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Jake Paul - Litmas (feat. Slim Jxmmi)
Jake Paul - Litmas (feat. Slim Jxmmi)
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Jake Paul
JAKE PAUL LITMUS (OFFICIAL SONG)
JAKE PAUL LITMUS (OFFICIAL SONG)
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: Trending WW
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Published: 2011/05/02
Channel: AggieSadaf
Jake Paul - LITMUS (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Jake Paul - LITMUS (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Trending WW
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Litmus OST - Rain [Official Video]
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Anthology
Howling -
Howling - 'Litmus'
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Howling
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Make Your Own Litmus Paper at home, by Smrithi.
Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Alpha Studios
Flat Earth  - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Flat Earth - The Ultimate Litmus Test
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: martyleeds33
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
What is LITMUS? What does LITMUS mean? LITMUS meaning, definition, explanation & pronunciation
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: The Audiopedia
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Red and Blue Litmus Paper in Acid and Alkali. A Reversible Reaction.
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: Science and Maths by Primrose Kitten
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: Gary Pilarchik (The Rusted Garden)
Reaction To (Litmus By Jake Paul)
Reaction To (Litmus By Jake Paul)
Published: 2017/12/05
Channel: Jonathanthevloger 9000
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Walkthrough of Litmus Builder
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Litmus
Litmus - Atmosphere
Litmus - Atmosphere
Published: 2011/05/04
Channel: dark14cs
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Published: 2009/12/07
Channel: Mago Merlino
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Acids and Bases...Testing using litmus paper!
Published: 2013/12/04
Channel: Aliphia P
Litmus
Litmus
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: UCPressVideo
litmus : the dream
litmus : the dream
Published: 2010/12/07
Channel: David Deckers
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
[몬채널][B] EP.61 2017 S/S LITMUS
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: starshipTV
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: SciShow
How To Make Litmus Paper ( Turmeric -Base Indicator)
How To Make Litmus Paper ( Turmeric -Base Indicator)
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Naveen Chandra
إعدادات تشغيل الامتحانات التجريبيةلشهادة (ICDL)  Litmus V5
إعدادات تشغيل الامتحانات التجريبيةلشهادة (ICDL) Litmus V5
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Khaled HLD
SPIRIT Litmus CSCHILE FINAL 17
SPIRIT Litmus CSCHILE FINAL 17
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: Sergio Ramirez
Litmus Test
Litmus Test
Published: 2013/09/01
Channel: Rajan Gupta
Chinese Basement - Litmus (2011) FULL ALBUM
Chinese Basement - Litmus (2011) FULL ALBUM
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Chinese Basement
Hejira - Litmus Test (Live)
Hejira - Litmus Test (Live)
Published: 2013/10/14
Channel: Hejira Official
ACIDS ALKALIS litmus paper NEW 2013
ACIDS ALKALIS litmus paper NEW 2013
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: SCIENCE VIDEOS
Litmus - Downfall (Herck & Trik Remix)
Litmus - Downfall (Herck & Trik Remix)
Published: 2017/08/27
Channel: Sᴀᴋɪᴢ
Email Design Podcast #75: A Truly Table-less Email Layout and Litmus Launches A Chrome Extension
Email Design Podcast #75: A Truly Table-less Email Layout and Litmus Launches A Chrome Extension
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Litmus
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Published: 2013/05/08
Channel: Crackie Pipe
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
【VOEZ】 Chromium - litmus* 【音源】
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: える◆VOEZ盛り上げ中!
امتحان ويندوز 7 بنظام ليتمس litmus
امتحان ويندوز 7 بنظام ليتمس litmus
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: تكنولوجيا المعلومات
[VOEZ] litmus* - Chromium
[VOEZ] litmus* - Chromium
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Gayming
Checking Soil Acid Levels With PH Litmus Paper Test Strips
Checking Soil Acid Levels With PH Litmus Paper Test Strips
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: The Do It Yourself World
Orange Tree Edits - Litmus Groove (Jimmy Rouge Edit)
Orange Tree Edits - Litmus Groove (Jimmy Rouge Edit)
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: Stamp The Wax
Litmus | Full Natok | HD1080p 2017 | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Litmus | Full Natok | HD1080p 2017 | Tisha | Iresh Zaker | Shaju Khadem
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: G Series (Bangla Natok & Telefilm)
Litmus Testing
Litmus Testing
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: Elastic Email
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: Muslim Speakers
litmus* - Trojan
litmus* - Trojan
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: 엠코
SPIRIT Litmus CNDA GCN17
SPIRIT Litmus CNDA GCN17
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Sergio Ramirez
How to make litmus paper using turmeric
How to make litmus paper using turmeric
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Make Stuff
Make your own litmus paper
Make your own litmus paper
Published: 2014/01/17
Channel: Amar Chitra Katha Pvt Ltd
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 5 (Litmus Test) Class 7 VII
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 5 (Litmus Test) Class 7 VII
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: ExamFear Education
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Action of Red and Blue Litmus Paper on Acid and Alkali - Experiment
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Science Sir
Lemon Test with Red and Blue Litmus paper
Lemon Test with Red and Blue Litmus paper
Published: 2015/03/05
Channel: Audrey Lee
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 4 (Litmus Paper) Class 7 VII
Chemistry Acid Base Salts Part 4 (Litmus Paper) Class 7 VII
Published: 2015/12/04
Channel: ExamFear Education
Democrats Worry Bernie Sanders’ Single-Payer Bill Will Become a Litmus Test
Democrats Worry Bernie Sanders’ Single-Payer Bill Will Become a Litmus Test
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: The Humanist Report
Litmus - Satellites
Litmus - Satellites
Published: 2013/11/26
Channel: Exis
Bernie Sanders Says ‘Medicare for All’ is NOT a Litmus Test—He’s Wrong!
Bernie Sanders Says ‘Medicare for All’ is NOT a Litmus Test—He’s Wrong!
Published: 2017/09/05
Channel: The Humanist Report
Life litmus paper
Life litmus paper
Published: 2012/12/20
Channel: Powerful Ony
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Litmus powder
Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of litmus components

