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Jake Paul - Litmas (feat. Slim Jxmmi)
Jake Paul - Litmas (feat. Slim Jxmmi)
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Jake Paul
JAKE PAUL LITMUS (OFFICIAL SONG)
JAKE PAUL LITMUS (OFFICIAL SONG)
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: Quiz Tube
Jake Paul - LITMUS (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Jake Paul - LITMUS (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Quiz Tube
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: SciShow
Litmus | Full Natok | HD1080p 2017 | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Litmus | Full Natok | HD1080p 2017 | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: G Series (Bangla Natok & Telefilm)
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Alpha Studios
Howling -
Howling - 'Litmus'
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Howling
Jake Paul - Litmas (feat. Slim Jxmmi) Reaction!
Jake Paul - Litmas (feat. Slim Jxmmi) Reaction!
Published: 2017/12/03
Channel: Kwesi Bouie
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: starshipTV
Litmus
Litmus
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: UCPressVideo
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Litmus
Flat Earth  - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Flat Earth - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: martyleeds33
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Published: 2013/12/04
Channel: Aliphia Latimer
Litmus - Salamalaikum [Official Video]
Litmus - Salamalaikum [Official Video]
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: OfficialLitmus
litmus : the dream
litmus : the dream
Published: 2010/12/07
Channel: David Deckers
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Science Sir
Lemon Test with Red and Blue Litmus paper
Lemon Test with Red and Blue Litmus paper
Published: 2015/03/05
Channel: Audrey Lee
Reaction To (Litmus By Jake Paul)
Reaction To (Litmus By Jake Paul)
Published: 2017/12/05
Channel: Jonathanthevloger 9000
LITMUS CDSI
LITMUS CDSI
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: Jasmin D
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: える◆VOEZ盛り上げ中!
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: The Audiopedia
How To Make Litmus Paper ( Turmeric -Base Indicator)
How To Make Litmus Paper ( Turmeric -Base Indicator)
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Naveen Chandra
[몬채널][B] EP.41 2016 F/W LITMUS
[몬채널][B] EP.41 2016 F/W LITMUS
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: starshipTV
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
Published: 2012/10/08
Channel: TrickyMicky
ACIDS ALKALIS litmus paper NEW 2013
ACIDS ALKALIS litmus paper NEW 2013
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: SCIENCE VIDEOS
SPIRIT Litmus CSCHILE FINAL 17
SPIRIT Litmus CSCHILE FINAL 17
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: Sergio Ramirez
إعدادات تشغيل الامتحانات التجريبيةلشهادة (ICDL)  Litmus V5
إعدادات تشغيل الامتحانات التجريبيةلشهادة (ICDL) Litmus V5
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Khaled Hld
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: Gary Pilarchik (The Rusted Garden)
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Published: 2011/05/02
Channel: AggieSadaf
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Anthology
Democrats Worry Bernie Sanders’ Single-Payer Bill Will Become a Litmus Test
Democrats Worry Bernie Sanders’ Single-Payer Bill Will Become a Litmus Test
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: The Humanist Report
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing 'Litmus'
Published: 2013/07/17
Channel: Boiler Room
Corporate Dems: We Have No Ideology Or Litmus Test, We
Corporate Dems: We Have No Ideology Or Litmus Test, We're A 'Big Tent'!
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: Secular Talk
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 5 (Litmus Test) Class 7 VII
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 5 (Litmus Test) Class 7 VII
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: ExamFear Education
Life litmus paper
Life litmus paper
Published: 2012/12/20
Channel: Powerful Ony
Litmus - Beyond the Sun
Litmus - Beyond the Sun
Published: 2010/10/04
Channel: mustaba1234
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
Published: 2012/12/06
Channel: Amrita Vlab
Steve Bannon: Trump
Steve Bannon: Trump's "Access Hollywood" tape was a "litmus test"
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: CBS This Morning
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
Published: 2013/07/08
Channel: Innervisions
Litmus Test
Litmus Test
Published: 2013/09/01
Channel: Rajan Gupta
몬스타엑스 리트머스 2017 F/W 광고 촬영 메이킹 / MONSTA X Litmus 2017 F/W Campaign Making Film
몬스타엑스 리트머스 2017 F/W 광고 촬영 메이킹 / MONSTA X Litmus 2017 F/W Campaign Making Film
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: 몬스타엑스 MonstaXmas
Chinese Basement - Litmus (2011) FULL ALBUM
Chinese Basement - Litmus (2011) FULL ALBUM
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Chinese Basement
The Melania Trump Litmus Test: The Daily Show - Between the Scenes
The Melania Trump Litmus Test: The Daily Show - Between the Scenes
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: The Daily Show with Trevor Noah
Bernie: Medicare For All Isn
Bernie: Medicare For All Isn't A Litmus Test
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Secular Talk
Litmus Testing
Litmus Testing
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: Elastic Email
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
Published: 2012/01/31
Channel: 911TimeForTruth
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: Science and Maths by Primrose Kitten
Litmus paper test for acids and bases
Litmus paper test for acids and bases
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: Viziscience Chemistry Videos
Hejira - Litmus Test (Live)
Hejira - Litmus Test (Live)
Published: 2013/10/14
Channel: Hejira Official
Sodium Hydroxide turns red litmus blue | Acids & Bases | Chemistry
Sodium Hydroxide turns red litmus blue | Acids & Bases | Chemistry
Published: 2013/07/01
Channel: KClassScienceChannel
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Litmus powder
Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of litmus components

