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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of voids. Voids are particularly galaxy-poor volumes of space between filaments, making up the large-scale structure of the universe. Some voids are known as supervoids.

Voids and supervoids[edit]

In the tables, z is the cosmological redshift, c the speed of light, and h the dimensionless Hubble parameter (the Hubble constant H0 = h × 100 km s−1 Mpc−1). Mpc stands for megaparsec.

Largest voids[edit]

Named voids[edit]

Name Coordinates
of the center
Distance
to the center
Dimensions Data Notes
Local Void 18h 38m +18° cz=2500 km/s Diameter = 60 Mpc [1]
Northern Local Supervoid 61 Mpc Diameter = 104 Mpc Virgo Supercluster, Coma Supercluster, Perseus-Pisces Supercluster, Ursa Major-Lynx Supercluster, Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster, Sculptor Supercluster, Pavo-Corona Australes Supercluster form a sheet between the Northern Local Supervoid and the Southern Local Supervoid.[2] The Hercules Supercluster separates the Northern Local Void from the Boötes Void.[2] The Perseus-Pisces Supercluster and Pegasus Supercluster form a sheet separate the Northern Local Void and Southern Local Void from the Pegasus Void.[2]
Southern Local Supervoid 96 Mpc Diameter = 112 Mpc Virgo Supercluster, Coma Supercluster, Perseus-Pisces Supercluster, Ursa Major-Lynx Supercluster, Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster, Sculptor Supercluster, Pavo-Corona Australes Supercluster form a sheet between the Northern Local Supervoid and the Southern Local Supervoid.[2] The Perseus-Pisces Supercluster and Pegasus Supercluster form a sheet separate the Northern Local Void and Southern Local Void from the Pegasus Void.[2]
Giant Void 13h 01m +38.7° z=0.116 Diameter = 300-400 Mpc "Giant Void in NGH" or "AR-Lp 36"; NGH stands for "Northern Galactic Hemisphere"; discovered in 1988.[3] It is the largest void in the NGH where z<0.14.[4]
KBC Void Diameter = 600 Mpc Void containing the Milky Way and Local Group[5]

[6][7]

Voids designated by their constellation[edit]

Name Coordinates
of the centre
Distance
to the centre
Dimensions Data Notes
Boötes Void
(Great Void)
14h 20m 26° 150 Mpc Diameter = 100 Mpc The Hercules Supercluster separates the Northern Local Void from the Boötes Void.[2] The Hercules Supercluster thus forms part of the near edge of the Boötes Void.[8]
Canis Major Void
Columba Void
Coma Void Discovered in 1975, along with the Coma Supercluster, it lies in front of the Coma Cluster.[9] It was the first void to be discovered, and is approximately 1/3 as far away as the much larger Boötes Void.[10]
Corona Borealis Void
Eridanus Void This void is separated from the Sculptor void by a sheet of galaxies.[11]
Eridanus Supervoid
(Great Void)
03h 15m 05s −19° 35′ 02″ z=1 Diameter = 150 Mpc The claimed Eridanus Supervoid or "Great Void", reported on 24 August 2007 by the NRAO from Very Large Array Sky Survey data.[12] This void, if real, would be much larger than the others listed here (except the Giant Void), about 300 h−1
 
Mpc in diameter and 1800–3000 h−1
 
Mpc distant (where h is the dimensionless Hubble parameter). It would be associated with (and be the explanation of) a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background at the sky location.

The evidence for such a "Great Void" is disputed by Smith and Huterer.[13] They showed that the claims made of observational evidence for such a void from survey data neglected systematic effects, and did not account for a posteriori choices made in analyzing data.

