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BALLISTIC MISSILE M115 -U.S (HUGE EXPLOSION)
BALLISTIC MISSILE M115 -U.S (HUGE EXPLOSION)
Published: 2008/11/19
Channel: zawan607
8-inch towed howitzer M115 of United States Army in United States. HD Stock Footage
8-inch towed howitzer M115 of United States Army in United States. HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/04/18
Channel: CriticalPast
Explosive Artillery Simulator
Explosive Artillery Simulator
Published: 2011/10/03
Channel: Central Oregon Survival Network
WW2 Color B-26 Marauders Over Germany
WW2 Color B-26 Marauders Over Germany
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: airailimages
Little John 318mm Rocket MGR-3A (M51) 1965 US Army; Weapons of the Field Artillery
Little John 318mm Rocket MGR-3A (M51) 1965 US Army; Weapons of the Field Artillery
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Plastic Explosives:  M118 Demolition Charge  (FLEX-X)  1966 US Army
Plastic Explosives: M118 Demolition Charge (FLEX-X) 1966 US Army
Published: 2013/12/11
Channel: Jeff Quitney
WORLD WAR II WAR FILM 19  FIREPOWER DOCUMENTARY  " HOW GOOD IS A GUN? " 25514
WORLD WAR II WAR FILM 19 FIREPOWER DOCUMENTARY " HOW GOOD IS A GUN? " 25514
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
Modern Cannon Breech Demo  Watervliet Arsenal Museum
Modern Cannon Breech Demo Watervliet Arsenal Museum
Published: 2009/05/01
Channel: cannonmn
2S7 Pion firing
2S7 Pion firing
Published: 2010/08/29
Channel: frosty393
Weapons Of The Field Artillery: M115 howitzer - U.S. Army Educational Film  - S88TV1
Weapons Of The Field Artillery: M115 howitzer - U.S. Army Educational Film - S88TV1
Published: 2013/11/04
Channel: Tomorrow Always Comes
North Korean ICBM Explosion Footage
North Korean ICBM Explosion Footage
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: sushiboots
Huge explosion Tennis Bomb
Huge explosion Tennis Bomb
Published: 2009/01/09
Channel: jindraaa
What is E77 BALLOON BOMB? What does E77 BALLOON BOMB mean? E77 BALLOON BOMB meaning & explanation
What is E77 BALLOON BOMB? What does E77 BALLOON BOMB mean? E77 BALLOON BOMB meaning & explanation
Published: 2017/09/02
Channel: The Audiopedia
M110A2 8-inch SP Howitzer
M110A2 8-inch SP Howitzer
Published: 2008/08/27
Channel: jaglavaksoldier
AJ
AJ's Valken Battle Rifle Upgrade #3
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: NepaAirsoft
Mark 7 "Thor" atomic bomb #2.
Mark 7 "Thor" atomic bomb #2.
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: John Strangelove
Desert Rock VII: "Atomic Battlefield" ~ 1957 US Army; Op. Plumbbob, Smokey Shot; Big Picture TV-396
Desert Rock VII: "Atomic Battlefield" ~ 1957 US Army; Op. Plumbbob, Smokey Shot; Big Picture TV-396
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: Jeff Quitney
M110 8-Inch Howitzer Self-Propelled from "Weapons of the Field Artillery" 1965 US Army
M110 8-Inch Howitzer Self-Propelled from "Weapons of the Field Artillery" 1965 US Army
Published: 2012/03/15
Channel: Jeff Quitney
WORLD WAR II WEAPONRY 18 - 30  U.S. Bomb Technology (1944 - 1945) - Documentary Films HD
WORLD WAR II WEAPONRY 18 - 30 U.S. Bomb Technology (1944 - 1945) - Documentary Films HD
Published: 2014/12/09
Channel: HD Documentary
Powerful nuclear bomb exploding !!!
Powerful nuclear bomb exploding !!!
Published: 2011/07/09
Channel: Musharaf Khan
Mark 7 "Thor" atomic bomb #1
Mark 7 "Thor" atomic bomb #1
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: John Strangelove
US Army soldiers load, aim and fires from M110 Howitzer in Long Binh, Vietnam. HD Stock Footage
US Army soldiers load, aim and fires from M110 Howitzer in Long Binh, Vietnam. HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/04/18
Channel: CriticalPast
2013-01-15 Video of Second Missile Impact During Airstrikes on Aleppo University by Assad in Syria
2013-01-15 Video of Second Missile Impact During Airstrikes on Aleppo University by Assad in Syria
Published: 2013/01/23
Channel: Mr Ghostly
