Scope and organization of political scandals
The article is organized by presidential terms and then divided into scandals of the federal executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Members of both parties are listed under the term of the president in office at the time the scandal took place. Persons were either elected or appointed.
Scandal is defined as "loss of or damage to reputation caused by actual or apparent violation of morality or propriety." In politics scandals are kept separate from 'controversies,' (which implies two differing points of view) and 'unpopularity'.
Breaking the law is a scandal. Misunderstandings, breaches of ethics, unproven crimes or cover-ups may or may not result in inclusion depending on the standing of the accuser, the amount of publicity generated, and the seriousness of the crime, if any. The finding of a court with jurisdiction is the sole method used to determine a violation of law.
Not included in this article are pervasive systemic scandals, such as the role of money in normal politics, which may purchase access and influence. Neither are 'revolving door' stories, which is the practice of hiring government officials to promote or lobby for companies they were recently paid to regulate. Though some rules now apply, to a great extent this is legal.
Politicians are those who make their living primarily in politics, their staffs and appointees. By definition, political scandals involve politicians. Private citizens should be included only when they are closely linked to elected or appointed politicians such as party officials. Kenneth Lay of Enron is a good example of such a citizen. This list also does not include crimes that occur outside the politician's tenure unless they specifically stem from acts while they were in office.
Senators and Congressmen who are rebuked, admonished, condemned, suspended, found in contempt, found to have acted improperly, used poor judgement, or were reprimanded by Congress are not included unless the scandal is exceptional or leads to expulsion. However, Presidents who were impeached, but not convicted, are included.
Dr. William Bradford resigned from the United States Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy amid reports that he had made racial slurs directed at Barack Obama on Disqus and Twitter. Bradford had claimed that some of the comments were the result of identity theft and not his.
Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign on Sept 29, 2017 after it was discovered that he spent hundreds of thousands of taxpayer dollars on private flights.
US Representative from Pennsylvania Timothy F. Murphy (R) the married, anti-abortion congressman resigned just before an investigation could begin concerning his alleged urging of his mistress to seek one.(2017)
2013 IRS scandal – IRS admitted to inappropriate investigation of conservative political groups associated with the Tea Party that may not have met the criteria for certain tax exemptions. Later, it was found that the IRS investigated groups with the label "progressives", "tea party, and "patriots", but "tea party" applications specifically had to be sent to Washington for review, substantiating the claims of partisan audits. The president demanded and accepted the resignation of Steven T. Miller, Acting Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service. Other actions arising from the scandal included:
Lois Lerner, head of the IRS Office of Exempt Organizations, stated she had not done anything wrong and then took the Fifth before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. She retired in 2013 after an internal investigation found that she neglected her duties and was going to call for her ouster.
Joseph H. Grant, commissioner of the IRS Tax-exempt and Government Entities division, resigned on May 16, 2013.
Chaka Fattah (D-PA) from Pennsylvania's 2nd district was found guilty on all 23 charges he faced, which included racketeering, money laundering and fraud. He was sentenced to 10 years and resigned from Congress on June 23, 2016.
Dennis Hastert (R-IL) pleaded guilty to charges that he violated banking rules and lied to the FBI in a scheme to pay $3.5 million in hush money to conceal sexual misconduct with an underage boy from his days as a high school wrestling coach, from 1965 to 1981. (2015)
Aaron Schock (R-IL) resigned from office after evidence surfaced that he used campaign funds for travel, redecorated his office with taxpayer funds to resemble the sets of the Downton Abbey TV series, and otherwise spent campaign and/or taxpayer money on other questionable personal uses. (2015)
Schock's senior adviser Benjamin Cole had resigned earlier after he allegedly condemned "hood rats" and "black miscreants" in internet posts. Schock's office stated, "I am extremely disappointed by the inexcusable and offensive online comments made by a member of my staff."
Brett O'Donnell, Communications Director for Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), plead guilty to lying to investigators from the House Office of Congressional Ethics about working for Rodgers while being paid with campaign money, thus becoming the first person ever to be convicted of lying to the House OCE.
Thaddeus McCotter (R-MI) resigned his Congressional seat. Four of his staff were convicted by the state of Michigan of falsifying signatures on McCotter's reelection petitions for the 2012 elections. Michigan Attorney GeneralBill Schuette (R) blamed McCotter for running a slipshod, leaderless operation. "The congressman has resigned in disgrace", Schuette said, though McCotter was not charged.
Paul Seewald worked for McCotter as his District Director of the Michigan's 11th congressional district. He pleaded guilty to nine counts of falsely signing a nominating petition as circulator. He was sentenced to two years' probation and 100 hours of community service, and ordered to pay court costs and fees.
Don Yowchuang worked for McCotter as Deputy District Director of the Michigan 11th Congressional District. He pleaded guilty to ten counts of forgery and six counts of falsely signing a nominating petition and was sentenced to three years of probation, 200 hours of community service, court costs and fees.
Mary M. Turnbull was McCotter's Representative to the Michigan 11th Congressional District. She was convicted of conspiring to commit a legal act in an illegal manner and falsely signing a nominating petition. She was sentenced to two years of probation, a day in jail, and 200 hours of community service. Turnbull was also ordered to pay a $1,440 fine. In addition, she is forbidden from any participation in elections or the political process.
Lorianne O'Brady worked as a scheduler for McCotter in the Michigan 11th Congressional District. She pleaded no contest to charges that she falsely claimed to have legally collected signatures to get McCotter on the ballot when she actually had not. She was sentenced to 20 days in jail and a work program plus $2,625 in fines and court costs.
David Rivera (R-FL) was indicted as a co-conspirator with Campaign Manager Ana Alliegro, who pleaded guilty to violation of US campaign laws in an $81,000 campaign-finance scheme to prop up a little-known Democratic candidate who used the illegal cash to trash Rivera's rival in the 2012 Democratic primary.
Ana Alliegro (R), the Campaign Manager for David Rivera (R-FL), pleaded guilty to violation of US campaign laws. She was given six months in jail and six months of house arrest plus two years of probation. (2014)
Rick Renzi (R-AZ) on June 12, 2013, was found guilty of 17 counts against him, which included wire fraud, conspiracy, extortion, racketeering, money laundering, and making false statements to insurance regulators.
Senator Mike Crapo (R-ID) was arrested on December 23, 2012, and later pleaded guilty to drinking and driving in a Virginia court. The court fined him $250. He was sentenced to 180 days in prison, but served no time.
Trey Radel (R-FL) was arrested on October 29, 2013, in Washington, D.C. for possession of cocaine after purchasing the drug from an undercover law enforcement officer. As a first-time offender, he pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor in a Washington, D.C. court, and was sentenced to one year of probation and fined $250. Radel took a leave of absence from office to undergo substance abuse treatment following his conviction. Following treatment, he initially returned to office with the intent of finishing his term, but eventually resigned on January 27, 2014.
Jesse L. Jackson Jr. (D-IL) pleaded guilty to one felony count of fraud for using $750,000 of campaign money to buy personal items such as stuffed animals, elk heads and fur capes.
