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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Mack (disambiguation).
Mack Trucks, Inc.
Type Subsidiary of AB Volvo since 2002
Industry Manufacturing
Founded 1900
Headquarters Greensboro, North Carolina
United States, {{{location_city}}}, {{{location_country}}}
Key people Kevin Flaherty (President)[1]
Products Trucks
Production output Macungie, Pennsylvania
Employees 5,037 (2005)
Parent AB Volvo
Website www.macktrucks.com

Mack Trucks, Inc. is an American truck-manufacturing company and a former manufacturer of buses and trolley buses. Founded in 1900 as the Mack Brothers Company, it manufactured its first truck in 1907 and adopted its present name in 1922.[2] Mack Trucks is a subsidiary of AB Volvo which purchased Mack along with Renault Trucks in 2000.[3] After being founded in Brooklyn, New York, the company's headquarters were in Allentown, Pennsylvania from 1905 to 2009, when they moved to Greensboro, North Carolina.[4] The entire line of Mack products is still produced in Macungie, Pennsylvania,[5] with additional assembly plants in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Australia, and Venezuela.

Operations[edit]

Currently, the company's manufacturing facilities are located at the Macungie Assembly Operations plant in Lower Macungie Township, Pennsylvania. Mack Trucks is a top producer in the vocational, on-road-vehicle market, Class 8 through Class 13. It is also the most popular manufacturer of heavy-duty off-road trucks in America.[citation needed]

Mack trucks have been sold in 45 countries. The Macungie, Pennsylvania, manufacturing plant, located near its former Allentown corporate headquarters, produces all Mack products. The Mack MP-series engine, Mack transmissions, the TC-15 transfer cases, and rear engine power take-offs are designed and manufactured in Hagerstown, Maryland, which, according to local historians, was the original factory location.[citation needed]

Parts for Mack's right-hand-drive vehicles are produced in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, for worldwide distribution. Assembly for South America is done at Mack de Venezuela C.A., in Caracas, Venezuela. The Venezuela operation is a complete knock down (CKD) facility. Components are shipped from the United States to Caracas, and the plant then does final assembly.

In addition to its Macungie manufacturing facility, Mack also has a remanufacturing center in Middletown, Pennsylvania, where it takes used parts and refurbishes them for resale/reuse.

2008 restructuring plan[edit]

On August 14, 2008, Mack Trucks announced a major restructuring plan that included:[6]

  • Relocation of Mack's head office, product development, most support functions, and purchasing functions to Greensboro, North Carolina, in 2009. Mack's parent, Volvo Trucks, already has its North American base in Greensboro.
  • Assembly of all produced Mack highway vehicles in Macungie, Pennsylvania from 2008.
  • Mack's testing facility in Allentown, Pennsylvania, will be converted into a "customer demonstration/reception center" in 2010.
  • Restructuring the parts distribution network by 2010.
  • Now delayed to 1st quarter 2011
  • As of November 2009, assembly of Mack Highway product will shift to the Macungie Manufacturing Division. 100% of Mack's product will be assembled in Macungie.

History[edit]

Corporation timeline[edit]

This is a timeline of Mack Trucks history. Most of the information is taken from the Mack History page at MackTrucks.com, unless otherwise noted.[7]

