12, 2007 Sumatra, Indonesia 2007 Sumatra earthquakes 8.5
October 20, 1687 Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1687 Peru earthquake 8.4-8.7 (est.)
May 18, 1841 Kamchatka, Russia 1841 Kamchatka earthquakes 8.4-8.6(est.)
October 17, 1737 Kamchatka, Russia 1737 Kamchatka earthquakes 8.3-9.0(est.)
February 3, 1923 Kamchatka, Russia (USSR) 1923 Kamchatka earthquakes 8.3-8.5[12]
August 3, 1361 Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan 1361 Shōhei earthquake 8.2-8.5 (est.)
September 20, 1498 Pacific Ocean, Tōkai region, Japan 1498 Meiō Nankaidō earthquake 8.2-8.5 (est.)
June 15, 1896 Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 1896 Sanriku earthquake 8.2-8.5(est.)
July 23, 1905 Uvs Province, Mongolia 1905 Bulnay earthquake 8.2-8.5


Deadliest earthquakes on record[edit]

Deadliest earthquakes[13]
Rank Name Date Location Fatalities Magnitude Notes
1 "Shaanxi" January 23, 1556 Shaanxi, China 820,000–830,000 (est.)[14] 8.0 (est.) Estimated death toll in Shaanxi, China.
2 "Haiyuan" December 16, 1920 NingxiaGansu, China 273,400[15][16] 7.8 Major fractures, landslides.
3 "Tangshan" July 28, 1976 Hebei, China 242,769[16][17] 7.8
4 "Antioch" May 21, 526 Antioch, Turkey (then Byzantine Empire) 240,000[18] 7.0 (est.)[19] Procopius (II.14.6), sources based on John of Ephesus.
5 "Indian Ocean" December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia 230,210+[20][21] 9.1–9.3 Deaths from earthquake and resulting tsunami.
6 "Aleppo" October 11, 1138 Aleppo, Syria 230,000 Unknown The figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and the large seismic event of September 30, 1139 in the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.[22]
7 "Haiti" January 12, 2010 Haiti 100,000–316,000 7.0 Estimates vary from 316,000 (unsubstituted Haitian government claim) to 222,570 (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs estimate)[23] to 158,000 (report published in the Medicine, Conflict and Survival) to between 85,000 and 46,000 (unpublished LTL Strategies report commissioned by USAID).[24][25]
8 "Damghan" December 22, 856 Damghan, Iran 200,000 (est.) 7.9 (est.)
9 "Ardabil" March 22, 893 Ardabil, Iran 150,000 (est.) Unknown Reports probably relate to the 893 Dvin earthquake, due to misreading of the Arabic word for Dvin, 'Dabil' as 'Ardabil'.[26] This is regarded as a 'fake earthquake'.[27]
10 "Messina" December 28, 1908 Messina, Italy 123,000[28] 7.1 On December 28, 1908 from about 5:20 to 5:21 am an earthquake of 7.1 on the moment magnitude scale occurred centered on Messina, a city in Sicily, Italy. Reggio Calabria on the Italian mainland also suffered heavy damage. The ground shook for some 30 to 40 seconds, and the destruction was felt within a 300 km radius. Moments after the earthquake, a 40 feet (12 m) tsunami struck nearby coasts causing even more devastation. 93% of structures in Messina were destroyed and some 70,000 residents were killed. Rescuers searched through the rubble for weeks, and whole families were still being pulled out alive days later, but thousands remained buried there. Buildings in the area had not been constructed for earthquake resistance, having heavy roofs and vulnerable foundations.
11 "Ashgabat" October 6, 1948 Ashgabat, Turkmen SSR (modern-day Turkmenistan) 110,000[29] 7.3
12 "Great Kantō" September 1, 1923 Kantō region, Japan 105,385[30] 7.9 An earthquake which struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. Varied accounts hold that the duration of the earthquake was between 4 and 10 minutes. The quake had an epicenter deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region.[31] The power and intensity of the earthquake is easy to underestimate, but the 1923 earthquake managed to move the 93-ton Great Buddha statue at Kamakura. The statue slid forward almost two feet.[32] Casualty estimates range from about 100,000 to 142,800 deaths, the latter figure including approximately 40,000 who went missing and were presumed dead.
13 "Genroku" December 31, 1703 Edo, Japan 2,300, with an offshore tsunami that it may have caused killing as many as 10,000 people[33] 8.2[34]
14 "Lisbon" November 1, 1755 Lisbon, Portugal Estimates range from 15,000–40,000[35] to 40,000-60,000 people of Lisbon's population of ~275,000,[36] to 90,000 (one-third of Lisbon's population of 270,000) (Braun and Radner 2005)[37] 8.5–9.0 (est.) "A watershed event in the Western world" that annihilated the Portuguese capital.[38] Many deaths were from a resulting tsunami, falling buildings, and fires.[35][36]