Laura Richardson (D-CA) was found guilty on seven counts of violating US House rules by improperly using her staff to campaign for her, destroying the evidence and tampering with witness testimony. The House Ethics Committee ordered Richardson to pay a fine of $10,000. (2012)
John Ensign (R-NV) resigned his Senate seat on May 3, 2011, just before the Senate Ethics Committee could examine possible fiscal violations in connection with his extramarital affair with Cynthia Hampton. (2011) (see Federal sex scandals) In May 2012, aide Doug Hampton (R) in what became the John Ensign scandal reached a plea deal with prosecutors, the details of which have not yet been released.
Michael Grimm (R-NY) pleaded guilty to tax fraud on December 23, 2014, and was sentenced to eight months in federal prison.
Ron Paul (R-TX) Campaign Manager John Tate (R) was indicted for concealing over $73,000 in payments to Iowa State Senator Kent Sorenson to convince him to flip his presidential endorsement from Michele Bachmann to Paul. He was convicted of conspiracy, causing false records, causing false campaign expenditure reports, and making false statements. He was sentenced to 6 months home confinement, fined 10K and 2 years probation (2016)
Ron Paul (R-TX) Deputy Campaign Manager Dimitri Kesari was convicted of causing false records concerning charges of buying an Iowa State Senator's endorsement during the 2012 presidential campaign. (2012)
Scott DesJarlais (R-TN), while running for re-election on a pro-life platform, it was discovered that he had made his wife have two abortions, and tried to persuade his mistress (who was also his patient), to have one as well. He also admitted under oath that while a married physician at Grandview Medical Center in Jasper, Tennessee, he had six affairs with three co-workers, two patients and a drug representative. He was investigated by the Tennessee Board of Health, pleaded guilty and was fined. (2012)
Robert Decheine (D), CoS to U.S. Representative Steve Rothman (D-NJ), was sentenced to 18 months in prison for soliciting sex from a minor. (2011)
Alabama District Judge Mark E. Fuller (R) was found guilty of domestic violence, sentenced to domestic training and forced to resign. (2015)
Eastern Louisiana Federal Judge G. Thomas Porteous was unanimously impeached by the US House of Representatives on charges of bribery and perjury in March 2010. He was convicted by the US Senate and removed from office. He had been appointed by Democrat Bill Clinton. (2010)
Senior Federal U.S. District Court Judge Jack T. Camp was appointed by Republican Ronald Reagan and again by George W. Bush, was arrested in an undercover drug bust while trying to purchase cocaine from an FBI agent. Judge Camp resigned after pleading guilty to three criminal charges. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail, 400 community service hours and fined.
US District Court Judge Jack Tarpley Camp Jr. (R) for the Northern District of GA pleaded guilty to aiding and abetting a felon's possession of a controlled substance, illegally giving a stripper his government-issued laptop and possession of drugs. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail, 400 hours of community service and resignation from the bench.(2010)
Felipe Sixto was appointed by President George W. Bush to be his Special Assistant for Intergovernmental Affairs as well as Duty Director at the Office of Public Liaison. He resigned a few weeks later on March 20, 2008 because of his misuse of grant money from the U.S. Agency for International Development when he had worked for the Center for a Free Cuba. He was sentenced to 30 months in prison for stealing almost $600,000 for personal use.
Timothy Goeglein, Special Assistant to President Bush, resigned when it was discovered that more than twenty of his columns had been plagiarized from an Indiana newspaper. (2008)
Scott Bloch was appointed by President George W. Bush to head the United States Office of Special Counsel. On April 27, 2010, Bloch pleaded guilty to criminal contempt of Congress for "willfully and unlawfully withholding pertinent information from a House committee investigating his decision to have several government computers wiped ...." On February 2, Magistrate Judge Deborah A. Robinson ruled that Bloch faces a mandatory sentence of at least one month in prison.
Lewis Libby, Chief of Staff to Vice President Dick Cheney (R) and also known as "Scooter", was convicted of perjury and obstruction of justice in the Plame Affair on March 6, 2007. He was sentenced to 30 months in prison and fined $250,000. The sentence was commuted by George W. Bush on July 1, 2007. The felony remains on Libby's record, though the jail time and fine were commuted.
Richard J. Griffin, the Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security appointed by George W. Bush who made key decisions regarding the department's oversight of private security contractor Blackwater USA, resigned in November 2007, after a critical review by the House Oversight Committee found that his office had failed to adequately supervise private contractors during the Blackwater Baghdad shootings protecting U.S. diplomats in Iraq.
"Lawyergate" or the Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy refers to President Bush firing, without explanation, eleven Republican federal prosecutors whom he himself had appointed. It is alleged that they were fired for prosecuting Republicans and not prosecuting Democrats. When Congressional hearings were called, a number of senior Justice Department officials cited executive privilege and refused to testify under oath and instead resigned, including:
Darleen A. Druyun was the Principal Deputy Undersecretary of the Air Force nominated by George W. Bush. She pleaded guilty to inflating the price of contracts to favor her future employer, Boeing. In October 2004, she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined $5,000, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service. She began her prison term on January 5, 2005. CBS News called it "the biggest Pentagon scandal in 20 years" and said that she pleaded guilty to a felony.
Jack Abramoff was involved in a scandal in which the prominent lobbyist with close ties to Republican administration officials and legislators offered bribes as part of his lobbying efforts. Abramoff was sentenced to 4 years in prison. See Legislative scandals.
House Majority Leader Tom DeLay (R-TX) was reprimanded twice by the House Ethics Committee and his aides indicted (2004–2005); eventually DeLay himself was investigated in October 2005 in connection with the Abramoff scandal, but not indicted. DeLay resigned from the House June 9, 2006. DeLay was found to have illegally channeled funds from Americans for a Republican Majority to Republican state legislator campaigns. He was convicted of two counts of money laundering and conspiracy in 2010.
GSA (General Services Administration) Chief of Staff David Safavian found guilty of blocking justice and lying, and sentenced to 18 months
Susan B. Ralston, Special Assistant to the President and Senior Advisor to Karl Rove, resigned on October 6, 2006 after it became known that she accepted gifts and passed information to her former boss Jack Abramoff.
Robert E. Coughlin, Deputy Chief of Staff of the Criminal Division of the Justice Department, pleaded guilty to conflict of interest after accepting bribes from Jack Abramoff. (2008)
CIA Executive Director Kyle Foggo was convicted of honest services fraud in the awarding of a government contract and sentenced to 37 months in federal prison at Pine Knot, Kentucky. On September 29, 2008, Foggo pleaded guilty to one count of the indictment, admitting that while he was the CIA executive director, he acted to steer a CIA contract to the firm of his lifelong friend, Brent R. Wilkes.
Julie MacDonald, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Interior, resigned on May 1, 2007, after giving government documents to developers (2007)
Claude Allen, appointed as an advisor by President Bush (R) on Domestic Policy, was arrested for a series of felony thefts in retail stores. He was convicted on one count and resigned soon after.