Southern Eridanus Void The Southern Eridanus void is connected to the Eridanus void by a hole in the distribution of galaxies separating the two. A hole in the distribution of galaxies separating Sculptor and Southern Eridanus voids the size of (redshift) 1250 km/s appears to exist.[11]
Fornax Void
Hercules Void 15.5h +30° cz=7000 km/s Diameter = 3100 km/s [14] discovered in 1979[8][15]
Hydra Void The Hydra Void lies beyond the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster[16]
Leo Void 11h 30m cz=4000 km/s [16]
Microscopium Void A hole in the distribution of galaxies separating Sculptor and Microscopium voids the size of (redshift) 1250 km/s appears to exist. This is roughly 1/2 of Microscopium's diameter.[11]
Ophiucus Void near 17h −25° less than 5000 km/s (the outer limit) perhaps 0–5000 km/s 25% of average universe density is the void density of matter The far end of this void is defined by the Ophiucus Supercluster[17]
Pegasus Void 22h +15° cz=5500 km/s Diameter = 40 Mpc [18] The Perseus-Pisces Supercluster and Pegasus Supercluster form a sheet separate the Northern Local Void and Southern Local Void from the Pegasus Void.[2]
Perseus-Pisces Void 1h +10° cz=8000 km/s Diameter = 3000 km/s Discovered in 1980,[15] it is also called the Perseus Void
Sagittarius Void
Sculptor Void 23h 48m −24° 39′ Diameter = 34.8 Mpc/h Corresponds to SRSS1 Void 3 and SRSS2 Void 5[19] This void is separated from the Eridanus Void by a sheet of galaxies. A hole in the distribution of galaxies separating Sculptor and Southern Eridanus Voids the size of 1250 km/s appears to exist.[11] The Sculptor Void lies next to the Southern Wall or Southern Great Wall.
Taurus Void Diameter = 100 Mly The Taurus Void appears large and circular, and has walls of galaxies surrounding it. It lies next to the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster, and is the most visually identifiable. Several galaxies have been found to reside in the void, such as UGC 2627 and UGC 2629, both approximately 185 million light years away.[20]
[6][7]

Other voids[edit]

Designation Location Coordinates
of the centre
Distance
to the centre
Diameter Dimensions Notes
Bahcall & Soneiro 1982 void
  • z = 0.03 — 0.08
  • 150 h−1
     
    Mpc deep
  • 300 h−1
     
    Mpc wide
  • 60 h−1
     
    Mpc tall
[21] This suspected void ranged 100 degrees across the sky, and has shown up on other surveys as several separate voids.

Voids by search or survey[edit]

Tully list[edit]

In 1985, Tully determined a local dominant supercluster plane, and found the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex.[22]

# Coordinates
of the centre
Distance
to the centre
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Diameter
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Notes
1 17.0h 80° 90 140
2 21.0h −7° 100 136
3 8.6h +13° 150 150
4 21.5h +5° 170 173
5 14.3h +52° 180 158 Boötes Void
6 23.0h −16° 190 171
7 12.8h +14° 190 174
8 10.0h +35° 250 170
9 2.6h −11° 280 229
10 8.7h +58° 310 243
11 16.8h +5° 310 270

B&B Abell-derived list[edit]

In a 1985 study of Abell clusters, 29 voids were determined, in the sphere z<0.1 around Earth.[23]

# Coordinates
of the centre
Distance
to the centre
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Diameter
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Notes
1 0.0h +20° 293 100
2 0.3h 276 100
3 0.7h +10° 284 100
4 2.0h −13° 275 150
5 8.0h +60° 300 100
6 9.0h +18° 220 100
7 9.0h +67° 180 120
8 9.2h +26° 137 140
9 9.5h +45° 262 200
10 9.8h 285 110
11 9.8h +35° 219 110
12 10.8h −10° 293 120
13 12.0h +14° 206 110
14 12.3h 276 100
15 12.4h −12° 272 150
16 12.5h +32° 237 100
17 12.9h +64° 105 110
18 13.6h +35° 154 200 Boötes Void
19 13.8h +20° 297 110
20 14.2h −4° 265 210
21 14.7h +70° 283 160
22 15.2h +42° 286 140
23 16.0h +7° 295 110
24 16.4h +41° 291 130
25 16.5h +59° 110 100
26 17.2h +58° 237 100
27 22.2h −2° 155 130
28 22.5h 284 160
29 23.5h −7° 203 120

SSRS1 list[edit]

A redshift survey of galaxies in the southern sky in 1988, out to a distance of 120 Mpc/h, revealed some voids.[24]

# Coordinates
of the centre
Distance
to the centre
(V)
Dimensions
W x H x D
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Constellation Notes
1 1.5h −50° 3000 km/s 30 x 30 x 40 Phoenix/Eridanus Located just behind the galaxy concentration in Eridanus-Fornax-Dorado
2 21h −25° 5000 km/s 30 x 30 x 30 Capricornus/Microscopium
3 23.5h −35° 6000 km/s 70 x 30 x 50 Sculptor/Grus
4 4h −40° 9000 km/s 50 x 100 x 50 Horologium/Eridanus

