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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This is a complete list of the official languages of countries and dependent territories of the world. It includes all languages that have official language status either statewide or in a part of the state, or that have status as a national language, regional language, or minority language.

Definitions[edit]

  • Official language: one designated as having a unique legal status in the state, typically, the language used in a nation's legislative bodies, and often, official government business
  • Regional language: one designated as having official status limited to a specific area, administrative division, or territory of the state (on this page a regional language will have parentheses next to it that contain a region, province, etc. where the language has regional status)
  • Minority language: (as used here) one spoken by a minority population within the state and officially designated as such; typically afforded protection and designated an officially permissible language for legal and government business in a specific area or territory of the state (on this page a minority language will be followed by parentheses that identify its minority status)
  • National language: one that uniquely represents the national identity of a state, nation, and/or country and so designated by a country's government; some are technically minority languages (on this page a national language will be followed by parentheses that identify it as a national language status). Some countries have more than one language with this status

List of Sovereign States[edit]

A[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language National Language Widely Spoken
 Afghanistan [1] Pashto (nationwide)

Dari (nationwide)

 Albania [2] Albanian

Greek (in Himara, Dropull, Finiq, and Derviçan)

Greek Italian
 Algeria Arabic [3]

Tamazight

Arabic

Tamazight

 Andorra (Languages of Andorra) [4]

Catalan

Spanish

French

Portuguese

 Angola [5] Portuguese Kimbundu

Umbundu

Kikongo

Chokwe

Kwanyama

Ganguela

 Antigua and Barbuda English (de facto official) [6]
 Argentina Spanish (de facto)

Guaraní (co-official in Corrientes Province) [7]

Kom, Moquoit, Wichi (co-official in Chaco Province)

 Armenia Armenian
 Australia English (de facto official)
 Austria German (official statewide) [8]

Croatian (in Burgenland) [9]

Slovene (in Carinthia) [9]

Hungarian (in Burgenland)

Slovene (statewide)

Czech (statewide)

Hungarian (statewide)

Slovak (statewide)

Romani (statewide)

 Azerbaijan Azerbaijani [10]

B[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language National Language Widely Spoken
 Bahamas English
 Bahrain Arabic
 Bangladesh Bengali
 Barbados English
 Belarus Belarusian

Russian

 Belgium (Languages of Belgium) [11]

Dutch (in Flanders and Brussels)

French (in Brussels and Wallonia)

German (in the German-speaking community)

 Belize English Spanish (border with Mexico and Guatemala) Kriol (lingua franca)
 Benin French
 Bhutan Dzongkha
 Bolivia Castellano

Araona

Aymara

Baure

Bésiro

Canichana

Cavineñoa

Cayuvava

Chakobo

Chimane

Chiquitano

Ese Ejja

Guaraní

Guarasuawe

Guarayu

Itonama

Leco

Machajuya-Kallaway

Machineri

Maropa

Mojeño-Ignaciano

Majeño-Trinitario

Moré

Mosetén

Movima

Pacawara

Puquina

Quechua

Sirionó

Tacana

Tapieté

Toromona

Uru-Chipaya

Weenhayek

Yaminawa

Yuki

Yuracaré

Zamuco

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian

Croatian

Serbian

(all de facto) [12]

 Botswana English Tswana
 Brazil German (in Pomerode [13])

East Pomeranian (in Pancas [14][15], Santa Maria de Jetibá [16][17][18])

Hunsrückisch (in Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina [19])

Talian (in Serafina Corréa [20])

Nheengatu, Baniwa, Tucano (in Sào Gabriel de Cachoeira, Amazonas) [21][22]

Guaraní (in Tacuru, Mato Grosso do Sul) [23]

Portuguese
 Brunei Malay

English

 Bulgaria Bulgarian
 Burkina Faso French Fula

Jula

More

 Burundi English

French

Kirundi

C[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language Minority Language National Language
 Cambodia Khmer
 Cameroon English

French

 Canada English (Federal)

French (Federal)

Chipewyan (Northwest Territories)