The 2003 Invasion of Iraq depended on intelligence that Saddam Hussein was developing "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs) meaning nuclear, chemical and/or biological weapons for offensive use. As revealed by The (British) Downing Street memo "Bush wanted to remove Saddam, through military action, justified by the conjunction of terrorism and WMD. But the intelligence and the facts were being fixed around the policy" The press called this the 'smoking gun."(2005)
Yellowcake forgery – Just before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Bush administration presented evidence to the UN that Iraq was seeking material (yellowcake uranium) in Africa for making nuclear weapons. Though presented as true, it was later found to be not only dubious, but outright false.
Coalition Provisional Authority Cash Payment Scandal – On June 20, 2005, the staff of the Committee on Government Reform prepared a report for Congressman Henry Waxman. It was revealed that $12 billion in cash had been delivered to Iraq by C-130 planes, on shrinkwrapped pallets of US $100 bills. The United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, concluded that "Many of the funds appear to have been lost to corruption and waste.... Some of the funds could have enriched both criminals and insurgents...." Henry Waxman, commented, "Who in their right mind would send 363 tons of cash into a war zone?" A single flight to Iraq on December 12, 2003, which contained $1.5 billion in cash is said to be the largest single Federal Reserve payout in US history according to Henry Waxman.
John A. Shaw (R) was appointed by George W. Bush as Under Secretary of Defense. He was investigated on corruption although charges were never filed against him, he was asked to resign in 2004. When he refused to resign, he was fired by the Bush administration on December 10, 2004.
The Bernard Kerik nomination in 2004 as Secretary of Homeland Security was derailed by past employment of an illegal alien as a nanny, and other improprieties. On November 4, 2009, he pleaded guilty to two counts of tax fraud and five counts of lying to the federal government and was sentenced to four years in prison.
Many of his memos have since been repudiated and reversed. Later review by the Justice Department reported that Yoo and Jay Bybee used "poor judgement" in the memos, but no charges were filed.
Carl Truscott, Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, was appointed in 2004 but was soon under investigation for his management style and allegations of lavish spending and misuse of resources, including requiring a large number of agents as personal security, allocating hundreds of thousands of dollars of expensive upgrades to the ATF HQ building, adding a new garage to his house, detailing 20 agents to help with his nephew's high school project and other examples of poor financial judgment. Truscott resigned as the ATF Director on August 4, 2006.
US senatorial candidate James W. Treffinger (R-NJ) pleaded guilty in 2003 to corruption and fraud as Chief Executive of Essex County and ordered to pay $30,000 in restitution and serve 13 months in jail.
Senator Ted Stevens (R-AK) was convicted of seven counts of bribery and tax evasion October 27, 2008. He then lost re-election. Newly appointed US Attorney General Eric Holder dismissed the charges "in the interest of justice" stating that the Justice Department had illegally withheld evidence from defense counsel.
Charles Rangel (D-NY) failed to report $75,000 income from the rental of his villa in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic and was forced to pay $11,000 in back taxes. (September 2008)
Rick Renzi (R-AZ) announced he would not seek another term.* He was later sentenced to three years in prison after conviction on federal corruption charges of extortion, bribery, insurance fraud, money laundering and racketeering related to a 2005 money-laundering scheme that netted the Flagstaff Republican more than $700,000. (2005)
House Majority Leader Tom DeLay (R-TX) served from 1985 to 2006 when he resigned his position to undergo trial for conspiring to launder corporate money into political donations and money laundering during the 2002 elections. On November 24, 2010, DeLay was found guilty and was sentenced to three years in prison and 10 years' probation respectively. On September 19, 2013, the conviction was overturned.
Jack Abramoff (R) scandal – The lobbyist found guilty of conspiracy, tax evasion and corruption of public officials in three different courts in a wide-ranging investigation. He served 70 months and was fined $24.7 million. See Scandals, Executive Branch. The following were also implicated:
House Majority Leader Tom DeLay (R-TX) was reprimanded twice by the House Ethics Committee and his aides indicted (2004–2005); eventually DeLay himself was investigated in October 2005 in connection with the Abramoff scandal, but not indicted. DeLay resigned from the House June 9, 2006. DeLay was found to have illegally channeled funds from Americans for a Republican Majority to Republican state legislator campaigns. He was convicted of two counts of money laundering and conspiracy in 2010.
Bob Ney (R-OH) pleaded guilty to conspiracy and making false statements as a result of his receiving trips from Abramoff in exchange for legislative favors. Ney received 30 months in prison.
William Heaton (R), Chief of Staff for Bob Ney, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to commit fraud admitting to conspiring with Ney, Jack Abramoff and others to accept vacations, meals, tickets, and contributions to Ney's campaign in exchange for Ney benefitting Abramoff's clients. (2006)
Neil Volz, former staff to Robert Ney, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy in 2006 charges stemming from his work for Bob Ney. In 2007 he was sentenced to two years probation, 100 hours community service, and a fine of $2,000.
William Heaton, former chief of staff for Bob Ney (R), pleaded guilty to a federal conspiracy charge involving a golf trip to Scotland, expensive meals, and tickets to sporting events between 2002 and 2004 as payoffs for helping Abramoff's clients.
John Albaugh, former chief of staff to Ernest Istook (R-OK), pled guilty to accepting bribes connected to the Federal Highway Bill. Istook was not charged. (2008)
James Hirni, former staff to Tim Hutchinson (R-AR), was charged with wire fraud for giving a staffer for Don Young (R) of Alaska a bribe in exchange for amendments to the Federal Highway Bill. (2008)
John Doolittle (R-CA) and his wife were under investigation (January 2008). Under this cloud, Doolittle decided not to run for re-election in November 2008. The Justice Department announced in June 2010 that they had terminated the investigation and found no wrongdoing.
Randy Cunningham (R-CA) pleaded guilty on November 28, 2005, to charges of conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, wire fraud and tax evasion in what came to be called the Cunningham scandal. Sentenced to over eight years.
Tan Nguyen (R-CA), congressional candidate for the 47th District, was convicted of voter intimidation. He lost the election and was sentenced to one year in prison and six months in a halfway house. (2006)–
Cynthia McKinney (D-GA) struck a U.S. Capitol Police officer in the chest after he attempted to stop her from going around a security checkpoint. McKinney apologized on the floor of the House and no charges were filed (March 29, 2006)
William J. Jefferson (D-LA) had $90,000 in cash in his home freezer seized by the FBI in August 2005. He was re-elected anyway, but lost in 2008. Jefferson was convicted of 11 counts of bribery and sentenced to 13 years on November 13, 2009, and his chief of staff Brett Pfeffer was sentenced to 84 months in a related case.
Bill Janklow (R-SD) was convicted of second-degree manslaughter for running a stop sign and killing a motorcyclist. He resigned from the House and was given 100 days in the county jail and three years (2003)
Senator Robert Torricelli (D-NJ) spent 14 years in the House and one term in the Senate. Torricelli declined to run again when accused of taking illegal contributions from Korean businessman David Chang. (2002)
Jim Traficant (D-OH) was found guilty on ten felony counts of financial corruption and was sentenced to 8 years in prison and expelled from the House. (2002)
John David Roy Atchison (R), Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Florida, was arrested for intentions of having sex with a five year old. Atchison committed suicide before trial while in custody(2007)
PresidentBill Clinton (D) was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice for allegedly lying under oath about consensual sexual relations with a member of his staff Monica Lewinsky. Clinton was acquitted by the Senate and remained in office for the rest of his term. Clinton subsequently was cited for contempt of court and agreed to a five-year suspension of his Arkansas law license (1998). On October 1, 2001, Clinton was barred from practicing law before the Supreme Court of the United States (2001)
Ronald Blackley, Chief of Staff to the Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy, was sentenced to 27 months for perjury. Secretary Espy was found innocent on all counts.