SSRS2 list[edit]

In 1994, a redshift survey in the southern sky identified 18 voids, 11 of which are major voids.[19]

# Coordinates
of the centre
Distance
to the centre
(r)
Diameter
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Constellation Notes
1 1h 33m −16° 45′ 85.7 54.3 Cetus major void
2 3h 34m −28° 50′ 99.7 56.2 Fornax major void SRSS1 Void 4
3 22h 25m −14° 46′ 107.2 60.8 Aquarius major void
4 21h 43m −14° 40′ 66.7 35.6 Capricornus major void
5 23h 48m −24° 39′ 53.0 34.8 Aquarius/Sculptor major void SRSS1 Void 3 (Sculptor Void)
6 3h 56m −20° 11′ 56.5 32.0 Eridanus major void
7 3h 17m −11° 40′ 77.2 25.5 Eridanus major void
8 23h 20m −12° 32′ 83.9 27.8 Aquarius major void
9 3h 06m −13° 47′ 114.6 39.0 Eridanus major void
10 0h 26m −9° 17′ 104.7 34.8 Cetus major void
11 0h 21m −29° 43′ 112.8 42.9 Sculptor major void
12 23h 03m −32° 35′ 74.8 25.0 Piscis Austrinus/Sculptor
13 1h 23m −19° 36′ 31.0 22.1 Cetus SRSS1 Void 1
14 21h 28m −29° 28′ 87.2 21.3 Piscis Austrinus/Microscopium
15 21h 24m −33° 17′ 116.1 27.3 Microscopium
16 21h 43m −18° 41′ 36.5 20.3 Capricornus
17 3h 42m −21° 21′ 32.1 19.0 Eridanus
18 4h 18m −8° 42′ 85.9 21.1 Eridanus

1994 EEDTA Whole Sky Survey[edit]

A 1994 census lists a total of 27 supervoids within a cube of 740 Mpc a side, centered on us (z=0.1 distant sphere).[25]

# Coordinates
(B1950.0)
of the centre
Distance
(Mpc/h)
to the centre
Diameter
(Mpc/h)
[Note 1]
Notes
1 19.0° −57.1° 134 88
2 28.2° −12.3° 207 96
3 34.8° −61.9° 216 72
4 36.6° −33.5° 241 86
5 37.8° −36.1° 129 92
6 46.0° −21.4° 236 72
7 62.0° −8.0° 248 100
8 71.2° −38.3° 201 76
9 121.7° −1.5° 96 112 Southern Local Supervoid
10 130.0° +49.3° 246 144
11 140.4° +10.5° 160 92
12 146.9° +27.4° 227 106
13 153.1° −11.4° 246 94
14 159.9° +1.2° 167 68
15 161.6° −32.2° 241 98
16 167.4° +22.8° 222 74
17 186.9° −15.6° 216 94
18 196.8° +9.5° 119 102
19 204.8° +35.7° 119 108
20 214.6° +13.6° 216 78 Boötes void
(Great Void)
21 216.7° +56.5° 143 116
22 219.8° +57.9° 246 96
23 220.2° +33.9° 219 72
24 256.1° −4.8° 61 104 Northern Local Supervoid
25 353.0° −59.4° 198 74
26 356.6° +22.2° 246 80
27 358.9° −33.1° 241 70

Galactic Anti-Center IRAS search[edit]

In a 1995 study of IRAS data looking for large-scale structure in the Galactic Anticenter in the Zone of Avoidance, four voids were discovered.[26]

# Coordinates
of the centre
(B1950.0)
Distance
to the centre
(km/s)
Dimensions
( degrees x degrees x km/s )
Notes
V0 5.2h +18° 1000 96x36x2000
V1 3.5h +18° 3750 15x36x3500 V1 and V2 are connected, and block the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster from traversing the Zone of Avoidance
V2 3.5h +29° 8000 25x14x2000 V1 and V2 are connected, and block the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster from traversing the Zone of Avoidance
V3 8.0h +10° 7000 30x20x2000 This void lies in front of the CfA2 Great Wall

IRAS list[edit]

Analysis of the IRAS redshift survey in 1997 revealed 24 voids, 12 of which were termed "significant" [27]