Property damages caused by earthquake[edit]

Rank Name Magnitude Property damages
1 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, Japan 9.0[6] $235 billion[39][40]
2 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, Japan 6.9 $100 billion
3 2008 Sichuan earthquake, China 8.0 $75 billion
4 2010 Chile earthquake, Chile 8.8[41] $15–30 billion[41]
5 1994 Northridge earthquake, United States 6.7 $20 billion
6 2012 Emilia earthquakes, Italy 6.1[42] $13.2 billion
7 2011 Christchurch earthquake, New Zealand 6.3[43] $12 billion [44]
8 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, United States ~7.0; 6.9-7.1 reported[45] $11 billion
9 1999 921 earthquake, Taiwan 7.6 $10 billion
10 1906 San Francisco earthquake, United States 7.7 to 7.9 (est.)[42] $9.5 billion ($400 million 1906 value[42])

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ USGS: Magnitude 8 and Greater Earthquakes Since 1900
  2. ^ Weeks, Linton (March 13, 2011). "The Recorded History Of Quakes Is A Long One". National Public Radio. 
  3. ^ "Historic Earthquakes – Kamchatka." U.S. Geological Survey, October 26, 2009.
  4. ^ "New USGS number puts Japan quake at 4th largest". CBS News. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  5. ^ Reilly, Michael (March 11, 2011). "Japan's quake updated to magnitude 9.0". New Scientist. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
  6. ^ a b USGS analysis as of March 12, 2011
  7. ^ Atwater, B.F.; Musumi-Rokkaku S., Satake K., Tsuji Y., Ueda K. & Yamaguchi D.K. (2005). "The Orphan Tsunami of 1700". Professional Paper 1707. USGS. p. 98. Retrieved March 13, 2011. 
  8. ^ "Historic World Earthquakes." U.S. Geological Survey, November 23, 2009.
  9. ^ "Historic Earthquakes – Lisbon, Portugal." U.S. Geological Survey, October 26, 2009.
  10. ^ "Historic Earthquakes – Arica." U.S. Geological Survey, October 21, 2009.
  11. ^ "Historic Earthquakes – Chile-Argentina Border." U.S. Geological Survey, October 26, 2009.
  12. ^ a b "Magnitude 8 and Greater Earthquakes Since 1900." U.S. Geological Survey, March 7, 2010
  13. ^ "Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ International Association of Engineering Geology International Congress. Proceedings. [1990] (1990). ISBN 90-6191-664-X.
  15. ^ Utsu, T. "Search Page". Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2008). Retrieved June 3, 2010. 
  16. ^ a b http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2010-12/16/c_13652388.htm
  17. ^ "Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths". USGS. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Annals 48, 3, 2005+app1" (PDF). Retrieved February 12, 2011. 
  19. ^ National Geophysical Data Center. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved September 22, 2011. 
  20. ^ If the death toll in Myanmar was 400–600 as claimed by dissident groups there, rather than just 61 or 90, more than 230,000 people would have perished in total from the tsunami.
  21. ^ "Myanmar is withholding true casualties figures, says Thai priest". AsiaNews.it. January 4, 2005. Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. Retrieved February 12, 2011. "A missioner in Ranong, a town on the border between Thailand and Myanmar, says locals talk about 600 victims. Burmese political dissidents say the same." 
  22. ^ Ambraseys, Nicholas N., "The 12th century seismic paroxysm in the Middle East: a historical perspective" (PDF), Annals of Geophysics, Vol. 47, N. 2/3, April/June 2004, p. 743.
  23. ^ Haiti Dominates Earthquake Fatalities in 2010 (January 11, 2011), U.S. Geological Survey.
