Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Litmus
Litmus
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: UCPressVideo
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Alpha Studios
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Published: 2013/12/04
Channel: Aliphia Latimer
Litmus | Drama | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Litmus | Drama | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: G Series (Bangla Natok & Telefilm)
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Published: 2009/12/07
Channel: Mago Merlino
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: Gary Pilarchik (The Rusted Garden)
The Litmus Test of True Religion
The Litmus Test of True Religion
Published: 2017/08/23
Channel: Desiring God
Howling -
Howling - 'Litmus'
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Howling
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: Science and Maths by Primrose Kitten
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: The Audiopedia
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Published: 2013/05/08
Channel: Crackie Pipe
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Published: 2011/05/02
Channel: AggieSadaf
Litmus - Salamalaikum [Official Video]
Litmus - Salamalaikum [Official Video]
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: OfficialLitmus
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: SciShow
Flat Earth  - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Flat Earth - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: martyleeds33
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: starshipTV
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Contour (OverRapid Edit) - litmus*
[Dynamix 3.0/OverRapid] Contour (OverRapid Edit) - litmus*
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: Jmak BGM
Democrats Worry Bernie Sanders’ Single-Payer Bill Will Become a Litmus Test
Democrats Worry Bernie Sanders’ Single-Payer Bill Will Become a Litmus Test
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: The Humanist Report
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Anthology
litmus : the dream
litmus : the dream
Published: 2010/12/07
Channel: David Deckers
Lemon Test with Red and Blue Litmus paper
Lemon Test with Red and Blue Litmus paper
Published: 2015/03/05
Channel: Audrey Lee
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Litmus
ACIDS ALKALIS litmus paper NEW 2013
ACIDS ALKALIS litmus paper NEW 2013
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: SCIENCE VIDEOS
[VOEZ] Chromium - litmus* (Audio)
[VOEZ] Chromium - litmus* (Audio)
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: Jmak BGM
Girls on Top - Episode 70 - Will love pass the
Girls on Top - Episode 70 - Will love pass the 'litmus test'?
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: Girls on Top
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: える◆VOEZ盛り上げ中!
How to Use Litmus Paper for Simple Identification of Acids & Bases
How to Use Litmus Paper for Simple Identification of Acids & Bases
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: Indigo Instruments
[몬채널][B] EP.41 2016 F/W LITMUS
[몬채널][B] EP.41 2016 F/W LITMUS
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: starshipTV
How To Make Litmus Paper
How To Make Litmus Paper
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Naveen Chandra
[OverRapid/Dynamix 3.2] Crank Up - litmus* (Audio)
[OverRapid/Dynamix 3.2] Crank Up - litmus* (Audio)
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Jmak BGM
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
Published: 2012/10/08
Channel: TrickyMicky
The Melania Trump Litmus Test: The Daily Show - Between the Scenes
The Melania Trump Litmus Test: The Daily Show - Between the Scenes
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: The Daily Show with Trevor Noah
Litmus Surf Movie
Litmus Surf Movie
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: Surf Shop
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Science Sir
Chinese Basement - Litmus (2011) FULL ALBUM
Chinese Basement - Litmus (2011) FULL ALBUM
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Chinese Basement
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 5 (Litmus Test) Class 7 VII
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 5 (Litmus Test) Class 7 VII
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: ExamFear Education
Hejira - Litmus Test (Live)
Hejira - Litmus Test (Live)
Published: 2013/10/14
Channel: Hejira Official
Make your own litmus paper
Make your own litmus paper
Published: 2014/01/17
Channel: Amar Chitra Katha Pvt Ltd
Litmus paper test for acids and bases
Litmus paper test for acids and bases
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: Viziscience Chemistry Videos
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 4 (Litmus Paper) Class 7 VII
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 4 (Litmus Paper) Class 7 VII
Published: 2015/12/04
Channel: ExamFear Education
litmus* - Lonely Cat
litmus* - Lonely Cat
Published: 2016/12/26
Channel: Jmak BGM
Litmus Email Previews in a Nutshell
Litmus Email Previews in a Nutshell
Published: 2012/04/23
Channel: PlanetNutshell
Are you Arrogant? Litmus Test - Animated - Nouman Ali Khan
Are you Arrogant? Litmus Test - Animated - Nouman Ali Khan
Published: 2016/12/25
Channel: Battle Ignorance
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing 'Litmus'
Published: 2013/07/17
Channel: Boiler Room
[OverRapid] Hardron Kollidier - litmus* (Audio)
[OverRapid] Hardron Kollidier - litmus* (Audio)
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: Jmak BGM
Litmus Testing
Litmus Testing
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: Elastic Email
FULL OF HELL - Blue Litmus
FULL OF HELL - Blue Litmus
Published: 2014/10/08
Channel: Profound Lore
How to Check Your Soil pH Using Litmus Paper
How to Check Your Soil pH Using Litmus Paper
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: Bullets to Beans
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
Published: 2013/03/27
Channel: Press For Truth
Sodium Hydroxide turns red litmus blue | Acids & Bases | Chemistry
Sodium Hydroxide turns red litmus blue | Acids & Bases | Chemistry
Published: 2013/07/01
Channel: KClassScienceChannel
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Litmus powder
Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of litmus components

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

History[edit]

Litmus was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish alchemist Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands.

Natural sources[edit]

Litmus can be found in different species of lichens. The dyes are extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Parmelia. Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).[1]

Uses[edit]

Litmus paper being used

The main use of litmus is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test for water-soluble gases that affect acidity or alkalinity; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, colors the red litmus paper blue.

Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic or alkaline conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5–8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F). Neutral litmus paper is purple.[1] Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue.

Litmus (pH indicator)
below pH 4.5 above pH 8.3
4.5 8.3

Chemical reactions other than acid-base can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached,[2] because of presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible, so the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

Chemistry[edit]

The litmus mixture has the CAS number 1393-92-6 and contains 10 to 15 different dyes. Most of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in different proportions. In contrast with orcein, the principal constituent of litmus has an average molecular mass of 3300.[3] Acid-base indicators on litmus owe their properties to a 7-hydroxyphenoxazone chromophore.[4] Some fractions of litmus were given specific names including erythrolitmin (or erythrolein), azolitmin, spaniolitmin, leucoorcein, and leucazolitmin. Azolitmin shows nearly the same effect as litmus.[5]

Mechanism[edit]

Red litmus contains a weak diprotic acid. When it is exposed to a basic compound, the hydrogen ions react with the added base. The conjugated base, formed from the litmus acid, has a blue color, so the wet red litmus paper turns blue in alkaline solution.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Manfred Neupert: Lackmus in Römpp Lexikon Chemie (German), January 31, 2013.
  2. ^ UCC - Chlorine
  3. ^ Beecken, H.; E-M. Gottschalk; U. v Gizycki; H. Krämer; D. Maassen; H-G. Matthies; H. Musso; C. Rathjen; Ul. Zdhorszky (2003). "Orcein and Litmus". Biotechnic & Histochemistry. 78 (6): 289–302. doi:10.1080/10520290410001671362. 
  4. ^ H. Musso, C. Rathjen (1959). "Orcein dyes. X. Light absorption and chromophore of litmus". Chem. Ber. 92 (3): 751–3. doi:10.1002/cber.19590920331. 
  5. ^ E.T. Wolf: Vollständige Übersicht der Elementar-analytischen Untersuchungen organischer Substanzen, S.450-453, veröffentlicht 1846, Verlag E. Anton (Germany)

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license