Play Video
1
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
Litmus - Aurora (Full Album)
::2013/05/08::
Play Video
2
Litmus - Infinity Drive
Litmus - Infinity Drive
::2009/12/07::
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3
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
IV44 Howling - Litmus (Shortline EP)
::2013/07/08::
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4
Litmus Surf Movie
Litmus Surf Movie
::2012/04/16::
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5
Litmus
Litmus
::2013/10/04::
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6
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
Testing Acids & Bases on Litmus Paper
::2011/05/01::
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7
litmus : the dream
litmus : the dream
::2010/12/07::
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8
Litmus - Planetfall / Psychic Projection
Litmus - Planetfall / Psychic Projection
::2009/12/11::
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9
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
Are You Humble or Arrogant? - A Litmus Test - Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan
::2013/12/13::
Play Video
10
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
Litmus Test: SciShow Experiments
::2012/11/01::
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11
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
Civil War And The Litmus Test - "Will you shoot Americans?"
::2013/03/27::
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12
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing
Howling Boiler Room LIVE Show performing 'Litmus'
::2013/07/17::
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13
Litmus Test
Litmus Test
::2013/10/14::
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14
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
9/11 Is the Litmus Test
::2012/01/31::
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15
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
[2004] Cut Chemist - The Litmus Test
::2012/10/08::
Play Video
16
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
How to Use pH Litmus Strips to Measure pH in Vegetable Garden Soil - The Rusted Garden 2013
::2013/10/26::
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17
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
Litmus Milk Test - Amrita University
::2012/12/06::
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18
Litmus Test - This Will Decide If You Are A Good Muslim Or Not - Mufti Menk
Litmus Test - This Will Decide If You Are A Good Muslim Or Not - Mufti Menk
::2013/02/21::
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19
The Litmus Paper Experiment
The Litmus Paper Experiment
::2010/02/19::
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20
Make your own litmus paper
Make your own litmus paper
::2014/01/17::
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21
Midnight Run - The litmus configuration
Midnight Run - The litmus configuration
::2008/11/27::
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22
Dove: Litmus Test
Dove: Litmus Test
::2011/05/02::
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23
Military Litmus Test
Military Litmus Test
::2013/03/18::
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24
pH Testing Your Body Using pH Test Strips - Better Than Litmus Paper
pH Testing Your Body Using pH Test Strips - Better Than Litmus Paper
::2011/04/22::
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25
Midnight Run (1988) litmus configuration
Midnight Run (1988) litmus configuration
::2011/10/09::
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26
teasers-litmus special edition.m4v
teasers-litmus special edition.m4v
::2008/11/29::
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27
Litmus - Atmosphere
Litmus - Atmosphere
::2011/05/03::
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28
Litmus Test - People Behaving Badly
Litmus Test - People Behaving Badly
::2012/12/12::
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29
Litmus - Satellites
Litmus - Satellites
::2013/11/26::
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30
Litmus Green - Robotek
Litmus Green - Robotek
::2011/12/11::
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31
[RT-Xen] Installing LITMUS-RT on a RT-Xen ubuntu guest domU.
[RT-Xen] Installing LITMUS-RT on a RT-Xen ubuntu guest domU.
::2014/02/27::
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32
LITMUS GREEN | Queer Thoughts
LITMUS GREEN | Queer Thoughts
::2011/12/30::
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33
9/11 - The Litmus Test
9/11 - The Litmus Test
::2012/01/21::
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34
Acids and Bases, the pH scale and litmus paper....  a tutorial for Junior Science
Acids and Bases, the pH scale and litmus paper.... a tutorial for Junior Science
::2011/02/12::
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35
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
Litmus by Five Iron Frenzy
::2013/02/15::
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36
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
Dynamite Hack "Planet Cleaner" music set to Derek Hynd surfing in "Litmus"
::2011/07/12::
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37
Litmus Green - Kaiser
Litmus Green - Kaiser
::2013/07/30::
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38
Urease and Litmus Milk Test
Urease and Litmus Milk Test
::2011/09/02::
Play Video
39
Alternative Cancer Treatments: Test Your pH Levels With Litmus Paper
Alternative Cancer Treatments: Test Your pH Levels With Litmus Paper
::2011/01/23::
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40
"Litmus Test"
"Litmus Test"
::2011/05/18::
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41
CSA-B Litmus 2014 College of CASE GrandSlam Champion...
CSA-B Litmus 2014 College of CASE GrandSlam Champion...
::2014/08/27::
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42
Litmus Green - H.A.N.K.
Litmus Green - H.A.N.K.
::2013/03/15::
Play Video
43
Africa
Africa's Moment- Litmus Boyz (OFFICIAL HD)
::2013/11/20::
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44
911 Litmus Test ~ Ron Paul
911 Litmus Test ~ Ron Paul
::2012/07/25::
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45
B1A4-LITMUS 2014 S/S COLLECTION
B1A4-LITMUS 2014 S/S COLLECTION
::2014/03/17::
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46
Litmus- Kings Of Infinite Space
Litmus- Kings Of Infinite Space
::2012/08/31::
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47
The Export-Import Bank: A Federal Spending Litmus Test (Tim Carney)
The Export-Import Bank: A Federal Spending Litmus Test (Tim Carney)
::2014/07/02::
Play Video
48
Litmus Milk
Litmus Milk
::2012/05/02::
Play Video
49
Beatles - Pink Litmus Paper Shirt (fake)
Beatles - Pink Litmus Paper Shirt (fake)
::2009/12/24::
Play Video
50
Urease and Litmus Milk Results
Urease and Litmus Milk Results
::2011/09/10::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other uses, see Litmus (disambiguation).
Litmus powder
Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of litmus components