M1 90-mm Antiaircraft Gun
M1 90-mm Antiaircraft Gun
Published: 2011/12/07
Channel: okrajoe
Burned by the Hiroshima Atomic bomb
Burned by the Hiroshima Atomic bomb
Published: 2013/10/19
Channel: Lankantube. TV
Missile Explosion in Tunnel - S. Korea
Missile Explosion in Tunnel - S. Korea
Published: 2006/09/18
Channel: xekul
American Military Might: Weapons Of The Field Artillery - Educational Film - S88TV1
American Military Might: Weapons Of The Field Artillery - Educational Film - S88TV1
Published: 2014/05/03
Channel: Tomorrow Always Comes
World
World's Smallest Atomic Bomb Fire Explosion
Published: 2008/08/12
Channel: bigbyte1983
Nuclear Weapons: "Stay Safe, Stay Strong" 1960 US Air Force
Nuclear Weapons: "Stay Safe, Stay Strong" 1960 US Air Force
Published: 2012/08/12
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Q.News: Rif Dimashq: huge explosion caused by a barrel bomb in Muadamyat Al-Sham city 16-1-2016
Q.News: Rif Dimashq: huge explosion caused by a barrel bomb in Muadamyat Al-Sham city 16-1-2016
Published: 2016/01/16
Channel: Qasioun News Agency
GAM-63 RASCAL
GAM-63 RASCAL
Published: 2010/11/28
Channel: jaglavaksoldier
Large explosion hit Syrian army missile base, Israel blamed
Large explosion hit Syrian army missile base, Israel blamed
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: TomoNews US
The US Heavy Guns of the Vietnam War (720p)
The US Heavy Guns of the Vietnam War (720p)
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: DOCUMENTARY TUBE
Bunker buster explosion
Bunker buster explosion
Published: 2014/12/29
Channel: Jaylan Gardner
Did you know ...? # PART 2130
Did you know ...? # PART 2130
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Did you know...
Battlegroup 42: Lancaster bombing
Battlegroup 42: Lancaster bombing
Published: 2006/06/13
Channel: Don Pomelo -_-
JAV savaeigė haubica M-109A6 Paladin
JAV savaeigė haubica M-109A6 Paladin
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: Balsas LT
Did you know ...? # PART 2131
Did you know ...? # PART 2131
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Did you know...
Massive Explosion in Syrian town
Massive Explosion in Syrian town
Published: 2014/09/24
Channel: LatestWarVideos
Firing THE DEADLY Howitzer
Firing THE DEADLY Howitzer
Published: 2006/12/20
Channel: cannonmn
Intense Missile Impacts & Explosions with Volbeat HBC
Intense Missile Impacts & Explosions with Volbeat HBC
Published: 2014/02/10
Channel: ss71Leadsled1
WW2 era M114 155mm Howitzer on display in a cemetery in Ottawa Canada
WW2 era M114 155mm Howitzer on display in a cemetery in Ottawa Canada
Published: 2013/10/13
Channel: Bloeski's Wrecking Crew
TV kalendar 14.09.2014. (JNA bombardirala OS, Nijemci zauzeli RI, P. Swayze, 1. partizanski pilot)
TV kalendar 14.09.2014. (JNA bombardirala OS, Nijemci zauzeli RI, P. Swayze, 1. partizanski pilot)
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Hjezinac 3
2010 Keystone Nationals Finals
2010 Keystone Nationals Finals
Published: 2010/03/29
Channel: dirtslinger82
Artilleriegeschütz feuert eine 15 Kilotonnen Atomb.mpeg
Artilleriegeschütz feuert eine 15 Kilotonnen Atomb.mpeg
Published: 2010/03/08
Channel: M.W.
Weapons Of The Field Artillery: M114 155 mm howitzer - U.S. Army Educational Film  - S88TV1
Weapons Of The Field Artillery: M114 155 mm howitzer - U.S. Army Educational Film - S88TV1
Published: 2013/11/04
Channel: Tomorrow Always Comes
8吋砲操  敬禮!!
8吋砲操 敬禮!!
Published: 2012/10/01
Channel: ERIC
Destruction of german Bunker, 1918
Destruction of german Bunker, 1918
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: Avidanofront
WWII Shell Discovered
WWII Shell Discovered
Published: 2013/08/02
Channel: DoD News
Kinmen Trailer
Kinmen Trailer
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: Kinmen ETA
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The M115 anti-crop bomb, also known as the feather bomb or the E73 bomb,[1] was a U.S. biological cluster bomb designed to deliver wheat stem rust.