Cree (Northwest Territories)

Gwich'in (Northwest Territories)

Inuinnaqtun (Northwest Territories and Nunavut)

Inuktitut (Northwest Territories and Nunavut)

Inuvialuktun (Northwest Territories)

North Slavey (Northwest Territories)

South Slavey (Northwest Territories)

Tłı̨chǫ (Northwest Territories)

Chipewyan

Cree

Gwich'in

Cree

Gwich'in

Inuinnaqtun

Inuktitut

Inuvialuktun

North Slavey

South Slavey

Tłı̨chǫ

 Cape Verde Portuguese Cape Verdean Creole
 Central African Republic French Sango
 Chad Arabic

French

 Chile Spanish (de facto)

Languages of ethnic groups are official in their territories [24]

 China Mandarin (statewide)

Cantonese (de facto)

46 regional official languages

 Colombia Spanish

(Languages of ethnic groups are official in their territories [25])

 Comoros Arabic

Comorian

French

 Democratic Republic of the Congo French Lingala

Kikongo

Swahili

Tshiluba

 Republic of the Congo French Lingala

Munukutuba

 Costa Rica Spanish
 Croatia Croatian (statewide)

Serbian (in some municipalities)

Hungarian (in some municipalities)

Czech (in some municipalities)

Slovak (in some municipalities)

Pannonian Rusyn (in some towns)

Istro-Romanian (protected)

Italian (Istria County) Romani (non-territorial)

Slovene (non-territorial)

 Cuba Spanish
 Cyprus Greek [26]

Turkish [26]

Armenian [27]

Cypriot Arabic [27]

 Czech Republic Czech

Slovak [28]

Belarusian [29]

Bulgarian [29]

Croatian [29]

German [29]

Greek [29]

Hungarian [29]

Polish [29]

Romani [29]

Russian [29]

Rusyn [29]

Serbian [29]

Ukrainian [29]

Vietnamese [29]

D[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language
 Denmark Danish (statewide)

Faroese (in the Faroe Islands)

Kalaallisut (in Greenland)

German (in Southern Jutland)
 Djibouti Arabic

French

 Dominica English
 Dominican Republic Spanish

E[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language Working Language
 East Timor Portuguese [30]

Tetum [30]

 Ecuador Spanish

Quechua (official language of intercultural relation) [31]

Kichwa (official minority language) [31]

Shuar (official minority language) [31]

 Egypt Arabic
 El Salvador Spanish
 Equatorial Guinea Spanish

French

Portuguese

 Eritrea English Arabic

Tigrinya

 Estonia Estonian
 Ethiopia Amharic Oromo

Somali

Tigrigna

Afar

Sidamo

Kunama

Benshangul

Gumuz

English

Harari

F[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language National Language
 Fiji English

Fijian

Fiji Hindi

 Finland Finnish

Swedish

Sami (in Enontekiö, Inari, Sodankylä, Utsjoki) Finnish

Swedish

 France French

(Languages of France and language policy in France) [32]

G[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language National Language
 Gabon French
 Gambia English
 Georgia Georgian
 Germany German [33]

Danish (in Schleswig-Holstein)

Lower Sorbian (in Brandenburg)

North Frisian (in Schleswig-Holstein)

Saterland Frisian (in Lower Saxony)

Upper Sorbian (in Saxony)

German Sign Language

Low German

Danish

Lower Sorbian

North Frisian

Romani [34]

Upper Sorbian

 Ghana English

Adangme (in Greater Accra)

Dagaare (in the Upper West Region)

Dagbani (in the Northern Region)

Ewe (in the Volta Region)

Ga (in the Greater Accra)

Gonja (in the Northern Region)

Kasem (in the Upper East Region)

Nzema (in the Western Region)

Akuapem Twi

Asante Twi

Mfantse

 Greece Greek
 Grenada English
 Guatemala Spanish
 Guinea French Fula

Maninka

Susu

 Guinea-Bissau Portuguese
 Guyana English Guyanese Creole

H[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language Written language
 Haiti French