Early bus
Mack truck used to carry ore at the Acosta Mine Museum in Real del Monte, Hidalgo State, Mexico.
Mack AC-model flatbed delivery truck at the Petersen Automotive Museum
The Hale 100-inch mirror for Mount Wilson Observatory on its way up the Mount Wilson Toll Road on a Mack Truck in 1917.
This 1939 Mack Truck that has been restored and is on display at the YRC Freight headquarters in Overland Park, Kansas.
Mack 6x4 N-model 4-to-6 ton wrecker; (photo dated 15 May 1941: National Archives c/o Olive-Drab.com)
Mack NO-6 artillery tractor
B Model (1953-1966)
A Mack C-49-DT bus built in 1956.
R Series (1965-2005)
MC fire engine (1978-1990)
  • 1890: John M. ("Jack") Mack gets a job at Fallesen & Berry, a carriage and wagon company in Brooklyn, New York.
  • 1893: John Mack and his brother, Augustus F. ("Gus") Mack, buy the company John worked for.
  • 1894: A third Mack brother, William C. Mack, joins his brothers in the company's operations. The Macks try working with steam powered and electric motor cars.
  • 1900s: Inspired by Orville and Wilbur Wright, Willis Carrier and Henry Ford's inventions, John Mack has a vision, dreaming about producing heavy duty trucks and engines.
  • 1900: The Macks open their first bus manufacturing plant. The Mack bus, ordered by a sightseeing company, is delivered.
  • 1902: The Mack Brothers Company established in New York.
  • 1904: The company introduces the name Manhattan on its products.
  • 1905: Allentown selected as the home of main manufacturing operations, and headquarters. A fourth Mack brother, Joseph Mack, becomes a stockholder. Mack begins making rail cars and locomotives.
  • 1910: The Manhattan name changed; from now on, the trucks are known as Mack Trucks. Charles Mack, a fifth Mack brother, joins the company.
  • 1911: The Saurer Motor Truck Company, headed by C.P. Coleman, had the rights to manufacture and sell heavy trucks under the Saurer brand name at its plant in Plainfield, New Jersey. On September 23, 1911, the Saurer Motor Truck Company merged with the Mack Brothers Motor Car Company of Allentown, headed by J. M. Mack, to form the International Motor Truck Company (IMTC). IMTC would continue to make and sell trucks using the Saurer name until 1918. The capitalization of IMTC was $2.6 million total ($1.6m for Saurer, or 61.5%, and $1.0m for Mack Brothers).[8]
  • 1912: Brothers John and Joseph Mack leave.
  • 1919: The United States Army conducts a transcontinental project using Mack Trucks to study the need for national highway systems.
  • 1922: The company name is changed to Mack Trucks, Inc. The bulldog is accepted as the company's corporate symbol.
  • 1924: John Mack dies in a car crash in Weatherly, Pennsylvania.
  • 1932: While recuperating from an operation, Alfred Fellows Masury, Mack's Chief Engineer, carved the first bulldog hood ornament. Masury applied for and received a patent for his design; the bulldog ornament has adorned Mack trucks ever since.
  • 1933: Mack Trucks helps in the building of many American structures, including the Hoover Dam.
  • 1941: Fire Apparatus manufacturing moved from Allentown, PA to Long Island City, NY.
  • 1951: Fire Apparatus manufacturing moved back to Allentown, PA from Long Island City, NY.
  • 1956: Mack Trucks, Inc. buys Brockway Motor Company. (Brockway ceases in 1977)
  • 1966: Mack begins production at its assembly plant in Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The facility closed in 1993.
  • 1967: Mack Trucks becomes a part of the Signal Oil and Gas Company in a one-for-one exchange for cumulative convertible preferred stock. Later that year Signal changes its name to The Signal Companies, Inc.
  • 1970: Mack moves into its new Allentown world headquarters.
  • 1979: Renault buys 10% of Mack Trucks, Inc.
  • 1982: Renault increases ownership stake to 20%, Signal lowers its stake to 10%.
  • 1983: Mack Trucks conducts an IPO and issues 15.7 million shares of common stock. Renault increases holdings to 40%, while Signal reduces its stake to 10.3%.
  • 1987: Renault reorganizes; Renault Véhicules Industriels buys Renault's Mack shares.
  • 1990: Mack Trucks becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of Renault Véhicules Industriels when remaining publicly traded shares acquired at $6.25 per share.
  • 2001: Mack together with Renault Véhicules Industriels becomes part of Volvo AB of Sweden, the parent company Renault S. A. receives a 20% stake in the combined company. (In 2002 Renault Véhicules Industriels changes its name to Renault Trucks.)
  • 2006: Mack has a record sale year.
  • 2008: Mack announces relocation of corporate headquarters to Greensboro, North Carolina.[6]
  • 2009: Mack becomes a world truck embassy

Market, model and products timeline[edit]

This is a timeline of Mack Trucks history. Most of the information is taken from the Mack History page at MackTrucks.com, unless otherwise noted.[7] Photos of most models 1906-1978 available at.[9]

