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[Paris] MF88+MF77 Métro 7 & 7bis - Louis Blanc
[Paris] MF88+MF77 Métro 7 & 7bis - Louis Blanc
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: BillyFlorian
Louis Blanc Top # 5 Facts
Louis Blanc Top # 5 Facts
Published: 2015/11/06
Channel: Yashika Lipsa
Métro de Paris: Louis Blanc | Ligne 7 - Ligne 7 bis ( RATP MF77 - MF88 )
Métro de Paris: Louis Blanc | Ligne 7 - Ligne 7 bis ( RATP MF77 - MF88 )
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: ACC84 Metro & Trains
Louis Blanc Maison
Louis Blanc Maison
Published: 2013/10/01
Channel: Guilherme Yoshi
Regardez la loi face au mineurs Suite (Louis Blanc à Courbevoie )
Regardez la loi face au mineurs Suite (Louis Blanc à Courbevoie )
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: anonime anonime
OPH COURBEVOIE 48 rue louis blanc l’ascenseur de la peur
OPH COURBEVOIE 48 rue louis blanc l’ascenseur de la peur
Published: 2016/06/11
Channel: Lotfire
LOUIS BLANC Recording
LOUIS BLANC Recording
Published: 2011/12/25
Channel: beardzombie
Paris by Métro - #150 Louis Blanc
Paris by Métro - #150 Louis Blanc
Published: 2014/12/04
Channel: Michaël Hoellerer
T3 louis Blanc
T3 louis Blanc
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: AllianceImmobiliere
KIM - Vostok 1 (Leo Pol
KIM - Vostok 1 (Leo Pol's Gang de Louis Blanc Remix)
Published: 2016/01/05
Channel: Fabio Siverino
Regardez la loi face au mineur(Louis Blanc à Courbevoie)
Regardez la loi face au mineur(Louis Blanc à Courbevoie)
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: anonime anonime
Louis Blanc Maison
Louis Blanc Maison
Published: 2015/07/24
Channel: TudoComEstilo
Paris Métro Simulator - Ligne 7bis     Louis Blanc → Pré Saint Gervais
Paris Métro Simulator - Ligne 7bis Louis Blanc → Pré Saint Gervais
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: Floflo Gaming
paris - louis blanc - fin de l
paris - louis blanc - fin de l'attaque de milices armées
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: J-B. Mery
Fanforale Douzbekistan Carnaval Aqueduc Louis Blanc
Fanforale Douzbekistan Carnaval Aqueduc Louis Blanc
Published: 2011/03/21
Channel: mimiesuatrupe
Lycée Colbert ( stalingrad - Louis Blanc) 2006 - 2007
Lycée Colbert ( stalingrad - Louis Blanc) 2006 - 2007
Published: 2006/11/15
Channel: kentfarm
La Sprague Thomson A.475 a Louis Blanc sur la 7 / 7 bis pour les JEP 2012
La Sprague Thomson A.475 a Louis Blanc sur la 7 / 7 bis pour les JEP 2012
Published: 2012/09/16
Channel: nico2dingo
Hotel Louis Blanc | One Of The Best Paris Hotel And Its Pictures And Info
Hotel Louis Blanc | One Of The Best Paris Hotel And Its Pictures And Info
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Kelmato de Travel Dias
Remember my name - Gala de danse Louis Blanc 2014.
Remember my name - Gala de danse Louis Blanc 2014.
Published: 2014/07/19
Channel: Myke Dancer
FERIA ALÈS 2017 : Paquito cévenol sur le boulevard Louis Blanc.
FERIA ALÈS 2017 : Paquito cévenol sur le boulevard Louis Blanc.
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Ville d'Alès
A vendre F2 Montpellier Louis Blanc
A vendre F2 Montpellier Louis Blanc
Published: 2013/03/25
Channel: Pasteur Immobilier
Fete ecole Louis Blanc 2013
Fete ecole Louis Blanc 2013
Published: 2013/06/20
Channel: Frédéric Lefort
Louis Blanc to Place des Fetes on the Paris Metro
Louis Blanc to Place des Fetes on the Paris Metro
Published: 2015/08/29
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
Limoges : incendie boulevard Louis-Blanc
Limoges : incendie boulevard Louis-Blanc
Published: 2016/03/12
Channel: lepopulaire.fr
Louis Blanc e Mme d
Louis Blanc e Mme d'Agoult (Daniel Stern): socialismo e liberalismo. Intervista a F. Taricone
Published: 2015/01/21
Channel: PENSPOL Storie - Autori - Teorie
paris - louis blanc - attaque de milices armées
paris - louis blanc - attaque de milices armées
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: J-B. Mery
Carnaval Mexicain Aqueduc-Louis Blanc (Paris)