Haitian Creole

 Honduras Spanish

Garifuna (in the Northern Caribbean Coast)

English (in the Bay Islands)

Miskito (in Eastern Honduras)

 Hong Kong Cantonese (de facto)

English

Traditional Chinese
 Hungary Hungarian [35] Croatian [36]

German [36]

Romanian [36]

Serbian [36]

Slovak [36]

Slovene [36]

I[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language Minority Language National Language Optional
 Iceland Icelandic

Icelandic Sign Language

 India Assamese (in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh)

Bengali (in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Andaman and Nicobar Islands)

Bodo (in Assam)

Chhattisgarhi (in Chhattisgarh)

Dogri (in Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab)

English (Central Government, only official language of Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh)

Garo (in Meghalaya)

Gujarati (in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Gujarat)

Hindi (Central Government, ten states, and Delhi, Chandigarh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands)

Kannada (in Karnataka)

Karbi (in Assam)

Kashmiri (in Jammu and Kashmir)

Khasi (in Meghalaya)

Kokborok (in Tripura)

Konkani (in Goa and Karnataka)

Lepcha (in Sikkim)

Maithili (in Bihar and Jharkhand)

Malayalam (in Kerala, Lakshadweep and Puducherry)

Meitei (in Manipur)

Marathi (in Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu)

Mizo (in Mizoram)

Nepali (in Sikkim and West Bengal)

Newari (in Sikkim)

Odia (in Odisha)

Punjabi (in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and Chandigarh)

Sanskrit (in Uttarakhand)

Santali (in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha)

Sindhi

Sunwar (in Sikkim)

Tamil (in Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry)

Telugu (in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands)

Urdu (in Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh)

 Indonesia (Languages of Indonesia)

Indonesian

Indonesian sign languages

Betawi (in Jabodetabek)

Javanese (in Java)

Sundanese (in Java)

English

Arabic

 Iran Persian
 Iraq Arabic (statewide)

Kurdish (possibly statewide)

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (in Assyrian areas)

Iraqi Turkmen (in Turkmen areas)

Armenian recognized

 Ireland (Languages of Ireland) [37]

English

Irish Irish
 Israel Hebrew

Arabic [38]

Russian

English

 Italy (Languages of Italy)

Italian

French (co-official in Aosta Valley)

German (co-official in South Tyrol)

Ladin (in South Tyrol)

Slovene (in the Province of Trieste and the Province of Gorizia)

Ladin

Slovene

 Ivory Coast French

J[edit]

Country Official Language National Language
 Jamaica English
 Japan Japanese
 Jordan Arabic

K[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language National Language
 Kazakhstan Russian Kazakh
 Kenya English Swahili
 Kiribati English Kiribati
 North Korea Korean
 South Korea Korean

Korean Sign Language

 Kosovo Albanian

Serbian

Turkish
 Kuwait Arabic
 Kyrgyzstan Russian Kyrgyz

L[edit]

Country Official Language National Language
 Laos Lao
 Latvia Latvian [39][40]
 Lebanon Arabic
 Lesotho English Sotho
 Liberia English
 Libya Arabic
 Liechtenstein German
 Lithuania Lithuanian
 Luxembourg French

German

Luxembourgish

M[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language National Language Traditional Language
 Macau Cantonese (de facto)

Portuguese

Chinese
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta Italian

Latin

 Macedonia Macedonian (statewide) Albanian

Romani

Serbian

Turkish

 Madagascar French

Malagasy

Malagasy
 Malawi English Chichewa
 Malaysia English (official for some purposes) [42] Malaysian [43]
 Maldives Dhivehi
 Mali French

Tamazight (Azawad district)

 Malta English Maltese
 Marshall Islands English Marshallese
 Mauritania Arabic Arabic

Fula

Soninke

Wolof

 Mauritius English French
 Mexico Spanish (de facto)
 Federated States of Micronesia English (statewide except in Kosrae)

Chuukese (in Chuuk)

Kosraean (in Kosrae)

