(House of the People)
|15th Lok Sabha|
|Type||Lower house of the Parliament of India|
|Speaker||Meira Kumar, (INC)
Since 3 June 2009
|Deputy Speaker||Kariya Munda, (BJP)
Since 8 June 2009
|Leader of the House||Sushilkumar Shinde, (INC)
Since 2 Aug 2012
|Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha)||Sushma Swaraj, (BJP)
Since 21 December 2009
|Seats||545 (543 elected + 2 appointed)|
|Voting system||First past the post|
|Last election||April–May, 2009|
|धर्मचक्रपरिवर्तनाय॥ – To transform the cycle of dharma.|
|Lok Sabha Chambers, Sansad Bhavan, Sansad Marg, New Delhi|
The Lok Sabha (Hindi: लोक सभा) or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult franchise. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India. The Constitution limits the Lok Sabha to a maximum of 552 members, including no more than 20 members representing people from the Union Territories, and two appointed non-partisan members to represent the Anglo-Indian community (if the President feels that the community is not adequately represented).
Each Lok Sabha is formed for a five-year term, after which it is automatically dissolved, unless extended by a proclamation of emergency. In such cases, the term may be extended by one-year increments. The 15th Lok Sabha was formed in May 2009 and is the latest.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries has been carried out by the Delimitation Commission based on the Indian census of 2001. This exercise, which was supposed to be carried out after every census, was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to avoid adverse effects of the family planning program which was being implemented. Today, the Lok Sabha has its own TV channel, Lok Sabha TV, head-quartered within the premises of Parliament.
The country got its debut Lok Sabha in April 1952, after the first General Elections were successfully concluded. The Indian National Congress (INC) stormed into power in the first Lok Sabha elections with 245 seats in its kitty. With this, India's grand old party managed to secure 45 per cent of the total votes polled. An electoral participation of 44.87 per cent was reported from across India. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first elected Prime Minister of the country, his party clearly beating rivals by winning 75.99% (47,665,951) of the votes cast. The Lok Sabha, which was constituted on April 17, 1952, lasted its full term till April 4, 1957.
In most of the elections, the Indian Congress won a majority of Lok Sabha seats,but in the following elections the party had lost its majority. The non-Congress government consisted of coalition of Opposition parties .
The Janata Party came into power riding the public anger against the Congress and the Emergency but its position was weak. The party held 270 seats in the Lok Sabha and it never quite had a firm grip on power. The Janata Party consisted of Congress (O), Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Bharatiya Lok Dal as well as defectors from the Congress (R). However ,it had only a tenure of three years.
The National Front came into power .The Bofors scandal, rising terrorism in Punjab, the civil war between LTTE and Sri Lankan government lost the credibility of Congress government led by Rahul Gandhi. The National Front consisted of Jan Morcha, Janata Party, Lok Dal and Congress (S), in order to bring together all the parties opposed to the Rajiv Gandhi government. Soon, many regional parties rallied around the Janata Dal including the DMK, TDP, and AGP and formed the National Front. The five-party National Front jumped into the electoral fray in 1989 after joining hands with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the two communist parties - the Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) and the Communist Party of India (CPI). However the government was dissolved 16 months after its formation.
The Bharatiya Janata Party came to power. However , the government was shortlived as AIADMK party withdrew support and the government lost no-confidence party by a single vote,the closest defeat in a no-confidence motion in the history of Lok Sabha.
But in the 13th Lok Sabha, the same government came to power and formed stable majority. It is the first Non-Congress government to have completed its full tenure of five years in its history.
As per Article 84 of Indian Constitution, the Qualification for being a member of Lok Sabha is that he should be a citizen of India and has taken an oath given under Third Schedule of the Constitution. Also he must be at least 25 years of Age.
However ,as per Article 102 of Indian Constitution ,a member can be disqualified for being a member of parliament:-
Also under Representation of People Act 1951, he should not be criminally convicted, which would lead to disqualification otherwise.
The members of lok Sabha are directly elected by their constituencies through direct election by First past the post system.
However, two Anglo-Indians are nominated to the Lok Sabha , if the President of India feels that there is lack of representation of Anglo-Indians. But, they are not entitled to vote in Presidential elections as per Article 55 of Indian Constitution.
Lok Sabha has certain powers that make it more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.
If conflicting legislation is enacted by the two Houses, a joint sitting is held to resolve the differences. In such a session, the members of the Lok Sabha would generally prevail, since the Lok Sabha includes more than twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha.
Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year:
As per Article 93 of Indian Constitution , the Lok Sabha has a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. By convention, they are elected by a resolution passed by simple majority. The 15th Lok Sabha elected Meira Kumar as the speaker on 3rd June 2009, which is its first woman speaker to date. 
The Lok Sabha has also a seperate non-elected Secretariat staff.
The Salary ,Allowances and Pension of Member of Parliament Act 1954, as amended in December 2010, provides the provisions for salary, allowances and pension for a member of Parliament.
Previously, the salary for a member of Parliament was Rs 16,000, but was hiked to Rs 50,000 by amending the above Act in December 2010.
It is paid to every member when attending session of parliament or when performing duties as a member. He is also entitled to travel freely by Railways.
The member is also entitled to constituency allowance and amenities such as water, electricity , housing etc.
The pension for person who served as member of Parliament is Rs 25000 per month.
|Subdivision||Type||No. of constituencies|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Union Territory||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Union Territory||1|
|Daman and Diu||Union Territory||2|
|Jammu and Kashmir||State||6|
Lok Sabha is constituted after the general election as follows:
|Lok Sabha||General Election|
|1st Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1952|
|2nd Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1957|
|3rd Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1962|
|4th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1967|
|5th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1971|
|6th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1977|
|7th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1980|
|8th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1984|
|9th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1989|
|10th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1991|
|11th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1996|
|12th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1998|
|13th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 1999|
|14th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 2004|
|15th Lok Sabha||Indian general election, 2009|
|United Progressive Alliance
|Indian National Congress||203|
|Nationalist Congress Party||9|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal||5|
|Indian Union Muslim League||2|
|Kerala Congress (Mani)||1|
|Nagaland People's Front||1|
|Sikkim Democratic Front||1|
|Bodoland Peoples Front||1|
|National Democratic Alliance
|Bharatiya Janata Party||115|
|Janata Dal (United)||19|
|Shiromani Akali Dal||4|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||2|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi||2|
|Asom Gana Parishad||1|
|Haryana Janhit Congress||1|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist)||15|
|Communist Party of India||4|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party||2|
|All India Forward Bloc||2|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||21|
|Biju Janata Dal||14|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||9|
|Telugu Desam Party||6|
|Janata Dal (Secular)||3|
|Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||1|
|Rashtriya Janata Dal||3|
|Other Parties and Independents
|All India Trinamool Congress||18|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||18|
|Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik)||2|
|YSR Congress Party (YSRP)||2|
|Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi||1|
|All India United Democratic Front (AUDF)||1|
|All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen||1|
|Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi||1|
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