  • 1909: A junior model 1-1/2 ton truck is introduced.
  • 1910: Mack delivers the first motorized hook and ladder firetruck used by the city of Morristown, New Jersey.
  • 1914: The Mack ABs are introduced.
  • 1916: The Mack ACs are introduced. Ultimately, over 40,000 of these models are sold.
  • World War I: Mack delivers over 6,000 trucks, both to the United States and Britain's military. A legend surfaces that British soldiers would call for Mack Bulldogs to be sent when facing adversity.
  • 1918: Mack becomes the first manufacturer to apply air cleaners and oil filters to their trucks.
  • 1920: Mack Trucks are the first with power brakes on their trucks.
  • 1922: Mack introduces first truck with drive shaft instead of chain 1922 Model AB
  • 1922: International Motors Company develops gasoline-driven passenger railcar for the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. A standard passenger railcar on top of a standard motor truck chassis, seating between 36 to 50 passengers, at a cost of $16,500. The car operates in a ten-mile (16 km) stretch between New Haven, and Derby, Connecticut.[10]
  • 1927: Mack's BJ and BB models built.
  • 1932: The Bulldog starts to travel on the hoods of Mack trucks.
  • 1934: Production of electric "trolley coaches" began, continuing only until 1943.[11] A total of 290 trolley buses were built, with Portland, Oregon being by far the biggest customer (with 141 total).[11]
  • 1936: The Mack E series introduced. Mack Jr trucks introduced.
  • 1938: Mack trucks is the first company to produce its own heavy-duty diesel engines.
  • World War II: Mack trucks were used by the military in various capacities, and the company built many heavy-duty trucks to help the allied forces win the day. From 1941 to 1945, the combined armed forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and Canada took delivery of 35,096 total vehicles. The combat "N Series" (NB, NJU, NM, NO, NR, etc.) accounted for 26,965 of the total. Commercial type vehicles including: trucks, off-highway, fire-trucks, trailers, and buses, accounted for the rest. A total of 2,053 NO models alone were produced from 1940 to 1945. The 7 1/2-ton 6x6 NO was the most important specifically military model, and could be used as a transport or tractor for the 155 mm Long Tom field gun. Mack also built over 2600 power trains for tanks. The Allentown bus plant (5C) built Vultee PBY Catalina flying boats as well as components for the BT-13 Valiant Trainer and B-24 Liberator Bombers. More than 700 NJU (5-to-6 ton 4x4) models were in the hands of the U.S. Army by 1942. In 1939 & 1940 the French and British received several hundred NR4 and EXBU models. Mack Trucks ranked 63rd among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.[12]
  • 1940: L Model series introduced, continuing until 1952.
  • 1950: The Mack A Model series of trucks is introduced, produced until 1953.
  • 1953: The Mack B Model series of trucks is introduced. 127,786 produced until 1966.
  • 1955: The D Model low cab forward city delivery truck entered the market. Access to the engine compartment was possible by the Verti-lift cab. The cab lifted straight up hydraulically, guided by a forklift style mast behind the cab. Two styles of D Models were produced, the first styling had a square grille and no dress up trim. It was produced in 1955 and early 1956. The second styling included a styled grille, cab rear corner windows and stylish emblems and trim. The second styling was built from mid 1956 until the end of the D Model in 1958. A total of 832 D Model Mack Trucks were produced from 1955 until 1958.
  • 1955: The military M123 10 ton 6X6 semi tractor went into production. Developed from the NO, it would be the US Army’s standard until replaced by the M911 starting in 1976.[13]
  • 1956: City of Hamilton, Bermuda buys first diesel-power fire truck (B85F).
  • 1956: Mack buys the tooling of the Ahrens-Fox Fire Engine Co. and introduced the Mack C Model cab forward fire engine which was an Ahrens-Fox design and the first of the "Cincinnati Cabs" ( later built by the Truck Cab Manufacturing Co. an OEM vendor builder of Cincinnati, Ohio), that have been the staple of the American fire service to this day.
  • 1959: The first aluminum rivetted construction COE (cab-over-engine) family of trucks is introduced: The G Model which had a short production due to a striking resemblance to the Kenworth COE and Mack having the F Model ready for production.[citation needed] A total of 2181 G Model Mack Trucks were produced from 1959 until 1962.
  • 1962: The Second of the COE (cab-over-engine) family of trucks is introduced: The F Model all steel sleeper (FL) or non sleeper (F) is the first of this family of models for Mack.
  • 1965: Mack releases the Super Pumper System, to be used by the New York City fire department.[14] It would help put out 2,200 fires.
  • 1965: The R Model Series introduced, to replace the B Model Series. Some R series models continue in production until 2005.
  • 1966: The RL (for R-Western) model built at Hayward, California until 1981.
  • 1967: The CF model introduced, replacing the C model.[15]
  • 1969: Mack patents the cab air suspension.
  • 1975: Macungie plant opens, build the Cruise-Liner series until 1983.
  • 1977: Super-Liner introduced, production runs for 15-years until 1993.
  • 1978: Introduction of the low-cab-forward urban MC/MR series.
  • 1979: Medium-duty model Mid-Liner introduced, built by Renault Véhicules Industriels in France. This lighter truck filled a gap at the lower end of Mack's spectrum, as they were almost unrepresented in the Class 6 segment. Before the introduction of the Mid-Liner, the smallest engine made by Mack had been the 210 hp diesel inline-six ETZ 477.[16]
  • 1982: Production of the MH Ultra-Liner model begins.
  • 1988: Mack introduces the CH series for highway applications.
  • 1989: E7 engine replaces E6 engine
  • 1990: Fire Apparatus production ends.
  • 1994: Mack introduces the LE (low entry) refuse vehicle.
  • 1998: Electronic Unit Pump (EUP) replaces electronic fuel injection pump
  • 1999: A new premium highway tractor is introduced: the "Vision by Mack".
  • 2001: Medium-duty Freedom series introduced (built by Renault Trucks in France like its predecessor, the Mid-Liner series).
  • 2001: Mack redesigns R Series dash with new gauges and buttons and door padding.
  • 2001: Granite series for construction applications introduced.
  • 2003: Mack pulls out of the medium-duty market and discontinues the Freedom series.
  • 2006: Introduction of Pinnacle highway vehicle it is which was the replacement for the Vision highway product.
  • 2007: A new product line is introduced to include Models LEU and MRU amongst others.
  • 2007: Introduction of US07 compliant engines in all of its trucks.[17]
  • 2008: In March, Mack introduces the Titan, a heavy duty model with a 16-liter big-block MP10, the largest ever 6-cylinder engine from Mack, with 515, 565, and 605 horsepower (451 kW) models.[18][19]
  • 2010: In October Mack announced that a version of its Terrapro Cabover would run on natural gas using a Cummins Westport engine.[20]