# Supergalactic Coordinates
to the centre
(r,X,Y,Z)
Diameter
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Data Notes
1 (55.2,-10.4,-53.8,6.1) 51.0 significant void
2 (49.6,-25.3,31.4,-28.9) 43.8 significant void
3 (46.0,-24.8,26.7,28.1) 44.5 significant void
4 (46.5,8.7,24.7,38.4) 45.0 significant void Local Void
5 (32.0,-13.0,-23.9,-16.9) 36.0 significant void
6 (51.5,17.0,-32.2,36.4) 41.4 significant void
7 (57.1,31.2,44.9,16.5) 43.5 significant void
8 (60.4,-25.8,-22.7,-49.7) 39.5 significant void
9 (49.8,35.9,-25.6,-23.0) 36.0 significant void
10 (63.3,-48.0,-40.9,6.0) 33.6 significant void Sculptor Void
11 (48.6,11.8,46.6,-6.9) 32.0 significant void
12 (49.9,-15.6,-35.7,31.3) 31.5 significant void
13 (62.8,14.2,29.3,-53.7) 40.3
14 (19.0,0.7,-16.4,9.6) 28.8
15 (37.6,32.4,-17.0,8.6) 30.4 Perseus-Pisces Void

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Yamada, Toru; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Shiroya, Ryuichi; Miyazawa, Morio; Watanabe, Shigeo; Saito, Mamoru (1997) "Search and Redshift Survey for IRAS Galaxies behind the Milky Way and Structure of the Local Void" (PDF) Astrophysical Journal Supplement, v.112, p.245 Bibcode1997ApJS..112..245N doi:10.1086/313039
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Einasto, Jaan; Einasto, Maret; Gramann, Mirt (1989) "Structure and formation of superclusters. IX - Self-similarity of voids" (PDF) Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices (ISSN 0035-8711), vol. 238, May 1, 1989, p. 155-177. Bibcode1989MNRAS.238..155E
  3. ^ "The Northern Cone of Metagalaxy" (Kopylov et al. 1988)
  4. ^ Kopylov, A. I.; Kopylova, F. G. (2002) "Search for streaming motion of galaxy clusters around the Giant Void" (PDF) Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.382, p.389-396 Bibcode2002A&A...382..389K doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20011500
  5. ^ Keenan, Ryan C.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L. (2013). "Evidence for a ~300 Mpc Scale Under-density in the Local Galaxy Distribution". The Astrophysical Journal. 775. arXiv:1304.2884Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/775/1/62. 
  6. ^ a b SIMBAD, "list of objects in '*void' wildcard search" (accessed 15 September 2009)
  7. ^ a b SIMBAD, "list of objects of type 'vid'" (accessed 15 September 2009)
  8. ^ a b Freudling, Wolfram; Martel, Hugo; Haynes, Martha P. (1991) "The peculiar velocity field in the Hercules region" (PDF) Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 377, Aug. 20, 1991, p. 349-364. Bibcode1991ApJ...377..349F doi:10.1086/170366
  9. ^ Rood, Herbert J. (1988) "Supplemental topics on voids" Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications (ISSN 0004-6280), vol. 100, Sept. 1988, p. 1071-1075. Bibcode1988PASP..100.1071R doi:10.1086/132272
  10. ^ Gregory, S. A. (1988) "Redshift surveys of emission-line galaxies" Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications (ISSN 0004-6280), vol. 100, Nov. 1988, p. 1340-1342. Bibcode1988PASP..100.1340G doi:10.1086/132330
  11. ^ a b c d Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 229, no. 1, March 1990, p. 75-79. ; "A two-dimensional sheet of galaxies between two southern voids" ; 03/1990 ; ISSN 0004-6361 ; Bibcode1990A&A...229...75M
  12. ^ "Astronomers Find Enormous Hole in the Universe". National Radio Astronomy Observatory Press release, retrieved 24 August 2007.
  13. ^ "No evidence for the cold spot in the NVSS radio survey", Kendrick Smith and Dragan Huterer (2008).
  14. ^ Freudling, W. (1989) "An Upper Limit on Streaming Motion Around the Hercules Void" Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 21, p.1140 Bibcode1989BAAS...21.1140F
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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This is the diameter of the largest sphere one can describe inside the void that contains no superclusters. Some voids have an elongated shape, so this diameter may underrepresent the size of some voids.

See also[edit]

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