Play Video
1
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
::2013/05/08::
Play Video
2
Litmus Surf Movie
Litmus Surf Movie
::2012/04/16::
Play Video
3
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
::2013/07/08::
Play Video
4
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Litmus - Infinity Drive
::2009/12/07::
Play Video
5
Litmus - Planetfall / Psychic Projection
Litmus - Planetfall / Psychic Projection
::2009/12/11::
Play Video
6
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
::2013/12/13::
Play Video
7
Litmus
Litmus
::2013/10/04::
Play Video
8
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
::2012/11/01::
Play Video
9
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
::2013/03/27::
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10
litmus : the dream
litmus : the dream
::2010/12/07::
Play Video
11
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
::2011/05/01::
Play Video
12
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing 'Litmus'
::2013/07/17::
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13
Litmus Test
Litmus Test
::2013/10/14::
Play Video
14
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
::2013/10/26::
Play Video
15
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
::2012/10/08::
Play Video
16
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
::2012/01/31::
Play Video
17
Make your own litmus paper
Make your own litmus paper
::2014/01/17::
Play Video
18
Midnight Run (1988) litmus configuration
Midnight Run (1988) litmus configuration
::2011/10/09::
Play Video
19
Litmus Test - This Will Decide If You Are A Good Muslim Or Not - Mufti Menk
Litmus Test - This Will Decide If You Are A Good Muslim Or Not - Mufti Menk
::2013/02/21::
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20
Midnight Run - The litmus configuration
Midnight Run - The litmus configuration
::2008/11/27::
Play Video
21
The Litmus Paper Experiment
The Litmus Paper Experiment
::2010/02/19::
Play Video
22
LITMUS GREEN | Queer Thoughts
LITMUS GREEN | Queer Thoughts
::2011/12/30::
Play Video
23
pH Testing Your Body Using pH Test Strips - Better Than Litmus Paper
pH Testing Your Body Using pH Test Strips - Better Than Litmus Paper
::2011/04/22::
Play Video
24
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
::2012/12/06::
Play Video
25
LITMUS GREEN 3/28/14 BLACK LIGHT DISTRICT LONG BEACH "VULTURE VIDEO"
LITMUS GREEN 3/28/14 BLACK LIGHT DISTRICT LONG BEACH "VULTURE VIDEO"
::2014/04/06::
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26
Military Litmus Test
Military Litmus Test
::2013/03/18::
Play Video
27
Acids and Bases, the pH scale and litmus paper....  a tutorial for Junior Science
Acids and Bases, the pH scale and litmus paper.... a tutorial for Junior Science
::2011/02/12::
Play Video
28
teasers-litmus special edition.m4v
teasers-litmus special edition.m4v
::2008/11/29::
Play Video
29
Litmus Test - People Behaving Badly
Litmus Test - People Behaving Badly
::2012/12/12::
Play Video
30
Litmus - Satellites
Litmus - Satellites
::2013/11/26::
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31
Litmus Green - Kaiser
Litmus Green - Kaiser
::2013/07/30::
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32
[RT-Xen] Installing LITMUS-RT on a RT-Xen ubuntu guest domU.
[RT-Xen] Installing LITMUS-RT on a RT-Xen ubuntu guest domU.
::2014/02/27::
Play Video
33
"Litmus Test"
"Litmus Test"
::2011/05/18::
Play Video
34
LITMUS 2014 S/S making film - B1A4
LITMUS 2014 S/S making film - B1A4
::2014/03/17::
Play Video
35
9/11 - The Litmus Test
9/11 - The Litmus Test
::2012/01/21::
Play Video
36
Urease and Litmus Milk Test
Urease and Litmus Milk Test
::2011/09/02::
Play Video
37
Dove: Litmus Test
Dove: Litmus Test
::2011/05/02::
Play Video
38
Litmus Interactive Testing
Litmus Interactive Testing
::2012/07/30::
Play Video
39
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
::2011/07/12::
Play Video
40
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
::2013/02/15::
Play Video
41
Alternative Cancer Treatments: Test Your pH Levels With Litmus Paper
Alternative Cancer Treatments: Test Your pH Levels With Litmus Paper
::2011/01/23::
Play Video
42
Litmus Milk
Litmus Milk
::2012/05/02::
Play Video
43
Litmus - Atmosphere
Litmus - Atmosphere
::2011/05/03::
Play Video
44
Litmus- Kings Of Infinite Space
Litmus- Kings Of Infinite Space
::2012/08/31::
Play Video
45
Urease and Litmus Milk Results
Urease and Litmus Milk Results
::2011/09/10::
Play Video
46
The Great Spy Experiment - Litmus (Litmus Live Sessions)
The Great Spy Experiment - Litmus (Litmus Live Sessions)
::2013/01/30::
Play Video
47
Litmus, Forms Get Real
Litmus, Forms Get Real
::2010/02/04::
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48
Africa
Africa's Moment- Litmus Boyz (OFFICIAL HD)
::2013/11/20::
Play Video
49
Beatles - Pink Litmus Paper Shirt (fake)
Beatles - Pink Litmus Paper Shirt (fake)
::2009/12/24::
Play Video
50
The Export-Import Bank: A Federal Spending Litmus Test (Tim Carney)
The Export-Import Bank: A Federal Spending Litmus Test (Tim Carney)
::2014/07/02::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Litmus (disambiguation).
Litmus powder
Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of litmus components

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens, especially Roccella tinctoria. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity. Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic (i.e. alkaline) conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5-8.3 at 25 °C. Neutral litmus paper is purple.[1] Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions the solution is red, and under basic conditions the solution is blue.

The litmus mixture has the CAS number 1393-92-6 and contains 10 to 15 different dyes. Most of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in different proportions. In contrast with orcein, the principal constituent of litmus has average molecular weight of 3300.[2] Acid-base indicators on litmus owe their properties to a 7-hydroxyphenoxazone chromophore.[3] Some fractions of litmus were given specific names including erythrolitmin (or erythrolein), azolitmin, spaniolitmin, leucoorcein and leucazolitmin. Azolitmin shows nearly the same effect as litmus.[4]

History[edit]

Litmus was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish alchemist Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands.

Natural sources[edit]

Litmus can be found in different species of lichens. The dyes would be extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum and Parmelia. Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).[1]

Uses[edit]

"Litmus test" redirects here. For other uses, see Litmus test (disambiguation).
Litmus paper being used

The main use of litmus is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test water-soluble gases; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, colors the red litmus paper blue.

Litmus (pH indicator)
below pH 4.5 above pH 8.3
4.5 8.3

Chemical reactions other than acid-base reaction can also cause a color-change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached,[5] due to presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible and therefore the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Manfred Neupert: Lackmus in Römpp Lexikon Chemie (German), January 31, 2013.
  2. ^ Beecken, H., E-M. Gottschalk, U. v Gizycki, H. Krämer, D. Maassen, H-G. Matthies, H. Musso, C. Rathjen, Ul. Zdhorszky (2003). "Orcein and Litmus". Biotechnic & Histochemistry 78 (6): 289–302. doi:10.1080/10520290410001671362. 
  3. ^ H. Musso, C. Rathjen. "Orcein dyes. X. Light absorption and chromophore of litmus". Chem. Ber. 92: 751–3. 
  4. ^ E.T. Wolf: Vollständige Übersicht der Elementar-analytischen Untersuchungen organischer Substanzen, S.450-453, veröffentlicht 1846, Verlag E. Anton (Germany)
  5. ^ UCC - Chlorine
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