Products[edit]

Current models[edit]

North America[edit]

List of current models produced for the North American market.[21][22]
Granite Dump truck
Pinnacle Semi tractor
TerraPro LE Refuse truck
  • Construction Series:
    • Granite
      • Granite Axle Back
    • TerraPro Cabover
  • Heavy Duty:
  • Highway Series:
    • Pinnacle:
      • Pinnacle Sleepers
      • Pinnacle Axle Forward
      • Pinnacle DayCab
      • Pinnacle Rawhide
    • Smartway
  • Refuse Series:
    • TerraPro Cabover
    • TerraPro Low Entry
    • Granite Axle Back
    • Granite
  • Military:
    • Granite Armored Line Haul

Australia, New Zealand and South Africa[edit]

Mack Granite in Australia
List of current models produced for the Australian, New Zealand, and South African market at the Wacol, Queensland factory.[23][24]
  • Granite
  • Metro-Liner
  • Super-Liner
  • Titan
  • Trident
    • Trident Axle Forward
    • Trident Axle Back
  • TerraPro (Overseas order through Mack Trucks Australia)
    • TerraPro Cabover
    • TerraPro Low Entry

Fire apparatus products[edit]

Mack Trucks produced fire apparatuses from 1911 until 1990.[25] Despite the abrupt shutdown of their production, many have been refurbished and still serve with fire departments throughout the world.