David Watkins, Director of the Office of Administration used the White House helicopter, Marine One, to fly to a nearby golf course for an afternoon game. Ostensibly to check out security issues, Watkins later admitted it was just to play golf and resigned.(1994)
Bob Packwood (R-OR) was accused of sexual misconduct by nineteen women. He fought the allegations, but eventually, the US Senate Ethics Committee found him guilty of a "pattern of abuse of his position of power and authority" and recommended that he be expelled from the Senate. He resigned on September 7, 1995.
Lawrence J. Smith (D-FL) pleaded guilty to one count of tax evasion and one count of filing false campaign reports on August 3, 1993. He was sentenced to three months in prison.
House banking scandal – The House of Representatives Bank found that 450 members had overdrawn their checking accounts, but had not been penalized. Six were convicted of charges, most only tangentially related to the House Bank itself. Twenty two more of the most prolific over-drafters were singled out by the House Ethics Committee. (1992)
Joe Kolter (D-PA) was convicted of one count of conspiracy and sentenced to 6 months in prison.
Postmaster Robert V. Rota was convicted of one count of conspiracy and two counts of embezzlement.
Jay Kim (R-CA) accepted $250,000 in illegal 1992 campaign contributions and was sentenced to two months house arrest. (1992)
US Representative Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) was found guilty of failure to properly report campaign contributions and fined. (1996)
Enid Greene Waldholtz (R) U.S. Rep., (1995-1997). Enid was found guilty on four counts of violating FEC rules and paid $100,000 in fines for campaign violations.(1994)
Joe Waldholtz (R) Campaign Manager and husband of Enid Greene Waldholtz (R) pled guilty to federal charges of tax, bank, and campaign fraud, embezzling and forgery(1995) and then, while out on parole, was subsequently convicted of forging insurance and Veterans Affairs checks from his stepmother and his late father.
George H. W. Bush administration (1989–1993)
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush (R) denied any knowledge of the Iran-Contra Affair during his election campaign by saying he was "out of the loop." His own diaries of that time, though, stated "I'm one of the few people that know fully the details ..." He repeatedly refused to disclose this to investigators during the investigation and thus won the election. (1988)
Iran-Contra Affair pardons – On December 24, 1992, George H. W. Bush (R) granted clemency to five convicted government officials and Caspar Weinberger, whose trial had not yet begun. This action prevented any further investigation into the matter.
Lawrence J. Smith (D-FL) pleaded guilty to tax fraud and lying to federal election officials and served three months in jail, fined $5,000, 2 years probation and back taxes of $40,000
Senator David Durenberger (R-MN) was denounced by the Senate for unethical financial transactions and then disbarred in 1990. He pleaded guilty to misuse of public funds and was given one year probation. (1995)
Donald E. "Buz" Lukens (R-OH) was convicted of contributing to the delinquency of a minor for having sex with a 16-year old girl. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail and fined $500. (1989)
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy James E. Gaines took over when Paisley resigned his office. He was convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, and theft and conversion of government property. He was sentenced to six months in prison.
Victor D. Cohen, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, was the 50th conviction obtained under the Ill Wind probe when he pleaded guilty to accepting bribes and conspiring to defraud the government.
The Housing and Urban Development Scandal was a scandal concerning bribery by selected contractors for low income housing projects.
James G. Watt, the Secretary of Interior from 1981–1983, was charged with 25 counts of perjury and obstruction of justice, sentenced to five years probation, fined $5,000 and 500 hours of community service
Deborah Gore Dean (R), Executive Assistant to Samuel Pierce (Secretary of HUD from 1981–1987, and not charged), was convicted of 12 counts of perjury, conspiracy, bribery. Sentenced to 21 months in prison. (1987)
Phillip D. Winn, Assistant Secretary of HUD from 1981–1982, pleaded guilty to bribery in 1994.
Thomas Demery, Assistant Secretary of HUD, pleaded guilty to bribery and obstruction.
Joseph A. Strauss, Special Assistant to the Secretary of HUD, was convicted of accepting payments to favor Puerto Rican land developers in receiving HUD funding.
Silvio D. DeBartolomeis was convicted of perjury and bribery.
Wedtech scandal – Wedtech Corporation was convicted of bribery for Defense Department contracts.
Emanuel S. Savas, appointed by Ronald Reagan to be Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, resigned on July 8, 1983 after an internal Justice Department investigation found he had abused his office by having his Government staff work on his private book on Government time.
Iran-Contra Affair (1985–1986) – In violation of an arms embargo, administration officials arranged to sell armaments to Iran in an attempt to improve relations with Iran and obtain their influence in the release of hostages held in Lebanon. Oliver North of the National Security Council then diverted proceeds from the arms sale to fund Contra rebels attempting to overthrow the left-wing government of Nicaragua, which was in direct violation of Congress' Boland Amendment. Ronald Reagan appeared on TV stating there was no "arms for hostages" deal, but was later forced to admit, also on TV, that yes, there indeed had been:
Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense, was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice on June 16, 1992. Weinberger received a pardon from George H. W. Bush on December 24, 1992, before he was tried.
CIA Head William Casey was thought to have conceived the plan, but was stricken ill hours before he would testify. Reporter Bob Woodward records that Casey knew of and approved the plan.
Assistant Secretary of State Elliott Abrams was convicted of withholding evidence, but after a plea bargain was given only two years probation. He was later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush
Alan D. Fiers, Chief of the CIA's Central American Task Force, was convicted of withholding evidence and sentenced to one year probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush
Oliver North was convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and destruction of documents, but the convictions were vacated, after the appeals court found that witnesses in his trial might have been impermissibly affected by his immunized congressional testimony.
Fawn Hall, Oliver North's secretary, was given immunity from prosecution on charges of conspiracy and destroying documents in exchange for her testimony.
John Poindexter (R), National Security Advisor, was convicted of five counts of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury, defrauding the government, and the alteration and destruction of evidence. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling.
Ex-CIA senior official Duane Clarridge was indicted in November 1991 on seven counts of perjury and false statements relating to a November 1985 shipment to Iran. He was pardoned before trial by President George H. W. Bush.
Richard V. Secord, an ex-major general in the Air Force who organized the Iran arms sales and Contra aid, pleaded guilty in November 1989 to making false statements to Congress. He was sentenced to two years of probation.
Businessman Albert Hakim pleaded guilty in November 1989 to supplementing the salary of Oliver North by buying him a $13,800 fence. Hakim was given two years of probation and a $5,000 fine, while his company, Lake Resources Inc. was ordered to dissolve.
Thomas G. Clines, once an intelligence official who became an arms dealer, was convicted in September 1990 on four income tax counts, including under-reporting of income to the IRS and lying about not having foreign accounts. He was sentenced to 16 months of prison and fined $40,000.