Carnaval Mexicain Aqueduc-Louis Blanc (Paris)
Published: 2011/03/21
Channel: mimiesuatrupe
ARGENTEUIL LA BANDE DE LA RUE LOUIS BLANC
ARGENTEUIL LA BANDE DE LA RUE LOUIS BLANC
Published: 2015/11/05
Channel: cricri p1800
Hotel Paris Louis Blanc - Paris Hotels, France
Hotel Paris Louis Blanc - Paris Hotels, France
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: Paris France Hotels
Foot des Princesses Louis Blanc Boulogne CM1 Mme Peyrot
Foot des Princesses Louis Blanc Boulogne CM1 Mme Peyrot
Published: 2013/07/04
Channel: DCOFOOTBALL
Ligne 7bis du métro de Paris : Louis Blanc - Pré St-Gervais (Première partie) [HD]
Ligne 7bis du métro de Paris : Louis Blanc - Pré St-Gervais (Première partie) [HD]
Published: 2011/04/20
Channel: ParisMetroDriving
paris - Louis Blanc - attaque de milices armées
paris - Louis Blanc - attaque de milices armées
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: J-B. Mery
Compte de fée (A dance Fairytale) - Gala de danse Louis Blanc 2014
Compte de fée (A dance Fairytale) - Gala de danse Louis Blanc 2014
Published: 2014/07/19
Channel: Myke Dancer
Rue Louis Blanc Paris Arrondissement 10e
Rue Louis Blanc Paris Arrondissement 10e
Published: 2013/12/07
Channel: yuri dostoewski
Charles de Fere Cuvée Jean Louis Blanc de Blancs Brut
Charles de Fere Cuvée Jean Louis Blanc de Blancs Brut
Published: 2016/04/06
Channel: Charles de Fère
ESCALATOR LOUIS BLANC
ESCALATOR LOUIS BLANC
Published: 2013/06/28
Channel: Julien C
VOYAGEANT DANS UN MF-77 DE STALINGRAD À LOUIS BLANC, LIGNE 7.
VOYAGEANT DANS UN MF-77 DE STALINGRAD À LOUIS BLANC, LIGNE 7.
Published: 2015/05/05
Channel: Lewis DSD
MF77 : Départ de la station Louis Blanc sur la ligne 7 du métro parisien
MF77 : Départ de la station Louis Blanc sur la ligne 7 du métro parisien
Published: 2015/11/01
Channel: xuti75
Rue Louis Blanc Nantes - numérisée en 3D
Rue Louis Blanc Nantes - numérisée en 3D
Published: 2014/08/16
Channel: LDNantes
Birouri Piata Victoriei Offices Louis Blanc
Birouri Piata Victoriei Offices Louis Blanc
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: Viman International LTD
MSTS Metro Parisien - Ligne 7bis - Louis Blanc - Danube
MSTS Metro Parisien - Ligne 7bis - Louis Blanc - Danube
Published: 2012/07/13
Channel: Squall Productions
Station Louis Blanc sur la ligne 7 du métro à paris
Station Louis Blanc sur la ligne 7 du métro à paris
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: hongweizhu75
A louer F1 louis blanc
A louer F1 louis blanc
Published: 2014/11/13
Channel: Pasteur Immobilier
Feria Ales 2014 - Bodegas Boulevard Louis Blanc
Feria Ales 2014 - Bodegas Boulevard Louis Blanc
Published: 2014/06/01
Channel: davidgard30
Roxane entrainnement hdv louis blanc
Roxane entrainnement hdv louis blanc
Published: 2009/07/20
Channel: kiaradu76
louis blanc en force
louis blanc en force
Published: 2009/03/06
Channel: lerappeurdu62
MF77 - Ligne 7 RATP - Louis BLANC
MF77 - Ligne 7 RATP - Louis BLANC
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: Lazar NL 256
prestation danse country a la salle louis blanc de boulogne sur mer (téléthon)
prestation danse country a la salle louis blanc de boulogne sur mer (téléthon)
Published: 2011/12/10
Channel: sablaukelmae62
Appart Coeur de Lyon - Part Dieu - Louis Blanc, Lyon, France HD review
Appart Coeur de Lyon - Part Dieu - Louis Blanc, Lyon, France HD review
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: French Hotels reviews
démo de country salle louis blanc boulogne sur mer
démo de country salle louis blanc boulogne sur mer
Published: 2012/02/10
Channel: sablaukelmae62
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Louis Blanc
Louis Blanc b Carjat 1848.jpg
Born (1811-10-29)October 29, 1811
Madrid, Kingdom of Spain
Died December 6, 1882(1882-12-06) (aged 71)
Cannes, France
Residence Paris, France
Era 19th-century philosophy
Region Western Philosophers
School Socialism
Main interests
Politics, history, economy
Notable ideas
Right to work, national Workshops

Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (/blɑːn/; French: [blɑ̃]; 29 October 1811 – 6 December 1882) was a French politician and historian. A socialist who favored reforms, he called for the creation of cooperatives in order to guarantee employment for the urban poor.

Following the Revolution of 1848 Blanc became a member of the provisional government and began advocating for cooperatives which would be initially aided by the government but ultimately controlled by the workers themselves. Blanc's advocacy failed and, caught between radical worker tendencies and the National Guard, he was forced into exile. Blanc returned to France in 1870, shortly before the conclusion of the Franco-Prussian war, and served as a member of the National Assembly. Although he did not support the Paris Commune he successfully proposed amnesty to the Communards.

Even though Blanc's ideas of the workers' cooperatives were never realized, his political and social ideas greatly contributed to the development of socialism in France.

Biography[edit]

Early years[edit]

Louis Blanc was born in Madrid, his father held the post of inspector-general of finance under Joseph Bonaparte. His younger brother was Charles Blanc, who later became an influential art critic.[1] Failing to receive aid from Pozzo di Borgo, his mother's uncle, Louis Blanc studied law in Paris, living in poverty, and became a contributor to various journals. In the Revue du progres, which he founded, he published in 1839 his study on L'Organisation du travail. The principles laid down in this famous essay form the key to Louis Blanc's whole political career. He attributes all the evils that afflict society to the pressure of competition, whereby the weaker are driven to the wall. He demanded the equalization of wages, and the merging of personal interests in the common good—"De chacun selon ses facultés, à chacun selon ses besoins",[2] which is often translated as "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs." This was to be affected by the establishment of "social workshops", a sort of combined co-operative society and trade-union, where the workmen in each trade were to unite their efforts for their common benefit. In 1841 he published his Histoire de dix ans 1830-1840, an attack upon the monarchy of July. It ran through four editions in four years.

The Revolution of 1848[edit]

In 1847 he published the two first volumes of his Histoire de la Revolution Française. Its publication was interrupted by the Revolution of 1848, when Louis Blanc became a member of the provisional government. It was on his motion that, on 25 February, the government undertook "to guarantee the existence of the workmen by work"; and though his demand for the establishment of a ministry of labour was refused—as beyond the competence of a provisional government—he was appointed to preside over the government labour commission (Commission du Gouvernement pour les travailleurs) established at the Palais du Luxembourg to inquire into and report on the labour question.

Frontis from Blanc's Organisation du Travail, published in Paris in 1850 by Nouveau Monde.

The revolution of 1848 was the real chance for Louis Blanc's ideas to be implemented. His theory of using the established government to enact change was different from those of other socialist theorists of his time. Blanc believed that workers could control their own livelihoods, but knew that unless they were given help to get started the cooperative workshops would never work. To assist this process along Blanc lobbied for national funding of these workshops until the workers could assume control. To fund this ambitious project, Blanc saw a ready revenue source in the rail system. Under government control the railway system would provide the bulk of the funding needed for this and other projects Blanc saw in the future.

