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Litmus
Litmus
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: UCPressVideo
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Alpha Studios
Howling -
Howling - 'Litmus'
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Howling
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: starshipTV
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Published: 2013/12/04
Channel: Aliphia Latimer
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Published: 2013/05/08
Channel: Crackie Pipe
Litmus Surf Movie
Litmus Surf Movie
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: Surf Shop
Litmus - Salamalaikum [Official Video]
Litmus - Salamalaikum [Official Video]
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: OfficialLitmus
litmus* - Trojan
litmus* - Trojan
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: 엠코
litmus : the dream
litmus : the dream
Published: 2010/12/07
Channel: David Deckers
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: Science and Maths by Primrose Kitten
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Published: 2009/12/07
Channel: Mago Merlino
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Published: 2011/05/02
Channel: AggieSadaf
Litmus Testing
Litmus Testing
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: Elastic Email
Litmus - Beyond the Sun
Litmus - Beyond the Sun
Published: 2010/10/04
Channel: mustaba1234
Flat Earth  - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Flat Earth - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: martyleeds33
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: SciShow
Litmus | Drama | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Litmus | Drama | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: G Series (Bangla Natok & Telefilm)
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Litmus
Litmus Email Previews in a Nutshell
Litmus Email Previews in a Nutshell
Published: 2012/04/23
Channel: PlanetNutshell
Email Design Podcast #75: A Truly Table-less Email Layout and Litmus Launches A Chrome Extension
Email Design Podcast #75: A Truly Table-less Email Layout and Litmus Launches A Chrome Extension
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Litmus
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: The Audiopedia
litmus* vs Sound Souler - Two Phace [Premiere]
litmus* vs Sound Souler - Two Phace [Premiere]
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: Jmak BGM
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: Gary Pilarchik (The Rusted Garden)
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
Published: 2011/07/12
Channel: CC Robitussn
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing 'Litmus'
Published: 2013/07/17
Channel: Boiler Room
[VOEZ] Chromium - litmus* (Audio)
[VOEZ] Chromium - litmus* (Audio)
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: Jmak BGM
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Anthology
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Contour (OverRapid Edit) - litmus*
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Contour (OverRapid Edit) - litmus*
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: Jmak BGM
[OverRapid] Hardron Kollidier - litmus* (Audio)
[OverRapid] Hardron Kollidier - litmus* (Audio)
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: Jmak BGM
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Outer Space - litmus*
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Outer Space - litmus*
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: Jmak BGM
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
Published: 2012/12/06
Channel: Amrita Vlab
Corporate Dems: We Have No Ideology Or Litmus Test, We
Corporate Dems: We Have No Ideology Or Litmus Test, We're A 'Big Tent'!
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: Secular Talk
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: える◆VOEZ盛り上げ中!
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Science Sir
[OverRapid/Dynamix 3.2] Crank Up - litmus* (Audio)
[OverRapid/Dynamix 3.2] Crank Up - litmus* (Audio)
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Jmak BGM
Make your own litmus paper
Make your own litmus paper
Published: 2014/01/17
Channel: Amar Chitra Katha Pvt Ltd
MONSTA X 몬스타엑스 LITMUS 리트머스 S/S 2016 BTS - ALL ver.
MONSTA X 몬스타엑스 LITMUS 리트머스 S/S 2016 BTS - ALL ver.
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: MonstaX Thailand
The Litmus Test of True Religion
The Litmus Test of True Religion
Published: 2017/08/23
Channel: Desiring God
LITMUS | Short Film | TEV Production
LITMUS | Short Film | TEV Production
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: TheEntertainmentVirus
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Riverside Cafe - litmus*
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Riverside Cafe - litmus*
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: Jmak BGM
[몬채널][B] EP.41 2016 F/W LITMUS
[몬채널][B] EP.41 2016 F/W LITMUS
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: starshipTV
Walkthrough of Litmus Checklist
Walkthrough of Litmus Checklist
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Litmus
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
Published: 2013/03/27
Channel: Press For Truth
Litmus - Atmosphere
Litmus - Atmosphere
Published: 2011/05/04
Channel: dark14cs
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
Published: 2013/07/08
Channel: Innervisions
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: Muslim Speakers
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
Published: 2013/02/16
Channel: Raturday
Bernie: Medicare For All Isn
Bernie: Medicare For All Isn't A Litmus Test
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Secular Talk
Litmus - Satellites
Litmus - Satellites
Published: 2013/11/26
Channel: Exis
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Litmus powder
Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of litmus components

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

History[edit]

Litmus was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish physician Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands.

Natural sources[edit]

Litmus can be found in different species of lichens. The dyes are extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Parmelia. Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).[1]

Uses[edit]

Litmus paper being used

The main use of litmus is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test for water-soluble gases that affect acidity or alkalinity; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, colors the red litmus paper blue.

Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic or alkaline conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5–8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F). Neutral litmus paper is purple.[1] Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue.

Litmus (pH indicator)
below pH 4.5 above pH 8.3
4.5 8.3

Chemical reactions other than acid-base can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached,[2] because of presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible, so the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

Chemistry[edit]

The litmus mixture has the CAS number 1393-92-6 and contains 10 to 15 different dyes. Most of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in different proportions. In contrast with orcein, the principal constituent of litmus has an average molecular mass of 3300.[3] Acid-base indicators on litmus owe their properties to a 7-hydroxyphenoxazone chromophore.[4] Some fractions of litmus were given specific names including erythrolitmin (or erythrolein), azolitmin, spaniolitmin, leucoorcein, and leucazolitmin. Azolitmin shows nearly the same effect as litmus.[5]

Mechanism[edit]

Red litmus contains a weak diprotic acid. When it is exposed to a basic compound, the hydrogen ions react with the added base. The conjugated base, formed from the litmus acid, has a blue color, so the wet red litmus paper turns blue in alkaline solution.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Manfred Neupert: Lackmus in Römpp Lexikon Chemie (German), January 31, 2013.
  2. ^ UCC - Chlorine
  3. ^ Beecken, H.; E-M. Gottschalk; U. v Gizycki; H. Krämer; D. Maassen; H-G. Matthies; H. Musso; C. Rathjen; Ul. Zdhorszky (2003). "Orcein and Litmus". Biotechnic & Histochemistry. 78 (6): 289–302. doi:10.1080/10520290410001671362. 
  4. ^ H. Musso, C. Rathjen (1959). "Orcein dyes. X. Light absorption and chromophore of litmus". Chem. Ber. 92 (3): 751–3. doi:10.1002/cber.19590920331. 
  5. ^ E.T. Wolf: Vollständige Übersicht der Elementar-analytischen Untersuchungen organischer Substanzen, S.450-453, veröffentlicht 1846, Verlag E. Anton (Germany)

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