Carl R. Channell, a fund-raiser for conservative causes, pleaded guilty in April 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization to fund the Contras. He was sentenced to two years probation.
Richard R. Miller, associate to Carl R. Channell, pleaded guilty in May 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization led by Channell. More precisely, he pleaded guilty to lying to the IRS about the deductibility of donations to the organization. Some of the donations were used to fund the Contras. Sentenced to two years of probation and 120 of community service.
Joseph F. Fernandez, the CIA Station Chief of Costa Rica, was indicted on five counts in 1988. The case was dismissed when Attorney General Dick Thornburgh refused to declassify information needed for his defense in 1990.
Michael Deaver, Deputy Chief of Staff to Ronald Reagan from 1981–1985, pleaded guilty to perjury related to lobbying activities and was sentenced to three years probation and fined $100,000.
Sewergate was a scandal in which funds from the EPA were selectively used for projects which would aid politicians friendly to the Reagan administration.
Anne Gorsuch, the Burford Head of the EPA, cut the EPA staff by 22% and refused to turn over documents to Congress citing "executive privilege", whereupon she was found in Contempt and resigned with twenty of her top employees. (1980)
Fred J. Villella, Deputy Director at Federal Emergency Management Agency, had more than $70,000 in renovations made to part of a dormitory at an agency training center in Maryland for use as a residence, including an $11,000 stove, wet bar, microwave oven, fireplace and cherrywood cabinets. Villella accepted free tickets to the same Republican fund-raisers as Giuffrida and also was accused of using a FEMA security guard for private errands. He resigned in 1984. (1984)
Veterans administration Chief Bob Nimmo was appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981. He resigned one year later just before a General Accounting Office report criticized him for improper such use of government funds. (1982)
Peter Voss was appointed to the US Postal Service Board of Governors in 1982 by President Ronald Reagan. He was sentenced to four years in federal prison and fined $11,000 for theft and accepting payoffs. He resigned his office in 1986, when he pleaded guilty.
Jim Petro (R), U.S. Attorney appointed by President Ronald Reagan, was dismissed and fined for tipping off an acquaintance about an ongoing Secret Service investigation. (1984)
William H. Kennedy, United States Attorney in San Diego, was dismissed by President Reagan after he made improper comments about a pending criminal case."(1982)
Senator David Durenberger (R-MN) was denounced by the Senate for unethical financial transactions (1990) and then disbarred as an attorney. In 1995, he pled guilty to 5 misdemeanor counts of misuse of public funds and was given one years probation.
Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC) and his campaign was found guilty of "voter caging" when 125,000 postcards were sent to mainly black neighborhoods and the results used to challenge their residency and therefore their right to vote. (1990)
Congressman Barney Frank (D-MA) lived with convicted felon Steve Gobie, who ran a gay prostitution operation from Frank's apartment without his knowledge. Frank was admonished by Congress for using his congressional privilege to eliminate 33 parking tickets attributed to Gobie. (1987)
Anthony Lee Coelho (D-CA) resigned rather than face inquiries from both the Justice Department and the House Ethics Committee about an allegedly unethical "junk bond" deal, which netted him $6,000. He was never charged with any crime. (1989)
House Speaker Jim Wright (D-TX) resigned after an ethics investigation led by Newt Gingrich alleged improper receipt of $145,000 in gifts (1989)
Keating Five (1980–1989) – The failure of Lincoln Savings and Loan led to Charles Keating donating to the campaigns of five Senators for help. Keating served 42 months in prison. The five were investigated by the Senate Ethics Committee which found that:
Mario Biaggi (D-NY) was convicted of obstruction of justice and accepting illegal gratuities he was sentenced to 2½ years in prison and fined $500,000 for his role in the Wedtech scandal. Just before expulsion from the House, he resigned. The next year, he was convicted of another fifteen counts of obstruction and bribery. (1988)
Federal District Court Judge Alcee Hastings (D-FL) was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of soliciting a bribe. (1989) Subsequently, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1992)
Federal District Court Judge Harry Claiborne (D-NV) was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate on two counts of tax evasion. He served over one year in prison.
Bert Lance, Director of OMB, resigned amid allegations of misuse of funds during the sale of a Georgia bank to BCCI. (1977) In 1981, Lance was acquitted by a jury of nine counts of bank fraud.
US Representative J. Herbert Burke (R-FL) pleaded guilty to disorderly intoxication and resisting arrest, and nolo contendere to an additional charge of witness tampering. He was sentenced to three months plus fines. (1978)
US Representative Robert E. Bauman (R-MD) was charged with soliciting sex from a teenage boy in gay bar. After counseling, the charges were dropped, but he lost his next two elections. (1980)
Fred Richmond (D-NY) received charges of soliciting sex from a 16-year-old boy were dropped after he submitted to counseling. (1978)
Charles Diggs (D-MI) was convicted on 29 charges of mail fraud and filing false payroll forms which formed a kickback scheme with his staff. Sentenced to 3 years (1978)
SenatorHerman Talmadge (D-GA) was denounced by the Senate for "improper financial conduct" on October 11, 1979. He failed to be re-elected.
Michael Myers (D-PA) received suspended six-month jail term after pleading no contest to disorderly conduct charged stemming from an incident at a Virginia bar in which he allegedly attacked a hotel security guard and a cashier.
Charles H. Wilson (D-CA) was censured after he converted $25,000 in campaign funds to his own use and accepted $10,500 from a man with a direct interest in legislation before Congress. This was a later non-Park incident.
John Connally (R-TX) was accused of accepting a $10K bribe (Milk Money scandal). He was acquitted. (1975)
Koreagate scandal involving alleged bribery of more than 30 members of Congress by the South Korean government represented by Tongsun Park. Several other Koreans and Congressmen were allegedly involved, but not charged or reprimanded. The most notable are:
Federal Judge Herbert Allan Fogel (R) of the Eastern Federal District of Pennsylvania (1973–1978), and nominated by Richard M. Nixon, resigned after investigation of a government contract in which he was forced to invoke the 5th Amendment. (1978)
Secretary of AgricultureEarl Butz was asked privately why the party of Lincoln was not able to attract more blacks. Butz replied: "I'll tell you what the coloreds want. It's three things: first, a tight pussy; second, loose shoes; and third, a warm place to shit." Butz resigned soon afterwards on October 4, 1976. Later, in 1981, Butz was charged with failing to report more than $148,000 in 1978. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 30 days in jail and five years of probation and was ordered to make restitution. He served 25 days behind bars before his release.
Bertram Podell (D-NY) pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest. He was fined $5,000 and served four months in prison. (1974)
Frank Brasco (D-NY) was sentenced to three months in jail and fined $10,000 for conspiracy to accept bribes from a reputed Mafia figure who sought truck leasing contracts from the Post Office and loans to buy trucks.
Frank Clark (D-PA) paid congressional salaries to 13 Pennsylvania residents who performed no official duties.
Wilbur Mills (D-AR) stepped down as Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee after his affair with Argentinian stripper Fanne Fox was made public in 1974.