Some examples of Mack fire apparatus:

  • MC611F12 pumper
  • MR686P aerial trucks
  • MR686S 90' Bronto aerial truck
  • MR690S 100 aerial truck
  • MR688P pumper
  • MS Midliner pumper
  • CF-611 series cab-forward apparatus
  • CF-700 series attack engine

Fire apparatus gallery[edit]

Previous models[edit]

AC[edit]

The heavy duty AC, with its well known tapered hood, was the truck which started the bulldog theme. A 377 cu in (6.2 L) 4 cylinder gasoline engine 4X2 with chain drive, it was strong, reliable, and worked well in rough terrain. Introduced in 1916, there was a great demand because of World War I, over 6000 3 1/2, 5 1/2, and 7 1/2 ton trucks were built for the UK and US military. There were also commercial sales from 1916, the AC was well suited for logging and construction work. A larger version, the AP, built between 1926 and 1938, was an off-road haul truck used on Boulder dam and other large projects. 40,299 ACs had been built when production ended in 1939. [7][26] [27] [28]

N Series[edit]

The N Series was Mack’s first military design, large 6 and 7 1/2 ton 6X6 artillery prime movers. Between its development in the late 1930s and the beginning of production in 1940 US military requirements changed and the truck was not needed. All NMs and most of the larger NOs were exported as foreign aid. After WWII the NO was developed into the successful M 123 semi-tractor. [29]

B Models[edit]

The B Models were Mack’s primary vehicle from its introduction in 1953 until it was replaced by the R Series in 1966. They ranged in size from the medium duty B20P gas powered 4X2 to the oversized B873SX turbo-diesel 6X6. B Models were commonly used as semi tractors and in the construction industry. They were also used as fire engines and trucks, sometimes with the roof of the cab removed. 127,786 B Models were built. [7] [30]

R/RB/RD/RL/RM/RW, U, DM/DMM Models[edit]

Mack started to produce the R, RW, and U models in 1966 for highway use, and the RD, DM, and all wheel drive RM and DMM Models for construction use. The lightweight RL model followed in 1967, the RW Superliner with a large, rectangular hood and grill in 1977, and the setback front axle RB in the 1990s. All these models featured the same cab; the U, DM, and DMM had the cab offset to the left.

In the 1990s, the R, RW, and U Models were discontinued and the RB was introduced, mostly for severe-duty applications. The hood was modified slightly for the model RB. 2004 was the last year for the RD, and 2006 for the RB and DM. The DM was the last model to use this cab style, and was the last model of this family to be produced.[31][32]

As a replacement for the construction models, Mack started to offer the Granite, Granite Bridge-Formula and Granite Axle-back.[7]

Also this model is serving in the Mexican Army as a Troop and Utility Truck in Configuration 6X6 OR 6X4

Engines[edit]

By 1916 Mack was producing 4 and 6 cylinder gasoline engines, in 2014 they continue to build their engines. Other builder’s engines were often optional, engines from Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Hercules, Scania, and Waukesha have been used.

Mack started making diesels in 1938, in 1957 the END and turbocharged ENDT 673 diesel were introduced. This 672 cu in (11.0 L) I6 engine family was successful, and remained in production for over 30 years.

In the early 1960s, Mack Truck's executive vice president of product and engineering, Walter May, developed the Maxidyne high-torque rise engine. The engine was introduced as an inline six in 1966, as a V8 in 1970, and as the intercooled inline six 300 series in 1973. This was an industry-changing event. The Maxidyne, with an operating range of 1200-2100 R.P.M, and later 1050-1700 R.P.M., allowed a heavy Class 8 truck to be operated with a 5 speed (Maxitorque) transmission. Previously, heavy trucks typically operated between 1800-2100R.P.M. and were equipped with 10 or more gears.

In 2014 Mack offers three engine series, the 11 L MP 7, 13 L MP8, and 16 L MP10, with 325 hp (242 kW) to 605 hp (451 kW) and 1,200 lb·ft (1,627 N·m) to 2,060 lb·ft (2,793 N·m). [33] [34] [7] [35]

Other products[edit]

Mack also produced railroad cars and locomotives between 1905 and 1930.[36]

  • MP engine series

Trademark[edit]

The company's trademark is the bulldog. It can be found on the front of almost all Mack trucks. A Mack truck with a gold-plated bulldog indicates that the entire truck is made of Mack components. Trucks with another manufacturer's transmission, engine, rear axles or suspension are given the chrome-plated bulldog.