When the workshop program was ratified in the National Assembly, Blanc's chief rival Emile Thomas was put in control of the project. The National Assembly was not ready for this type of social program and treated the workshops as a method of buying time until the assembly could gather enough support to stabilize themselves against another worker rebellion. Emile Thomas's deliberate failure in organizing the workshops into a success only seemed to anger the public more. The people had been promised a job and a working environment in which the workers were in charge, from these government funded programs. What they had received was hand outs and government funded work parties to dig ditches and hard manual labor for meager wages or paid to remain idle. When the workshops were closed the workers rebelled again but were put down by force by the National Guard. The National Assembly was also able to blame Blanc for the failure of the workshops. His ideas were questioned and he lost much of the respect which had given him influence with the public.

Between the "sans-culottes", who tried to force him to place himself at their head, and the National Guards, who mistreated him, he was nearly killed. Rescued with difficulty, he escaped with a false passport to Belgium, and then to London. He was condemned to deportation in absentia by a special tribunal at Bourges. Against trial and sentence he alike protested, developing his protest in a series of articles in the Nouveau Monde, a review published in Paris under his direction. These he afterwards collected and published as Pages de l'histoire de la révolution de 1848 (Brussels, 1850).

Exile[edit]

During his stay in Britain he made use of the unique collection of materials for the revolutionary period preserved at the British Museum to complete his Histoire de la Revolution Française 12 vols. (1847–1862). In 1858 he published a reply to Lord Normanby's A Year of Revolution in Paris (1858), which he developed later into his Histoire de la révolution de 1848 (2 vols., 1870–1880). He was also active in the masonic organisation, the Conseil Suprême de l'Ordre Maçonnique de Memphis. His membership in the London-based La Grand Loge des Philadelphes is unconfirmed.

Return to France[edit]

Louis Blanc, ca. 1874/1877.

As far back as 1839 Louis Blanc had vehemently opposed the idea of a Napoleonic restoration, predicting that it would be "despotism without glory", "the Empire without the Emperor." He therefore remained in exile until the fall of the Second Empire in September 1870, after which he returned to Paris and served as a private in the National Guard. On 8 February 1871 he was elected a member of the National Assembly, in which he maintained that the Republic was "the necessary form of national sovereignty", and voted for the continuation of the war; yet, though a leftist, he did not sympathize with the Paris Commune, and exerted his influence in vain on the side of moderation. In 1878 he advocated the abolition of the presidency and the Senate. In January 1879 he introduced into the chamber a proposal for the amnesty of the Communards, which was carried. This was his last important act. His declining years were darkened by ill-health and by the death, in 1876, of his wife Christina Groh, whom he had married in 1865. He died at Cannes, and on 12 December received a state funeral in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

Legacy[edit]

Louis Blanc in his last years.

Louis Blanc possessed a picturesque and vivid style, and considerable power of research; but the fervour with which he expressed his convictions, while placing him in the first rank of orators, tended to turn his historical writings into political pamphlets. His political and social ideas have had a great influence on the development of socialism in France. His Discours politiques (1847–1881) was published in 1882. his most important works, besides those already mentioned, are Lettres sur l'Angleterre (1866–1867), Dix années de l'Histoire de l'Angleterre (1879–1881), and Questions d'aujourd'hui et de demain (1873–1884).

The Paris Metro Station Louis Blanc is named after him.

Capitalism[edit]

Louis Blanc is sometime cited as the first person to use the word "capitalism" in something like its modern form. While he did not mean the free market economic system described by Karl Marx in Das Kapital, he sowed the seeds of that usage, coining the word to mean the holding of capital away from others:

Works[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Varouxakis, Georgios (2004). "Blanc, (Jean Joseph) Louis (1811–1882), political thinker and exile". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  2. ^ Louis Blanc, Plus de Girondins, 1851, p. 92.
  3. ^ Conceptualizing Capitalism: Institutions, Evolution, Future

Sources[edit]

  • G.R.S. Taylor, Leaders of Socialism (1968)
  • G.D.H Cole, Socialist Thought, The Forerunners 1789-1850 (1959)
  • Harry W. Laidler, A History of Socialist Thought (1927)
Attribution
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Blanc, Louis". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  This work in turn cites, in addition to Blanc's own works:
    • L. Fiaux, Louis Blanc (1883)

External links[edit]

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