Woleaian

 Moldova Romanian (statewide) Gagauz

Russian

Ukrainian

 Monaco [44] French
 Mongolia Mongolian
 Montenegro Albanian (in Ulcinj)

Croatian (in Tivat)

Serbian (in Herceg Novi)

Bosnian (in the north) Montenegrin
 Morocco Arabic

Berber

 Mozambique Portuguese
 Myanmar (Burma) Burmese Chin
Kachin
Karen
Karenni
Mon
Rakhine
Shan

N[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language Minority Language National Language Administrative Language
 Nagorno-Karabakh Armenian
 Namibia [43] English German

Oshiwambo

Afrikaans
 Nauru English

Nauruan

   Nepal Nepali
 Netherlands Dutch (de facto, statewide)

West Frisian (in Friesland)

Papiamento (in Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire)

English (in Sint Maarten, Sint Eustatius, Saba)

Limburgish

Low Saxon

 New Zealand Cook Islands Maori (in Cook Islands)

English (de facto, statewide)

Māori (statewide)

New Zealand Sign Language

Niuean (in Niue)

Tokelauan (in Tokelau)

 Nicaragua Spanish
 Niger French Arabic

Hausa

Fulfulde

Gulmancema

Kanuri

Zarma

Tamazight

 Nigeria English Hausa

Yoruba

Igbo

 Northern Cyprus Turkish
 Norway (Languages of Norway)

Norwegian (statewide)

Sami (in Kautokeino, Karasjok, Gáivuotna, Kåfjord, Nesseby, Porsanger, Tana, Tysfjord)

Sami (from Engerdal to Russia) Kven

Scandoromani

Kven

O[edit]

Country Official Language
 Oman Arabic

P[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language Minority Language National Language Optional
 Pakistan Urdu

English

Major languages such as Punjabi, Balochi, Sindhi, and Pashto have no official recognition

Urdu
 Palau English (statewide)

Palauan (statewide)

Sonsorolese (in Sonsorol)

Tobian (in Hatohobei)

Japanese (in Angaur)

 Palestine Arabic (de facto) Hebrew

English

 Panama Spanish
 Papua New Guinea English

Hiri Motu

Tok Pisin

 Paraguay Spanish

Guaraní

 Peru Spanish

Aymara

Quechua

All native languages where they are spoken by the majority

 Philippines (Languages of the Philippines)

Filipino (statewide)

English (statewide)

Aklanon (in the Visayas)

Bikol (in Luzon)

Cebuano (in the Visayas and Mindanao)

Ibanag (in Luzon)

Ilocano (in Luzon)

Ivatan (in Luzon)

Kapampangan (in Luzon)

Kanaray-a (in the Visayas)

Maranao (in Mindanao)

Maginanao (in Mindanao)

Pangasinan (in Luzon)

Sambal (in Luzon)

Tagalog (in Luzon)

Tausug (in Mindanao)

Waray (in the Visayas)

Yakan (in Mindanao)

Filipino Spanish

Arabic

 Poland Polish Kashubian (Pomeranian Voivodeship) German (Opole Voivodeship)

Lithuanian (Puńsk commune)

Belarusian (Podlaskie Voivodseship)

Czech

Hebrew

Yiddish

Lemko

Karaim

Armenian

Romani

Russian

Slovak

Tartar

Ukrainian

 Portugal (Languages of Portugal)

Portuguese

Mirandese (Miranda do Douro)

Q[edit]

Country Official Language
 Qatar Arabic

R[edit]

Country Official Language Minority Language
 Romania Romanian (statewide) Armenian

German

Hungarian

Romani

Serbian

Slovak

Turkish

Ukrainian

 Russia (Languages of Russia)

Russian (federal)

Abaza (Karachay-Chekess Republic)

Adyghe (Adygea)

Aghul (Dagestan)

Altai (Altai Republic)

Azerbaijani (Dagestan)

Bashkir (Bashkortostan)

Buryat (Buryatia)

Chechen (Chechnya and Dagestan)

Chuvash (Chuvashia)

Crimean Tartar (de facto in Republic of Crimea)