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens, especially Roccella tinctoria. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity. Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic (i.e. alkaline) conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5-8.3 at 25°C. Neutral litmus paper is purple.[1] Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly. Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue.

The litmus mixture has the CAS number 1393-92-6 and contains 10 to 15 different dyes. Most of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in different proportions. In contrast with orcein, the principal constituent of litmus has an average molecular weight of 3300.[2] Acid-base indicators on litmus owe their properties to a 7-hydroxyphenoxazone chromophore.[3] Some fractions of litmus were given specific names including erythrolitmin (or erythrolein), azolitmin, spaniolitmin, leucoorcein, and leucazolitmin. Azolitmin shows nearly the same effect as litmus.[4]

History[edit]

Litmus was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish alchemist Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands.

Natural sources[edit]

Litmus can be found in different species of lichens. The dyes are extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Parmelia. Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).[1]

Uses[edit]

"Litmus test" redirects here. For other uses, see Litmus test (disambiguation).
Litmus paper being used

The main use of litmus is to test whether a solution is acidic or basic. Wet litmus paper can also be used to test water-soluble gases; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper. For instance, ammonia gas, which is alkaline, colors the red litmus paper blue.

Litmus (pH indicator)
below pH 4.5 above pH 8.3
4.5 8.3

Chemical reactions other than acid-base reaction can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue litmus paper white – the litmus dye is bleached,[5] due to presence of hypochlorite ions. This reaction is irreversible, so the litmus is not acting as an indicator in this situation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Manfred Neupert: Lackmus in Römpp Lexikon Chemie (German), January 31, 2013.
  2. ^ Beecken, H., E-M. Gottschalk, U. v Gizycki, H. Krämer, D. Maassen, H-G. Matthies, H. Musso, C. Rathjen, Ul. Zdhorszky (2003). "Orcein and Litmus". Biotechnic & Histochemistry 78 (6): 289–302. doi:10.1080/10520290410001671362. 
  3. ^ H. Musso, C. Rathjen. "Orcein dyes. X. Light absorption and chromophore of litmus". Chem. Ber. 92: 751–3. 
  4. ^ E.T. Wolf: Vollständige Übersicht der Elementar-analytischen Untersuchungen organischer Substanzen, S.450-453, veröffentlicht 1846, Verlag E. Anton (Germany)
  5. ^ UCC - Chlorine
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