Mack trucks earned this nickname in 1917, during World War I, when the British government purchased the Mack AC model to supply its front lines with troops, food and equipment. British soldiers dubbed the truck the "Bulldog Mack", because they said it had "the tenacity of a bulldog." Its pugnacious, blunt-nosed hood, coupled with its incredible durability, reminded the soldiers of the tenacious qualities of their country's mascot, the British Bulldog.[37][38]

The logo was first used in 1921 for the AB chain drive models and made the official corporate logo in 1922.[39]

Leadership[edit]

This is a list of the highest ranking executive officer of Mack Trucks since its inception:

Mack leader Dates of service
John M. Mack 1900 to 1905 and 1909 to October 17, 1911
Otto Mears April 29, 1905, to January 9, 1906
Jacob Sulzbach January 9, 1906, to January 8, 1907
Thomas Rush January 8, 1907, to December 8, 1908
Charles P. Coleman October 17, 1911, to June 13, 1913
John Calder June to October 1913
Vernon Munroe October 22, 1913, to May 23, 1917
Alfred J. Brosseau May 15, 1917, to September 24, 1936
Emil C. Fink January 28, 1937, to January 1, 1943
Charles T. Ruhf August 5, 1943, to June 6, 1949
Edwin D. Bransome June 6, 1949, to January 11, 1955
Peter O. Peterson January 11, 1955, to December 31, 1958
Christian A. Johnson 1958 to 1962 (acting President)
Nicholas Dykstra July 20, 1961, to September 1, 1962
C. Rhoades McBride September 7, 1962, to January 6, 1965
Zenon C.R. Hansen January 7, 1965, to January 28, 1972
Henry J. Nave January 28, 1972, to January 1, 1976
Alfred W. Pelletier January 1, 1976, to July 21, 1980
John B. Curcio July 21, 1980, to 1989
Ralph Reins 1989 to 1990
Elios Pascual 1990 to 1995
Pierre Jocou March 1, 1995, to November 29, 1996
Michel Gigou December 1, 1996, to July 1, 2001
Paul Vikner July 1, 2001, to April 1, 2008
Dennis Slagle April 1, 2008 to January 1, 2012
Kevin Flaherty January 1, 2012 to present

Notable appearances in media[edit]

Five 1970s Mack RS700 series trucks were used in the motion picture Convoy[40] starring Kris Kristofferson as Martin 'Rubber Duck' Penwald and Ali MacGraw as Melissa.

A 1970s Mack R-600 truck with a "coolpower" engine setup is used to haul an oil tanker in Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior.

Mack DM series dump trucks appeared prominently in Die Hard 3.

Maximum Overdrive (1986) is a horror tale of machinery come to life which includes a truck stop with various vehicles.

A Mack M915 (LHRT) Line-Haul Replacement Tractor (military version of the Mack Granite GU713 10-wheeler) with a (military version M970 fuel tanker) semi-trailer, will be the vehicle mode for Megatron in Transformers: Dark of the Moon.

A 1984 Mack Superliner, owned by J.R. Collins Pulling Team, is also officially sponsored by Mack. The truck (named "Buckeye Bulldog") runs in the NTPA (National Tractor Pulling Association) in the "Super Semi" class.

Dale Gribble, a character from King of the Hill, is rarely seen without his Mack cap.

In Bad Boys II (2003), a 2000 Mack CX 613 Vision truck is used by the villains.

In the film Cars, Mack is Lightning McQueen's transport, an animated 1985 Mack Super-Liner voiced by John Ratzenberger. Ratzenberger's father drove a Mack truck to deliver oil for three decades.[41] On the "Disney/Pixar Road Trip '06", which promoted the film in a four-month tour of forty-one cities, "Mack" is a 2006 CH Rawhide 460-horsepower Mack truck carrying an Eddie Paul customised Trans Am as "Lightning".