Dargin (Dagestan)

Erzya (Mordovia)

Ingush (Ingushetia)

Kabardian (Kabardino-Balar and Karachay-Cherkessia)

Kalmyk (Kalmykia)

Karachay-Balkar (Kabardino-Balkar and Karachay-Cherkessia)

Khakas (Khakassia)

Komi-Zyrian (Komi Republic)

Kumyk (Dagestan)

Lak (Dagestan)

Lezgian (Dagestan)

Mari (Mari El)

Moksha (Mordovia)

Nogai (Karachay–Cherkessia and Dagestan)

Ossetic (North Ossetia–Alania)

Rutul (Dagestan)

Sakha (Sakha Republic)

Tabasaran (Dagestan)

Tatar (Tatarstan)

Tati (Dagestan)

Tsakhur (Dagestan)

Tuvin (Tuva)

Udmurt (Udmurtia)

Ukrainian (in de facto Republic of Crimea)

 Rwanda English

French

Kinyarwanda

S[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language Minority Language National Language Historical
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Tamazight

Arabic

Spanish

 Saint Kitts and Nevis English
 Saint Lucia English
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines English
 Samoa English Samoan
 San Marino Italian
 São Tomé and Príncipe Portuguese
 Saudi Arabia Arabic
 Senegal French Jola-Fogny

Mandinka

Pulaar

Serer

Soninke

Wolof

 Serbia Serbian 15 minority languages
 Seychelles English

French

Seychellois Creole

 Sierra Leone English
 Singapore English

Mandarin

Malay

Tamil

Hokkien

Teochew

Cantonese

Varieties of Chinese

Malay Malay

Hokkien

 Slovakia Slovak

Bulgarian

Czech

Polish

German

Romani

Rusyn

Ukrainian

Hungarian
 Slovenia Slovene (statewide) Hungarian (Dobrovnik, Hodoš, Lendava)

Italian (Izola, Koper, Piran)

Croatian (Metlika, Brežice)

 Solomon Islands English
 Somalia Arabic Somali
 Somaliland Somali

Arabic

English

 South Africa Afrikaans

English

Southern Ndebele

Northern Sotho

Sotho

Swazi

Tsonga

Tswana

Venda

Xhosa

Zulu

 South Sudan English Arabic

Bari

Dinka

Luo

Murle

Nuer

Zande

60 other languages

 Spain Spanish

Catalan (Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Valencia)

Galician (Galicia)

Occitan (Catalonia)

Aragonese (Aragon)

Fala (Province of Cáceres)

Astur-Leonese (Asturias)
 Sri Lanka Sinhala

Tamil

 Sudan Arabic

English

 Suriname Dutch
 Swaziland English

Swazi

 Sweden Swedish Finnish (Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala, Övertorneå

Meänkielji (Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala, Övertorneå)

Sami (Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk, Kiruna)

Romani

Yiddish

  Switzerland German (Aargau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Glarus, Graubünden, Lucerne, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Saint Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Uri, Valais, Zug, Zürich)

French (Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais, Vaud)

Italian (Ticino, Graubünden)

Romansh (Graubünden)

 Syria Arabic Kurdish

T[edit]

Country Official Language Regional Language National Language Interethnic Communication
 Taiwan Mandarin is the main language is but is not official Hokkien

Hakka

Formosan

Mandarin Mandarin

Hokkien

 Tajikistan Tajik Russian
 Tanzania English Swahili
 Thailand Thai
 Togo French
 Transnistria Moldovan

Russian

Ukrainian

 Tonga English Tongan
 Trinidad and Tobago English
 Tunisia Arabic
 Turkey Turkish Kurdish
 Turkmenistan Turkmen Russian
 Tuvalu English Tuvaluan

U[edit]

Country Official Language National Language Interethnic Communication
 Uganda English

Swahili

 Ukraine Ukrainian
 United Arab Emirates Arabic
 United Kingdom English (de facto but not de jure)

Cornish (in Cornwall) [45]

Irish and Ulster-Scots (in Northern Ireland)

