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1
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
DATE: 2013/07/08::
2
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Litmus - Infinity Drive
DATE: 2009/12/07::
3
Litmus Surf Movie
Litmus Surf Movie
DATE: 2012/04/16::
4
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
DATE: 2011/05/01::
5
litmus : the dream
litmus : the dream
DATE: 2010/12/07::
6
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
DATE: 2013/05/08::
7
Litmus
Litmus
DATE: 2013/10/04::
8
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
DATE: 2013/03/27::
9
FULL OF HELL - Blue Litmus
FULL OF HELL - Blue Litmus
DATE: 2014/10/08::
10
Litmus Test
Litmus Test
DATE: 2013/10/14::
11
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
DATE: 2012/10/08::
12
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
DATE: 2013/12/13::
13
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing 'Litmus'
DATE: 2013/07/17::
14
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
DATE: 2012/01/31::
15
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
DATE: 2012/11/01::
16
LITMUS GREEN | Queer Thoughts
LITMUS GREEN | Queer Thoughts
DATE: 2011/12/30::
17
Litmus Email Previews in a Nutshell
Litmus Email Previews in a Nutshell
DATE: 2012/04/23::
18
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
DATE: 2012/12/06::
19
Dove: Litmus Test
Dove: Litmus Test
DATE: 2011/05/02::
20
Bangla Natok Litmus "লিটমাস" (Tisha & Iresh Zaker)
Bangla Natok Litmus "লিটমাস" (Tisha & Iresh Zaker)
DATE: 2013/01/28::
21
Litmus Test - This Will Decide If You Are A Good Muslim Or Not - Mufti Menk
Litmus Test - This Will Decide If You Are A Good Muslim Or Not - Mufti Menk
DATE: 2013/02/21::
22
Full Of Hell & Merzbow - Blue Litmus (Lyrics)
Full Of Hell & Merzbow - Blue Litmus (Lyrics)
DATE: 2014/11/23::
23
Midnight Run (1988) litmus configuration
Midnight Run (1988) litmus configuration
DATE: 2011/10/09::
24
Litmus - Atmosphere
Litmus - Atmosphere
DATE: 2011/05/03::
25
Midnight Run - The litmus configuration
Midnight Run - The litmus configuration
DATE: 2008/11/27::
26
Litmus Green - Robotek
Litmus Green - Robotek
DATE: 2011/12/11::
27
Make your own litmus paper
Make your own litmus paper
DATE: 2014/01/17::
28
9/11 - The Litmus Test
9/11 - The Litmus Test
DATE: 2012/01/21::
29
Africa
Africa's Moment- Litmus Boyz (OFFICIAL HD)
DATE: 2013/11/20::
30
Litmus - Satellites
Litmus - Satellites
DATE: 2013/11/26::
31
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
DATE: 2011/07/12::
32
Litmus Green - H.A.N.K.
Litmus Green - H.A.N.K.
DATE: 2013/03/15::
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Litmus Green - 2.7 Kids
Litmus Green - 2.7 Kids
DATE: 2011/10/03::
34
Military Litmus Test
Military Litmus Test
DATE: 2013/03/18::
35
150327 Monsta X LITMUS 2015 Spring&Summer P.1/2
150327 Monsta X LITMUS 2015 Spring&Summer P.1/2
DATE: 2015/03/28::
36
Litmus Milk
Litmus Milk
DATE: 2015/02/05::
37
The Great Spy Experiment - Litmus (Litmus Live Sessions)
The Great Spy Experiment - Litmus (Litmus Live Sessions)
DATE: 2013/01/30::
38
Urease and Litmus Milk Test
Urease and Litmus Milk Test
DATE: 2011/09/02::
39
911 Litmus Test ~ Ron Paul
911 Litmus Test ~ Ron Paul
DATE: 2012/07/25::
40
The Lunacy of a MGTOW Litmus Test
The Lunacy of a MGTOW Litmus Test
DATE: 2014/11/28::
41
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
DATE: 2013/02/15::
42
Litmus - Planetfall / Psychic Projection
Litmus - Planetfall / Psychic Projection
DATE: 2009/12/11::
43
GOP Litmus Test:
GOP Litmus Test: 'Prove' You'll Nuke Muslims
DATE: 2015/04/06::
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[RT-Xen] Installing LITMUS-RT on a RT-Xen ubuntu guest domU.
[RT-Xen] Installing LITMUS-RT on a RT-Xen ubuntu guest domU.
DATE: 2014/02/27::
45
Litmus - Beyond the Sun
Litmus - Beyond the Sun
DATE: 2010/10/04::
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red cabbage litmus paper
red cabbage litmus paper
DATE: 2014/11/07::
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Snapcase - Litmus Test
Snapcase - Litmus Test
DATE: 2013/02/23::
48
Battlestar Galactica S01E06 Litmus
Battlestar Galactica S01E06 Litmus
DATE: 2015/03/17::
49
Litmus - Destroy The Mothership / Tempest
Litmus - Destroy The Mothership / Tempest
DATE: 2009/12/11::
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How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
DATE: 2013/10/26::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Litmus (disambiguation).
Litmus powder
Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of litmus components

Litmus is a water soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

History[edit]

Litmus was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish alchemist Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands.

Natural sources[edit]

Litmus can be found in different species of lichens. The dyes are extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Parmelia. Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).[1]

Uses[edit]

"Litmus test" redirects here. For other uses, see Litmus test (disambiguation).
Litmus paper being used

The main use of litmus is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test for water-soluble gases that affect acidity or alkalinity; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, colors the red litmus paper blue.

Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic or alkaline conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5-8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F). Neutral litmus paper is purple.[1] Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue.

Litmus (pH indicator)
below pH 4.5 above pH 8.3
4.5 8.3

Chemical reactions other than acid-base reaction can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached,[2] due to presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible, so the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

Chemistry[edit]

The litmus mixture has the CAS number 1393-92-6 and contains 10 to 15 different dyes. Most of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in different proportions. In contrast with orcein, the principal constituent of litmus has an average molecular weight of 3300.[3] Acid-base indicators on litmus owe their properties to a 7-hydroxyphenoxazone chromophore.[4] Some fractions of litmus were given specific names including erythrolitmin (or erythrolein), azolitmin, spaniolitmin, leucoorcein, and leucazolitmin. Azolitmin shows nearly the same effect as litmus.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Manfred Neupert: Lackmus in Römpp Lexikon Chemie (German), January 31, 2013.
  2. ^ UCC - Chlorine
  3. ^ Beecken, H., E-M. Gottschalk, U. v Gizycki, H. Krämer, D. Maassen, H-G. Matthies, H. Musso, C. Rathjen, Ul. Zdhorszky (2003). "Orcein and Litmus". Biotechnic & Histochemistry 78 (6): 289–302. doi:10.1080/10520290410001671362. 
  4. ^ H. Musso, C. Rathjen. "Orcein dyes. X. Light absorption and chromophore of litmus". Chem. Ber. 92: 751–3. 
  5. ^ E.T. Wolf: Vollständige Übersicht der Elementar-analytischen Untersuchungen organischer Substanzen, S.450-453, veröffentlicht 1846, Verlag E. Anton (Germany)
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