CEO Denny Slagle took part in CBS' Undercover Boss in 2011.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Press Release: "Flaherty Named President, Mack Trucks North American Sales & Marketing". - Mack Trucks. - December 19, 2011
  2. ^ "Mack Mission/Origin/Trademark". Mack Trucks Website. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Mack Corporate History 2000 - 2009". Mack Trucks Website. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  4. ^ Barron, Richard M. (September 4, 2009). "Mack Moves South: Bulldog in Tow". Retrieved 2009-09-04. [dead link]
  5. ^ "Macungie Assembly Operations". Mack Trucks Website. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  6. ^ a b News/Events: Mack Plans Restructuring to Increase Competitiveness, Secure Long-Term Leadership Position. - News Releases 2008. - Mack Trucks. - August 14, 2008. - Retrieved: 2008-08-15
  7. ^ a b c d e f Mack History - Mack Trucks.com Official Website
  8. ^ "Motor Truck Merger". - New York Times. - September 23, 1911. - p.15. - Retrieved: 2008-06-16
  9. ^ Warth, Thomas E. (1998). Mack Trucks Photo Gallery. Iconografix. ISBN 1-882256-88-3. 
  10. ^ "Railroads Cut Off Short Branch Lines". - New York Times. - January 15, 1922. - p.102
  11. ^ a b Sebree, Mac; and Ward, Paul (1973). Transit’s Stepchild: The Trolley Coach, pp. 156–161. Los Angeles: Interurbans. LCCN 73-84356.
  12. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
  13. ^ Doyle, David (2003). Standard catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles. Kraus Publications. pp. 223–229, 245. ISBN 0-87349-508-X. 
  14. ^ Calderone, John A. (1997). The History of Fire Engines. Brompton Books Corp. pp. 62, 64, 72–74. ISBN 0-7607-0101-6. 
  15. ^ Calderone (1997), pages 67, 80.
  16. ^ Phippard, Martin (December 1978). "Intertruck: Canada". TRUCK (London: FF Publishing Ltd): 32. 
  17. ^ "AB Volvo - press release". Cision Wire. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  18. ^ "Mack to Launch its Biggest Model -- TITAN": Bulldog. - 2008-Volume 1. - p.9. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2008-06-02
  19. ^ Product Brochure: Titan. - Mack Trucks. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2008-06-02
  20. ^ "Mack unveils natural gas-powered truck". News & Record. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2010-10-27. [dead link]
  21. ^ Mack Bulldog Line. - Mack Trucks. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2008-06-08
  22. ^ Products. - Mack Trucks. - Retrieved: 2008-06-08
  23. ^ New Breed Range. - Mack Trucks Australia. - Retrieved: 2008-06-08
  24. ^ Hill, Liezel. - "Volvo, Mack team up for SA market". - Engineering News. - July 27, 2005. - Retrieved: 2008-06-08
  25. ^ "Cape Cod Fire Department:Mack Fire Apparatus". Retrieved 2006-10-04. 
  26. ^ "Motor Trucks of America". B.F. Goodrich. 1918. p. 148. 
  27. ^ Page, Victor Wilfred (1921). "Modern Truck, Design,Construction, Operation, Repair,…". Norman W. Henley Publishing. p. 54. 
  28. ^ Warth (1998), pp. 24-26,28-31, 35-44, 46-48.
  29. ^ Doyle (2003), pp. 205-207, 213-215.
  30. ^ Warth (1998), pp. 151-162, 164-168, 170-185, 195, 197.
  31. ^ Operators Handbook-R Series (1996) Mack Trucks, Inc page 4
  32. ^ Operators Handbook-DM, DMM, U Series (1988) Mack Trucks, Inc pages 1-5
  33. ^ Operators Handbook (1988), page 59-64
  34. ^ Warth (1998), pp. 10, 105, 176.
  35. ^ "Mack trucks powertrains". Mack Trucks. 2014. Retrieved 1 Feb 2014. 
  36. ^ Kulp, Randolph L. "History of Mack Rail Motor Cars and Locomotives." 1st ed. (1959)(Lehigh Valley Chapter, National Railway Historical Society).
  37. ^ History: 1910-1919. - Mack Trucks. - Retrieved: 2008-06-08
  38. ^ "Mack Trucks, Inc. Company Overview". - Volvo Group. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2006-10-31
  39. ^ History: 1920-1929. - Mack Trucks. - Retrieved: 2008-06-08
  40. ^ Convoy Movie Fan site - http://www.stlouisdumptrucks.com/ConvoyMackTruck/RDs_Macks.html
  41. ^ Joanna Poncavage (2006-04-22). "Mack among the stars". Morning Call. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  42. ^ "Mack Trucks' CEO Denny Slagle Featured On CBS' Undercover Boss". Digitriad. 
  43. ^ "FREIGHT HANDLING.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 30 July 1925. p. 4. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 

External links[edit]

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