Scots and Scottish Gaelic (in Scotland)

Welsh (in Wales)

Pitcairnese (in Pitcairn Islands)

Guernésiais and French (in Guernsey)

Jèrriais and French (in Jersey)

Manx (in Isle of Man)

 United States of America (Languages of the United States and English-only movement)

English (de facto but not de jure)

Inupiaq (Alaska)

Siberian Yupik (Alaska)

Central Alaskan Yup'ik (Alaska)

Alutiiq (Alaska)

Unangan (Alaska)

Dena'ina (Alaska)

Deg Xinag (Alaska)

Holikachuk (Alaska)

Koyukon (Alaska)

Upper Kuskokwim (Alaska)

Gwich'in (Alaska)

Tanana (Alaska)

Upper Tanana (Alaska)

Tanacross (Alaska)

Hän (Alaska)

Ahtna (Alaska)

Eyak (Alaska)

Tlingit (Alaska)

Haida (Alaska)

Tsimshian (Alaska)

Hawaiian (Hawaii)

Cherokee (UKB in Oklahoma)

Samoan (American Samoa)

Chamorro (Guam and Northern Mariana Islands)

Carolinian (Northern Mariana Islands)

Spanish (New Mexico and Puerto Rico)

French (Louisiana)

 Uruguay Spanish
 Uzbekistan Uzbek Russian

V[edit]

Country Official Language National Language
 Vanuatu English

French

Bislama
  Vatican City (Languages of Vatican City)

Latin

Italian (de facto)

 Venezuela Spanish
 Vietnam Vietnamese

Y[edit]

Country Official Language
 Yemen Arabic

Z[edit]

Country Official Language
 Zambia English
 Zimbabwe Chewa

Chibarwe

English

Kalanga

Khoisan

Nambya

Ndau

Ndebele

Shangani

Shona

Sign language

Sotho

Tonga

Tswana

Venda

Xhosa

See also[edit]