Otto Kerner, Jr. (D) resigned as a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit after conviction for bribery, mail fraud and tax evasion while Governor of Illinois. He was sentenced to three years in prison and fined $50,000. (1974)
Vice PresidentSpiro Agnew (R-MD) was convicted of tax fraud stemming from bribery charges in Maryland and forced to resign.Gerald R. Ford (R-MI) was nominated by Nixon and replaced Agnew as Vice President in 1973 (the first person appointed to the Vice Presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment).
Bebe Rebozo (R) was investigated for accepting large contribution to Nixon campaign. No charges were filed (1973)
Watergate (1972–1974) – President Richard Nixon (R) ordered the coverup of the burglary and 'bugging' of the Democratic Party National Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel. The cover up by Nixon and his staff resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 convicted or pleading guilty. Eventually, Nixon resigned his office rather than face impeachment. Those involved include:
Secretary of Commerce Maurice Stans (R) pleaded guilty to three counts of violating the reporting sections of the Federal Election Campaign Act and two counts of accepting illegal campaign contributions and was fined $5,000. (1975)
G. Bradford Cook was appointed by President Nixon to be Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. He resigned his position during the investigation into the Robert Vesco/Watergate affair during which he allegedly lied to a grand jury and was disbarred by the US Supreme Court for three years. He had served as Chairman for just 74 days. (1973)The Washington Star reported that Cook believed he was going to be impeached, and offered to resign. The White House allowed him to do so.
Operation Townhouse was established by H. R. Haldeman, Nixon's Chief of Staff, to set up a secret fund-raising enterprise, the "Townhouse Operation", designed to bypass the Republican National Committee. (1970)
Presidential Counsel and Strategist Harry Shuler Dent pleaded guilty to violations of Federal election law for his part in the illegal fundraising operation.
Herbert W. Kalmbach, Nixon's Personal Attorney, raised $3.9 million for a secret Republican slush fund. He also promised an ambassador a better post in exchange for $100,000, which led to conviction and imprisonment. Kalmbach pleaded guilty to violation of the Federal Corrupt Practices Act and one count of promising federal employment.
White House Aide Jack A. Gleason pleaded guilty to violations of Federal election law concerning an illegal fund raising operation run by the White House.
Richard Helms, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (1966–1973), was convicted of misleading Congress concerning assassination attempts in Cuba, anti-government activities in Chile and the illegal surveillance of journalists in the US. Mr. Helms pleaded no contest.
Donald Segretti (R) ran a campaign of dirty tricks for Nixon which he dubbed "ratfucking", which meant forging and distributing forged documents used to embarrass Democrats. In 1974, Segretti pleaded guilty to three counts of distributing illegal (forged) campaign literature and was sentenced to six months in prison.
Senator Ted Kennedy (D-MA) drove his car into a tidal channel on Chappaquiddick Island, a small island off of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, passenger Mary Jo Kopechne drowned. Kennedy pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of an accident and received a suspended sentence of two months. (1969)
J. Irving Whalley (R-PA) received suspended three-year sentence and fined $11,000 in 1973 for using mails to deposit staff salary kickbacks and threatening an employee to prevent her from giving information to the FBI.
Martin B. McKneally (R-NY) was placed on one-year probation and fined $5,000 in 1971 for failing to file income tax return. He had not paid taxes for many years prior.
Edwin Reinecke (R-CA) was convicted of perjury and sentenced to 18 months in prison as part of the Watergate investigation. He resigned one day before his sentencing, which was overturned on appeal because "the Senate Judiciary Committee before which he was accused of perjuring himself had failed to publish its rule permitting a one-man quorum."
US Representative William Oswald Mills (R-MD) had received an undisclosed $25,000 gift from the Finance Committee of President Richard Nixon's re-election campaign (CREEP), which was part of $900,000 in unaccounted donations made by that committee in May 1973. Five days later, he committed suicide. (1973)
US Representative George V. Hansen (R-ID) was the first member of Congress to be convicted of violating a new 1971 campaign law requiring disclosure of financial contributions. (1974)
Judge Harrold Carswell (R) was nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1970 by Richard Nixon, but was not confirmed. Civil rights advocates questioned his civil rights record, citing his voiced support for racial segregation during his unsuccessful election bid in 1948. Various feminists, including Betty Friedan, testified before the Senate and opposed his nomination and contributed to his defeat.Roman Hruska (Republican, Nebraska) stated:"Even if he were mediocre, there are a lot of mediocre judges and people and lawyers. They are entitled to a little representation, aren't they, and a little chance? We can't have all Brandeises, Frankfurters and Cardozos."
Herbert Allen Fogel (R) US Judge of Eastern District of PA (1973-1978) resigned after investigations of a government contract started, during which he was forced to invoke the 5th Amendment multiple times.(1978)
Lyndon B. Johnson administration (1963–1969)
Senator Daniel Brewster (D-MD) pleaded no contest to accepting an illegal gratuity in 1975 and fined $10,000.[page needed] Brewster was convicted in 1972 of accepting $14,500 from a lobbyist, and got a six-year term in 1973 over the conviction, but the conviction was overturned on grounds of unclear jury instructions.
Congressman Lawrence J. Smith (D-FL) pleaded guilty to one count of tax evasion and one count of filing false campaign reports on August 3, 1993. He was sentenced to three months in prison.
Thomas F. Johnson (D-MD) was indicted on charges of members of Maryland's S&L industry bribing him and lost his seat in 1962. Later was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest in 1968, served 31⁄2 months of a 6-month sentence and was fined $5,000.
Frank Boykin (D-AL) was placed on six months' probation in 1963 following conviction in a case involving a conflict of interest and conspiracy to defraud the government. His prison sentence was suspended on age and health grounds and was fined $40,000 total. He was pardoned by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965.
Dwight D. Eisenhower administration (1953–1961)
Richard Nixon (R) delivered the "Checkers Speech" to deflect scandal about $18,000 in gifts, maintaining the only personal gift he had received was a dog. (1952)
Chief of Staff (Llewelyn) Sherman A. Adams was cited for Contempt of Congress and forced to resign because he refused to answer questions about an oriental rug and vicuna coat given to his wife. (1958)
John C. Doerfer (R), the appointed Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission by President Eisenhower, spent a week-long Florida vacation in 1960 on the yacht owned by his friend George B. Storer, president of Storer Broadcasting; as a result, he was accused of conflict of interest and forced to resign.
Thomas J. Lane (D-MA) was convicted for evading taxes on his congressional income. He served four months in prison, but was re-elected three more times before his 1962 defeat due to re-districting. (1956)
Ernest K. Bramblett (R-CA) received a suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine in 1955 for making false statements in connection with payroll padding and kickbacks from congressional employees.
Douglas Stringfellow (R-UT) abandoned his 1954 re-election bid after admitting to embellishing his war record. Stringfellow falsely claimed to have been awarded a Silver Star and feigned paraplegia.