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

History[edit]

Litmus was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish physician Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands.

Natural sources[edit]

Litmus can be found in different species of lichens. The dyes are extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Parmelia. Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).[1]

Uses[edit]

Litmus paper after being used

The main use of litmus is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test for water-soluble gases that affect acidity or alkalinity; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, colors the red litmus paper blue.

Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic or alkaline conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5–8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F). Neutral litmus paper is purple.[1] Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue.

Litmus (pH indicator)
below pH 4.5 above pH 8.3
4.5 8.3

Chemical reactions other than acid-base can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached,[2] because of presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible, so the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

Chemistry[edit]

The litmus mixture has the CAS number 1393-92-6 and contains 10 to 15 different dyes. Most of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in different proportions. In contrast with orcein, the principal constituent of litmus has an average molecular mass of 3300.[3] Acid-base indicators on litmus owe their properties to a 7-hydroxyphenoxazone chromophore.[4] Some fractions of litmus were given specific names including erythrolitmin (or erythrolein), azolitmin, spaniolitmin, leucoorcein, and leucazolitmin. Azolitmin shows nearly the same effect as litmus.[5]

Mechanism[edit]

Red litmus contains a weak diprotic acid. When it is exposed to a basic compound, the hydrogen ions react with the added base. The conjugated base, formed from the litmus acid, has a blue color, so the wet red litmus paper turns blue in alkaline solution.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Manfred Neupert: Lackmus in Römpp Lexikon Chemie (German), January 31, 2013.
  2. ^ UCC - Chlorine
  3. ^ Beecken, H.; E-M. Gottschalk; U. v Gizycki; H. Krämer; D. Maassen; H-G. Matthies; H. Musso; C. Rathjen; Ul. Zdhorszky (2003). "Orcein and Litmus". Biotechnic & Histochemistry. 78 (6): 289–302. doi:10.1080/10520290410001671362. 
  4. ^ H. Musso, C. Rathjen (1959). "Orcein dyes. X. Light absorption and chromophore of litmus". Chem. Ber. 92 (3): 751–3. doi:10.1002/cber.19590920331. 
  5. ^ E.T. Wolf: Vollständige Übersicht der Elementar-analytischen Untersuchungen organischer Substanzen, S.450-453, veröffentlicht 1846, Verlag E. Anton (Germany)

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