History[edit]

Mass production of the M115 bomb began in 1953.[2] The weapon was a modified M16A1 cluster bomb, which was normally used to distribute airborne leaflet propaganda or fragmentation weapons.[3] The U.S. Air Force first pointed out the need for an anti-crop weapon in September 1947. In October 1950 the Air Force began procuring 4,800 M115 bombs.[1] By 1954, with the biological agents causing wheat and rye rust standardized in laboratory culture, the U.S. Air Force prepared to transfer the agent to some 4,800 of the M115s.[4] The deployment of the M115 represented the United States' first, though limited, anti-crop biological warfare (BW) capability.[4] Though the weapon was tested at Fort Detrick, in Frederick, Maryland, it was never used in combat.[5]

Specifications[edit]

The M115 was a 500-pound (227 kg) bomb that was converted from a leaflet bomb and to be used to deliver wheat stem rust.[2][6] Wheat stem rust culture consisted of a dry particulate matter which was adhered to a light-weight vector, usually feathers. Because of its method of dissemination, the bomb was commonly referred to as the "feather bomb".[2] The feathers would fall over a wide area when released.[5] The M115 was shown to establish 100,000 foci of infection over a 50-square-mile (130 km2) area.[4]

Tests involving the M115[edit]

According to a 1950 military report the M115 was tested in an area 11 miles (18 km) long and 1.5 miles (2.4 km) wide. The area consisted of 7.5 acres (30,000 m2) plots sown with the Overland variety of oats, susceptible to the test agent, Puccinia graminis avenae, but not to other strains of cereal rust.[3] The test drops of the M115 showed that, from an altitude of 4,000 feet (1,200 m), feathers could be spread over an area of 12 square miles (31 km2). Three M115 feather bombs were dropped 1 mile (1.6 km) upwind from the target area, which was then monitored for any changes. Estimates showed about a 30% reduction in yield from the infected area.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wheelis, Mark, et al. Deadly Cultures: Biological Weapons Since 1945, (Google Books), Harvard University Press, 2006, pp. 217-18, (ISBN 0674016998).
  2. ^ a b c Smart, Jeffery K. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare: Chapter 2 - History of Chemical and Biological Warfare: An American Perspective, (PDF: p. 51), Borden Institute, Textbooks of Military Medicine, PDF via Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, accessed November 16, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c Russell, Alan and Vogler, John. The International Politics of Biotechnology: Investigating Global Futures, (Google Books), Manchester University Press, 2000, pp. 173-74, (ISBN 0719058686).
  4. ^ a b c Whitby, Simon M. Biological Warfare Against Crops, (Google Books), Macmillan, 2002, pp. 156-57, (ISBN 0333920856).
  5. ^ Endicott, Stephen and Hagerman, Edward. "United States Biological Warfare during the Korean War: rhetoric and reality" York University, June 2002, accessed November 16, 2008.

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