A Justice Department investigation of the Internal Revenue Service led to the firing or resignation of 166 lower level employees, causing President Harry Truman (D) to be stained with charges of corruption. (1950)
Florida U.S. District Judge Halsted Ritter (R) was impeached for secretly taking a $4,500 fee from a former law partner. He was convicted of bringing the judiciary into disrepute (accepting free meals and lodging during receivership proceedings) and removed from office. (1936)
Martin Thomas Manton (D), US District Court for the Southern District of New York, was investigated for judicial corruption and bribery which resulted in prosecution and a two-year prison term. (1939)
US Alien Property Custodian Thomas B. Miller (R) was convicted of conspiring to defraud the US government and served 18 months in prison. (1927)
Frederick A. Fenning (R), District of Columbia Commissioner appointed by Calvin Coolidge, was investigated and accused of practices illegal and contrary to law. He resigned before trial. (1927)
John W. Langley (R-KY) resigned from the US Congress in January 1926, after losing an appeal to set aside his conviction of violating the Volstead Act (Prohibition). He had also been caught trying to bribe a Prohibition officer. He was sentenced to two years after which, his wife ran for Congress in his place and won two full terms.
Senator William Scott Vare (R-PA) was unseated on December 6, 1929, due to charges of corruption and fraud during his election.
Frank L. Smith (R), Head of the Illinois Commerce Commission, was appointed to be US Senator by IL Governor Len Small (R), but was rejected by the US Senate for alleged “fraud and corruption”. (1927)
Charles Cramer, Forbes' general counsel, committed suicide. (1923)
Thomas W. Miller, Head of the Office of Alien Property, was convicted of fraud by selling valuable German patents seized after World War I for far below market price as well as bribery. Served 18 months.
Thomas L. Blanton (D-TX) was censured for inserting obscene material into the congressional record. According to Franklin Wheeler Mondell (R-WY) the letter was said to contain language that was "unspeakable, vile, foul, filthy, profane, blasphemous and obscene". A motion to expel him failed by 8 votes. (1921)
Senator Truman Handy Newberry (R-MI) was convicted of election irregularities but the case was overturned by the US Supreme Court. However, due to continued opposition and a condemnation vote claiming that $3,750 was too much to spend on an election against automaker Henry Ford, resigned. (1921)
Senator Joseph R. Burton (R-KS) was convicted of bribery in 1904 on the charge of illegally receiving compensation for services rendered before a federal department and served five months in prison. (1904)
Henry B. Cassel (R-PA) was convicted of fraud related to the construction of the Pennsylvania State Capitol in 1909.
Oregon US Federal District Attorney John Hicklin Hall (R) was appointed by President William McKinley. In 1903, Hall was ordered to investigate land fraud in what became known as the Oregon land fraud scandal and was put on trial for failing to prosecute land companies engaging in fraudulent activities, and for using his knowledge of illegal activities to blackmail his political opponents. On February 8, 1908, a jury found Hall guilty of the charges. (1907) He was later pardoned by President William Howard Taft.
US District Court Northern District of Alabama Judge Richard Busteed (R) was brought impeachment charges for non-residence in Alabama, failure to hold court and improper use of his official position. To avoid being removed from office, he resigned. (1874)
US District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana Judge Edward Henry Durell (R) was impeached for alleged drunkenness, corruption, and election-rigging. He resigned before trial. (1879)
James Brooks (D-NY) also implicated; both were censured for their involvement. (1872)
US Senator James W. Patterson (R-NH) was found to have given false testimony to both the House and Senate Committees, both of whom found him guilty of bribery in the Crédit Mobilier Scandal. He was also recommended for expulsion from the Senate, but Patterson's term expired before such action could be taken. (1873)
US Senator Alexander Caldwell (R-KS) was elected to the US Senate. It was discovered that the rival candidate, Thomas Carney, dropped out of the race, admitting that he had accepted a bribe of $15,000 to leave the race allowing Caldwell to win. He was impeached and the US Senate declared that Caldwell had not been "duly and legally elected” and moved to expel him. Before a vote could be taken, Caldwell resigned(1873)
Simon Cameron (R),Lincoln's Secretary of War, resigned in 1862 due to corruption charges. His behavior was so notorious that Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, when discussing Cameron's honesty with Lincoln, told him that "I don't think that he would steal a red hot stove". When Cameron demanded Stevens retract this statement, Stevens told Lincoln "I believe I told you he would not steal a red-hot stove. I will now take that back." (1860–1862)
Senator James F. Simmons (R-RI) had confirmed corruption charges against him reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee and the charges were referred to the full Senate for action on July 14, 1862. The Senate adjourned three days later without acting. Before it could reconvene, Simmons resigned on September 5, 1862.
US Representative and fervent advocate of slavery Preston Brooks (D-SC) beat abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner (R), leaving him bleeding and unconscious on the floor of the House of Representatives until his cane broke. (1856)
Samuel Swartwout was appointed by President Andrew Jackson to the New York City Collector's Office. At the end of his term he had embezzled $1.225 million in customs receipts and used the money to purchase land. He fled to Europe to avoid prosecution.
North Carolina Congressman Robert Potter resigned from Congress after castrating two men he believed were having an affair with his wife. (1831) Later, in North Carolina, he was expelled from its legislature for cheating at cards or for pulling a gun and a knife during a card game. (1835)
General James Wilkinson was appointed to be Governor of the upper Louisiana Purchase. He then conspired with Spain to get Kentucky to secede from the Union in order to allow shipping on the Mississippi to reach New Orleans. (1787–1811)
Aaron Burr and the New Empire (Southwest) Burr conspiracy (1804–1807) – Burr allegedly tried to seize a large part of the Louisiana Purchase and establish his own country. He was arrested for treason, but was acquitted for lack of evidence. (1807)
John Pickering, a federal judge appointed by George Washington, was impeached and convicted in absentia by the US Senate for drunkenness and use of profanity on the bench in spite of the fact neither act was a high crime or misdemeanor. (1804)
The XYZ Affair was the French seizure of over 300 US ships and demands for bribes and apologies, led to a Quasi-War causing the US Congress to issue the famous phrase, "Millions for defense, sir, but not one cent for tribute!" Real war was averted by treaty. (1798–1800)
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican KY) was the first Congressman recommended for censure for spitting on Ralph Griswold (Federalist-CT). The censure failed to pass. Also found guilty of violating John Adams' Alien and Sedition Acts and sentenced to four months in jail, during which he was re-elected (1798)
George Washington administration (1789–1796)
Silas Deane was accused of mismanagement and treason while ambassador to France. Intending to clear himself of the charges he died suddenly, and the charges were eventually reversed or dropped. (1777)
^ | GOP Rep. Tim Murphy resigns after reports he asked mistress to get abortion | Fox News' Chad Pergram and The Associated Press | 
^ | 10/05/2017 | Inside Tim Murphy's reign of terror; The anti-abortion lawmaker's abortion scandal was just the tipping point. Former aides say abuse inside his office was rampant. By RACHAEL BADE, JAKE SHERMAN and JOHN BRESNAHAN | 
^nydailynews.com, June 24, 2014, Staffer to Ohio congressman resigns after porn star ex tweets picture of his penis BY ADAM EDELMAN, 
^http://www.salon.com, MONDAY, JUN 1, 2015, America’s most heinous judge resigns: Wife-beater Mark Fuller leaves the bench, finally, but not easily by BRAD FRIEDMAN 
^http://www.latimes.com, march 15, 2015 U.S. Judge Mark Fuller of Alabama may face ouster after domestic abuse claim By TIMOTHY M. PHELPS,
^http://www.al.com/news | Federal judge Mark Fuller accepts plea deal in domestic violence case; could have arrest record expunged | Kent Faulk | firstname.lastname@example.org By Kent Faulk | updated September 05, 2014 | 
^Michael A. Memoli (December 9, 2010). "Senate convicts Louisiana federal judge in impeachment trial". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2010. The Senate also voted to bar him from ever holding public office in the future... The vote on the first count was unanimous, 96-0. On subsequent counts, the votes were 69–27, 88–8, and 90–6. Impeachment required a vote of two-thirds of the Senate.