References and footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution of Afghanistan (Chapter 1, Article 16)
  2. ^ Constitution of Albania (Article 14)
  3. ^ Constitution of Algeria (Article 3) (MS Word format)
  4. ^ Constitution of Andorra (Article 2)
  5. ^ "Angola". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 
  6. ^ Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda, 1981 (Article 29)
  7. ^ Provincial Law Nº5598
  8. ^ Constitution of Austria (Article 8)
  9. ^ a b Constitution of Austria, Article 8 & State Treaty for the Re-establishment of an Independent and Democratic Austria (Article 7, Page 188)
  10. ^ Constitution of Azerbaijan, Constitution of Azerbaijan (English translation) (Article 21)
  11. ^ Constitution of Belgium, in Dutch, French and German (Article 4)
  12. ^ Footitt, Hilary; Kelly, Michael (2012). Languages at War: Policies and Practices of Language Contacts in Conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 111–120. ISBN 0230368778. 
  13. ^ Pomerode institui língua alemã como co-oficial no Município. Archived 30 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Pomerano!?, acessado em 21 de agosto de 2011
  15. ^ No Brasil, pomeranos buscam uma cultura que se perde Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., acessado em 21 de agosto de 2011
  16. ^ Lei dispõe sobre a cooficialização da língua pomerana no município de Santa maria de Jetibá, Estado do Espírito Santo Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/didact/karten/germ/deutdin.htm
  18. ^ http://www.lerncafe.de/aus-der-welt-1142/articles/pommern-in-brasilien.html
  19. ^ Cooficialização da língua alemã em Antônio Carlos Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Vereadores aprovam o talian como língua co-oficial do município, acessado em 21 de agosto de 2011
  21. ^ Lei municipal oficializa línguas indígenas em São Gabriel da Cachoeira, acessado em 24 de agosto de 2011
  22. ^ Na Babel brasileira, português é 2ª língua – FLÁVIA MARTIN e VITOR MORENO, enviados especiais a Sâo Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM), acessado em 24 de agosto de 2011
  23. ^ Município do MS adota o guarani como língua oficial, acessado em 24 de agosto de 2011
  24. ^ Indigenal Act, art. 28
  25. ^ Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 10)
  26. ^ a b The Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus (PDF). 1960. art. 3, § 1. 
  27. ^ a b "Implementation of the Charter in Cyprus", Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research, retrieved 11 August 2013 
  28. ^ Slovak language is defined as official language together with Czech language by several laws – e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz. Cited: "Například Správní řád (zákon č. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V řízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v českém jazyce. Účastníci řízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být předkládány i v jazyce slovenském..." (§16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správě daní a poplatků (337/1992 Sb.) „Úřední jazyk: Před správcem daně se jedná v jazyce českém nebo slovenském. Veškerá písemná podání se předkládají v češtině nebo slovenštině..." (§ 3, odstavec 1). http://portal.gov.cz
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Citizens belonging to minorities, which traditionally and on long-term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic, enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in front of the courts of law (for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic). The article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures right of the national and ethnic minorities for education and communication with authorities in their own language. Act No. 500/2004 Coll. (The Administrative Rule) in its paragraph 16 (4) (Procedural Language) ensures, that a citizen of the Czech Republic, who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, have right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. In case that the administrative agency doesn't have an employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense. According to Act No. 273/2001 (About The Rights of Members of Minorities) paragraph 9 (The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law) the same applies for the members of national minorities also in front of the courts of law.
  30. ^ a b Constitution of Timor-Leste, section 13
  31. ^ a b c Constitution of Ecuador 2008, (Article 2)
  32. ^ Constitution of France (Article 2)
  33. ^ Though not explicitly specified in the constitution, this is regulated in §23 Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz (Administrative Procedures Act)
  34. ^ Publication by Ministry of the Interior (in German) Archived 3 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^ Constitution of Hungary, Article H - www.kormany.hu/download/4/c3/30000/THE%20FUNDAMENTAL%20LAW%20OF%20HUNGARY.pdf
  36. ^ a b c d e f Recognized by Hungary as minority language by the Ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages by the Hungarian Parliament - Resolution 35/1995, April 7, 1995 - http://www.complex.hu/kzldat/o95h0035.htm/o95h0035_0.htm
  37. ^ Constitution of Ireland Archived 17 July 2009 at the Portuguese Web Archive (Article 8)
  38. ^ MK Dichter revives Jewish State bill
  39. ^ Priedīte, Aija (2005). "Surveying Language Attitudes and Practices in Latvia". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 26 (5): 409–424. doi:10.1080/01434630508668413. <quote>In 1992, following further amendments to this directive, Latvian was established as the only official language. It took 410 Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development seven more years before the State language law was adopted in 1999, with further amendments in the years 2000, 2001 and 2002.</quote>
  40. ^ Jarinovska, Kristine. "Popular Initiatives as Means of Altering the Core of the Republic of Latvia", Juridica International. Vol. 20, 2013. p. 152 ISSN 1406-5509
  41. ^ Malaysia's Legal System, Eurasia International Legal Network, Malaysia.
  42. ^ Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia designated Malay as the national language. Section 2 of that article allowed English to be used officially until otherwise provided by Parliament. In 1967, the Parliament of Malaysia passed the National Language Act, making Malay the official language of Malaysia. The act does, however, allow the use of English for some official purposes. On 11 July 1990, following the amendment of the National Language Act 1963/67 (Act 32) (Revised in 1971), Malay replaced English as the official language of the courts in West Malaysia. The amending Act provided English to be used in the Courts in West Malaysia where it deems necessary in the interest of Justice. East Malaysia continued using English as the official language in their courts.[41] Since 2007, the official policy is to refer to the national language as the Malaysian language (Bahasa Malaysia), although legislation still refers to the Malay language (Bahasa Melayu).
  43. ^ a b "Article 3 – Language". The Constitution of The Republic of Namibia. orusovo.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  44. ^ Constitution of Monaco (Article 8)
  45. ^ "Cornish gains official recognition". BBC News. 6 November 2002. Retrieved 8 May 2008. 

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