SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messaging and Android Cloud To Device Messaging (C2DM) and now enhanced version of C2DM, Android Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging services.
Google search through voice has been available since initial release. Voice actions for calling, texting, navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards. As of Android 4.1, Google has expanded Voice Actions with ability to talk back and read answers from Google's Knowledge Graph when queried with specific commands. The ability to control hardware has not yet been implemented.
Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touch-screen technology at the time). Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively.
Multitasking of applications, with unique handling of memory allocation, is available.
Android supports capturing a screenshot by pressing the power and home-screen buttons at the same time. Prior to Android 4.0, the only methods of capturing a screenshot were through manufacturer and third-party customizations (apps), or otherwise by using a PC connection (DDMS developer's tool). These alternative methods are still available with the latest Android.
Android TV supports capturing video and replaying it. 
Android does not support native video calling, but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system that supports it, either via the UMTS network (like the Samsung Galaxy S) or over IP. Video calling through Google Talk is available in Android 2.3.4 (Gingerbread) and later. Gingerbread allows Nexus S to place Internet calls with a SIP account. This allows for enhanced VoIP dialing to other SIP accounts and even phone numbers. Skype 2.1 offers video calling in Android 2.3, including front camera support. Users with the Google+ Android app can video chat with other Google+ users through Hangouts.
Supports voice dialing and sending contacts between phones, playing music, sending files (OPP), accessing the phone book (PBAP), A2DP and AVRCP. Keyboard, mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3.1+, and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.
Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot. Before Android 2.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations.
Most Android devices include microSD card slots and can read microSD cards formatted with the FAT32, Ext3 or Ext4 file systems. To allow use of external storage media such as USB flash drives and USB HDDs, some Android devices are packaged with USB-OTG cables. Storage formatted with FAT32 is handled by the Linux Kernel vFAT driver, while 3rd party solutions are required to handle some other file systems such as NTFS, HFS Plus and exFAT.
While most Android applications are written in Java, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on using Android Runtime or in Dalvik in older versions, a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. J2ME support can be provided via third-party applications.
The platform works for various screen sizes from smartphone sizes and to tablet size, and can potentially connect to an external screen, e.g. through HDMI, or wirelessly with Miracast. Portrait and landscape orientations are supported and usually switching between by turning. A 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2.0 specifications is used.
Android apps are hosted on a specific website path and load instead of the website itself. They are part-apps and load almost instantly without the need for an installation. One of the first apps being developed with such functionality is the B&H app.