^T. Christian Miller, The Scrutinizer Finds Himself Under Scrutiny, , Los Angeles Times, September 25, 2005
^T. Christian Miller, Pentagon Investigator Resigning, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-01., Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2005
^T. Christian Miller, Pentagon Ousts Official Under FBI Investigation, , Los Angeles Times, December 11, 2004
^Congressional Record of the 109th Congress, First Session, No. 122, page 35, "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-01. U.S. Government Printing Office, September 27, 2005,
^Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo (Associated Press),"Libby Found Guilty in CIA Leak Trial: Ex-Cheney Aide Libby Found Guilty of Obstruction, Perjury, Lying to the FBI in CIA Leak Case", ABC News, March 6, 2007
^Jordan, Lara Jakes; (Associated Press) (September 15, 2007). "Attorney general bids farewell to Justice: Praises work of department". Boston Globe. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved 2007-09-19.. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
^ abAri Shapiro (July 25, 2007). "Bush Aides in Contempt; Will They Be Prosecuted?". All Things Considered (National Public Radio). "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved 2007-07-26..
^Dan Eggen (May 15, 2007). "Justice Dept.'s No. 2 to Resign: McNulty Is 4th to Quit Since Disputed Firings". The Washington Post. p. A01. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 1, 2008. Retrieved 2007-05-15..
^"Fake Iraq documents 'embarrassing' for U.S."by David Ensor, CNN Washington Bureau, Friday, March 14, 2003
^After the war, more than 550 short tons (500 t) of yellowcake, which was cataloged pre-war by the IAEA and not conveniently suitable for atomic weapons was removed from Iraq and eventually shipped to Canada. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 31, 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-13.
^ abcde"Memorandum regarding status of Certain OLC Opinions Issued in the Aftermath of the Terrorist Acts of September 11, 2001" (PDF). US Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel. January 15, 2009. "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on May 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-12.. Retrieved March 2, 2009.
^Eggen, Dan (June 27, 2008). "Bush Policy authors defend their actions". The Washington Post. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved 2009-04-22.. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
^washingtonpost.com, August 5, 2006, ATF Director Resigns Amid Spending Probe By Dan Eggen, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-06.
^U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Report of Investigation Concerning Alleged Mismanagement and Misconduct by Carl J. Truscott, Former Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Office of the Inspector General Oversight and Review Division October 2006 "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-06.
^Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Justice, "Former U.S. Treasurer Sentenced", (press release) DOJ.gov (September 1994).
^^ Johnston, David (December 25, 1992). "Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'". The New York Times. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 10, 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-06..
^latimes.com, August 23, 1991, Ex-Official Enters 'Ill Wind' Guilty Plea : Defense: It marks the 50th conviction obtained under the probe of Pentagon procurement fraud. He faces 20 years in jail at sentencing Dec 6 by ROBERT L. JACKSON, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 8, 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
^nytimes.com, October 29, 1998, "Long Inquiry on Abuse in the Housing Department Is Completed" by Michael Janofsky
^RollingStone.com, November 18, 2003, "Crimes Against Nature" by Robert F. Kennedy Jr.
^Ronald Reagan: "Nomination of Emanuel S. Savas To Be Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development ," February 23, 1981. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
^"The Iran-Contra Affair". American Experience. www.pbs.org. The Presidents. WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
^Pichirallo, Joe (March 12, 1988). "McFarlane Enters Guilty Plea Arising From Iran-Contra Affair; Former Reagan Adviser Withheld Information From Congress". The Washington Post.
^Walsh, Lawrence E. (August 4, 1993). "Final Report of the Independent Counsel For Iran/Contra Matters Vol. I: Investigations and Prosecutions". Summary of Prosecutions. U. S. Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia.
^philly.com, Ex-postal Service Official Sentenced To 4 Years On Theft And Payoff Counts By William Hershey, October 25, 1986 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
^Russell, Jenna (February 17, 2009). "Chapter 3: Chappaquiddick: Conflicted ambitions, then, Chappaquiddick". The Boston Globe. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved 2013-08-26.. Retrieved February 24, 2009.
^nytimes.com, April 15, 1931, ROWBOTTOM GUILTY IN POSTAL JOB SALES; Ex-Indiana Representative Gets Year in Leavenworth on BribeTaking Charges,"Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
^[Miller v. United States, 24 F.2d 353 (2nd Cir. 1928)]
^Joplin News Herald (Saturday, March 20, 1926), p. 1; The Charleston Gazette (February 13, 1924), pp. 1, 9; Time (Monday, April 21, 1952), Milestones; administration of Veterans' Affairs (excluding Health and Insurance), (2010); Dean (2004), Warren G Harding, pp. 140, 141
^Time, March 31, 1930, "National Affairs: Ohio Gangster"
^Frank W. Blackmar, ed. (1912). "Burton, Joseph Ralph". Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc ... I. Chicago: Standard Pub Co. pp. 259–260. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011.
^"Assassination of Philip Barton Key, by Daniel E. Sickles of New York". Hartford Daily Courant. March 1, 1959. Retrieved November 30, 2010. For more than a year there have been floating rumors of improper intimacy between Mr. Key and Mrs. Sickles They have from time to time attended parties, the opera, and rode out together. Mr. Sickles has heard of these reports, but would never credit them until Thursday evening last. On that evening, just as a party was about breaking up at his house, Mr Sickles received among his papers...
^Andro Linklater (September 29, 2009). An artist in treason: the extraordinary double life of General James Wilkinson. Walker & Company. ISBN978-0-8027-1720-7.
^"Aaron Burr and the Definition of Treason (1783–1815)". American Eras. 8 vols. Gale Research, 1997–1998. Student Resource Center. Thomson Gale. October 24, 2005
^"Burr's Conspiracy, 1805–1807". DISCovering U.S. History. Online Edition. Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center. Thomson Gale. October 24, 2005.
^Jerry W. Knudson, "The Jeffersonian Assault on the Federalist Judiciary, 1802–1805: Political Forces and Press Reaction," American Journal of Legal History 1970 14(1): 55–75; Richard Ellis, "The Impeachment of Samuel Chase," in American Political Trials, ed. by Michael R. Belknap (1994) pp. 57–76, quote on p. 64.
^T. M. Iiams, Peacemaking from Vergennes to Napoleon: French Foreign Relations in the Revolutionary Era, 1774–1814 (1979); A. Duff Cooper, Talleyrand (1932); E. Wilson Lyon, "The Directory and the United States," American Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Apr. 1938), pp. 514–532 in JSTOR
None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.
All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.
The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.