  24. ^ Maura R. O'Connor, [Two Years Later, Haitian Earthquake Death Toll in Dispute], Columbia Journalism Review (January 12, 2012).
  25. ^ Report challenges Haiti earthquake death toll (June 1, 2011), BBC.
  26. ^ Ambraseys, N.N.; Melville, C.P. (2005). A History of Persian Earthquakes. Cambridge Earth Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-521-02187-6. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  27. ^ Gupta, H. (2011). Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences (2 ed.). Springer. p. 566. ISBN 978-90-481-8701-0. 
  28. ^ The world's worst natural disasters Calamities of the 20th and 21st centuries CBC News'.' Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  29. ^ Dilip Hiro, Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Iran (Penguin, 2009); Keith Smith, Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster (6th ed., Routledge 2013), p. 140.
  30. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/today/index.php?month=9&day=1&submit=View+Date
  31. ^ Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning: the Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, p. 278, citing Francis Hawks, (1856). Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854 under the Command of Commodore M.C. Perry, United States Navy, Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson by order of Congress, 1856; originally published in Senate Executive Documents, No. 34 of 33rd Congress, 2nd Session.
  32. ^ Great Buddha: blog
  33. ^ "Genroku Earthquake (Genroki Daijishin)" in Historical Dictionary of Tokyo (ed. Roman Cybriwsky: Scarcrow Press, 2011), p. 78
  34. ^ J. Charles Schencking, The Great Kanto Earthquake and the Chimera of National Reconstruction in Japan (Columbia University Press, 2013); Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey, The Dog Shogun: The Personality and Policies of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (University of Hawaii Press 2006), p. 255-56
  35. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Public Health, Vol. 2 (ed. Wilhelm Kirch; Springer 2008) p. 270.
  36. ^ a b Jan Kozák & Vladimír Čermák, The Illustrated History of Natural Disasters (Springer, 2010), p. 131.
  37. ^ Theodore E.D. Braun & John B. Radner, The Lisbon Earthquake of 1755: Representations and Reactions.
  38. ^ Nicholas Shrady, The Last Day: Wrath, Ruin, and Reason in the Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 (Penguin, 2008.
  39. ^ Zhang, Bo. "Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History". AccuWeather.com. News & Video. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  40. ^ Victoria Kim (21 March 2011). "Japan damage could reach $235 billion, World Bank estimates". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  41. ^ a b "Events and Developments (P. 3, "Calendar of events 2010: February 27")". Yearbook (UNEP). 2011. 
  42. ^ a b c "Where can I learn more about the 1906 Earthquake?". Berkeley Seismological Lab. December 11, 2011. 
  43. ^ "New Zealand Earthquake Report". GeoNet (Earthquake Commission and GNS Science). February 22, 2011. 
  44. ^ Noah Buhayar (February 22, 2011). "New Zealand Quake May Be Costliest Insured Disaster Since 2008". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved May 3, 2013. 
  45. ^ Stoffer, Philip W., "The San Andreas Fault In The San Francisco Bay Area, California: A Geology Fieldtrip Guidebook To Selected Stops On Public Lands" (Introduction, p. 5), USGS, 2005.

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014