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

History[edit]

Litmus was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish physician Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands.

Natural sources[edit]

Litmus can be found in different species of lichens. The dyes are extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Parmelia. Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).[1]

Uses[edit]

Litmus paper after being used

The main use of litmus is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test for water-soluble gases that affect acidity or alkalinity; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, turn the red litmus paper blue.

Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic or alkaline conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5–8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F). Neutral litmus paper is purple.[1] Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue.

Litmus (pH indicator)
below pH 4.5 above pH 8.3
4.5 8.3

Chemical reactions other than acid-base can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached,[2] because of presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible, so the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

Chemistry[edit]

The litmus mixture has the CAS number 1393-92-6 and contains 10 to 15 different dyes. All of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in different proportions. In contrast with orcein, the principal constituent of litmus has an average molecular mass of 3300.[3] Acid-base indicators on litmus owe their properties to a 7-hydroxyphenoxazone chromophore.[4] Some fractions of litmus were given specific names including erythrolitmin (or erythrolein), azolitmin, spaniolitmin, leucoorcein, and leucazolitmin. Azolitmin shows nearly the same effect as litmus.[5]

Mechanism[edit]

Red litmus contains a weak diprotic acid. When it is exposed to a basic compound, the hydrogen ions react with the added base. The conjugated base, formed from the litmus acid, has a blue color, so the wet red litmus paper turns blue in alkaline solution.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Manfred Neupert: Lackmus in Römpp Lexikon Chemie (German), January 31, 2013.
  2. ^ UCC - Chlorine
  3. ^ Beecken, H.; E-M. Gottschalk; U. v Gizycki; H. Krämer; D. Maassen; H-G. Matthies; H. Musso; C. Rathjen; Ul. Zdhorszky (2003). "Orcein and Litmus". Biotechnic & Histochemistry. 78 (6): 289–302. doi:10.1080/10520290410001671362. 
  4. ^ H. Musso, C. Rathjen (1959). "Orcein dyes. X. Light absorption and chromophore of litmus". Chem. Ber. 92 (3): 751–3. doi:10.1002/cber.19590920331. 
  5. ^ E.T. Wolf: Vollständige Übersicht der Elementar-analytischen Untersuchungen organischer Substanzen, S.450-453, veröffentlicht 1846, Verlag E. Anton (Germany)

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