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The Miracle Healing Power of Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt Baths) - Dr Alan Mandell, D.C.
The Miracle Healing Power of Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt Baths) - Dr Alan Mandell, D.C.
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: motivationaldoc
Magnesium Sulfate (ACLS Pharmacology)
Magnesium Sulfate (ACLS Pharmacology)
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: ProCPR
Magnesium Sulfate: Most Important Points You Should Remember
Magnesium Sulfate: Most Important Points You Should Remember
Published: 2007/07/03
Channel: USMLEVideoLectures
Magnesium Sulfate for Nursing
Magnesium Sulfate for Nursing
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: Dirty South Customs
Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate
Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate
Published: 2014/04/01
Channel: Doug's Lab
Why is Epsom Salt/Magnesium Sulfate Good For Tomato & Vegetable Plants: The Details! - TRG 2014
Why is Epsom Salt/Magnesium Sulfate Good For Tomato & Vegetable Plants: The Details! - TRG 2014
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: Gary Pilarchik (The Rusted Garden)
Magnesium Sulphate in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Magnesium Sulphate in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Published: 2015/11/22
Channel: Ajit Virkud
Safe Use of Magnesium Sulfate in Pregnancy
Safe Use of Magnesium Sulfate in Pregnancy
Published: 2015/01/16
Channel: PearlCasts
21 "BENEFITS OF EPSOM SALT" For Health !!
21 "BENEFITS OF EPSOM SALT" For Health !!
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Benefits Video
Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
Published: 2013/10/17
Channel: toothpick993
See What Happens When You Add Epsom Salt to Your Plants
See What Happens When You Add Epsom Salt to Your Plants
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: Natural Ways
making magnesium (II) sulfate
making magnesium (II) sulfate
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: stephenstephenlow
Drying Solvent using Magnesium Sulfate
Drying Solvent using Magnesium Sulfate
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: University of Bath
50. Epsom salt / magnesium sulphate and its uses. epsom salt kya hai usey kaise use karein
50. Epsom salt / magnesium sulphate and its uses. epsom salt kya hai usey kaise use karein
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: Home care for garden by yogesh sharma
▶ Asthma -  Dramatic Asthma Relief
▶ Asthma - Dramatic Asthma Relief
Published: 2014/01/07
Channel: Asthma Relief
Epsom Salt Baths: Magnesium Absorption- Thomas DeLauer
Epsom Salt Baths: Magnesium Absorption- Thomas DeLauer
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: Thomas DeLauer
Magnesium Chloride Vs Magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium Chloride Vs Magnesium Sulfate
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Premier Wellness Associates LLC
Recharging Batteries using Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate)
Recharging Batteries using Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate)
Published: 2015/06/18
Channel: rangermonk
Preparing a Drying Agent (Magnesium sulfate)
Preparing a Drying Agent (Magnesium sulfate)
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: NileRed
The most overlooked nutrient in a garden - Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
The most overlooked nutrient in a garden - Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: Jeff Bernhard
Make Magnesium Carbonate and Sodium Sulfate!
Make Magnesium Carbonate and Sodium Sulfate!
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: Red Rake
15 Common Health Problems That Can Be Treated Using Epsom Salt
15 Common Health Problems That Can Be Treated Using Epsom Salt
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Healthy Life
Electrolysis with magnesium sulfate
Electrolysis with magnesium sulfate
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: 19batembry
Exotic thermite - Magnesium sulfate / Aluminum
Exotic thermite - Magnesium sulfate / Aluminum
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Sven Olsen
How to use EPSOM SALT/Magnesium sulfate in plants/Benefits of Epsom salt for human in (Hindi& Urdu)
How to use EPSOM SALT/Magnesium sulfate in plants/Benefits of Epsom salt for human in (Hindi& Urdu)
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: BOKARO GARDEN
Top 10 series: Magnesium sulfate
Top 10 series: Magnesium sulfate
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: Medicowesome
magnesium sulfate production line equipments
magnesium sulfate production line equipments
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: Mavue Necui
Fast Crystallisation of Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate
Fast Crystallisation of Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate
Published: 2016/02/14
Channel: Yeo Yong Kiat
Burning magnesium sulfate
Burning magnesium sulfate
Published: 2015/01/31
Channel: VXFire Drake37
Magnesium sulfate Meaning
Magnesium sulfate Meaning
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: SDictionary
Chemical Reaction: Sodium Carbonate and Magnesium Sulfate
Chemical Reaction: Sodium Carbonate and Magnesium Sulfate
Published: 2017/11/25
Channel: Nathan Lai
Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on a Mineral Deficient Plant PART 2
Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on a Mineral Deficient Plant PART 2
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: Joel Jacobson
Washing Soda and Epsom Salt Reaction
Washing Soda and Epsom Salt Reaction
Published: 2013/11/07
Channel: MrBScience_Seguin
No_137 What is/When/why to use Epsom salt/ magnesium sulfate in plants /gardening.(Hindi/Urdu) .
No_137 What is/When/why to use Epsom salt/ magnesium sulfate in plants /gardening.(Hindi/Urdu) .
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Vijaya's Creative Garden
How Is Magnesium Sulfate Produced
How Is Magnesium Sulfate Produced
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: SS Health Facts
Magnesium Sulphate uses review Treating and preventing varicose veins वैरिकोज वेन्स के लिए उपाय
Magnesium Sulphate uses review Treating and preventing varicose veins वैरिकोज वेन्स के लिए उपाय
Published: 2018/01/02
Channel: Medicine Reviews
Magnesium Sulfate & Ammonia
Magnesium Sulfate & Ammonia
Published: 2018/02/16
Channel: Barbara Catron
Magnesium Copper Cell (Battery) Magnesium Sulfate Electrolyte
Magnesium Copper Cell (Battery) Magnesium Sulfate Electrolyte
Published: 2016/01/06
Channel: David Soriano
Magnesium Infusion Alaris Pump 6 11 14
Magnesium Infusion Alaris Pump 6 11 14
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: Janine Hinton
Na2CO3 + MgSO4 - sodium carbonate and magnesium sulfate
Na2CO3 + MgSO4 - sodium carbonate and magnesium sulfate
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: The Organic Chemistry Tutor
HOW TO GET ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE
HOW TO GET ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE
Published: 2017/09/17
Channel: JOHN BLACK SUPER CHEMIST
Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on a Mineral Deficient Plant
Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on a Mineral Deficient Plant
Published: 2015/07/27
Channel: Joel Jacobson
Magnesium Sulfate Timelapse
Magnesium Sulfate Timelapse
Published: 2013/01/10
Channel: Shawn Knol
Why Is Magnesium Sulfate Used In Pregnancy?
Why Is Magnesium Sulfate Used In Pregnancy?
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Pan Pan 2
Precipitation Reaction: Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Hydroxide
Precipitation Reaction: Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Hydroxide
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: Doc Tang
Reaction Equations - Dehydration of Hydrate - Magnesium Sulfate Pentahydrate
Reaction Equations - Dehydration of Hydrate - Magnesium Sulfate Pentahydrate
Published: 2013/02/03
Channel: Professor Heath's Chemistry Channel
Magnesium Sulfate Crystallisation
Magnesium Sulfate Crystallisation
Published: 2018/02/06
Channel: Yachna Soni
Dissolution of Magnesium Sulfate in Water
Dissolution of Magnesium Sulfate in Water
Published: 2012/11/11
Channel: 1steinstein
#08-043 Electrolysis Test with Magnesium Sulfate
#08-043 Electrolysis Test with Magnesium Sulfate
Published: 2008/07/22
Channel: charlieehler
Magnesium Sulfate for Seizure Prophylaxis; Pocket Pearls with Jordan Klebanoff, MD
Magnesium Sulfate for Seizure Prophylaxis; Pocket Pearls with Jordan Klebanoff, MD
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: OB GYN To Go
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Magnesium sulfate
Mgaq6SO4 with full charge.png
hexahydrate
Magnesium sulfate anhydrous.jpg
Anhydrous magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate.JPG
Epsomite (heptahydrate)
Names
IUPAC name
Magnesium sulfate
Other names
Epsom salt (heptahydrate)
English salt
Bitter salts
Bath salts
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.453
E number E518 (acidity regulators, ...)
RTECS number OM4500000
UNII
Properties
MgSO4
Molar mass 120.366 g/mol (anhydrous)
138.38 g/mol (monohydrate)
174.41 g/mol (trihydrate)
210.44 g/mol (pentahydrate)
228.46 g/mol (hexahydrate)
246.47 g/mol (heptahydrate)
Appearance white crystalline solid
Odor odorless
Density 2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)
1.512 g/cm3 (11-hydrate)
Melting point anhydrous decomposes at 1,124°C
monohydrate decomposes at 200°C
heptahydrate decomposes at 150°C
undecahydrate decomposes at 2°C
anhydrous
26.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)
35.1 g/100 mL (20 °C)
50.2 g/100 mL (100 °C)
heptahydrate
113 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility 1.16 g/100 mL (18°C, ether)
slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerol
insoluble in acetone
−50·10−6 cm3/mol
1.523 (monohydrate)
1.433 (heptahydrate)
Structure
monoclinic (hydrate)
Pharmacology
A06AD04 (WHO) A12CC02 (WHO) B05XA05 (WHO) D11AX05 (WHO) V04CC02 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet External MSDS
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Other cations
Beryllium sulfate
Calcium sulfate
Strontium sulfate
Barium sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt. The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.[1]

Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses: for example, Epsom salt is also effective in the removal of splinters.[2]

Hydrates and anhydrous material, production[edit]

A variety of hydrates are known.[3]

The heptahydrate (epsomite) readily loses one equivalent of water to form the hexahydrate. Epsom salt takes its name from a bitter saline spring in Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay.

The monohydrate, MgSO4·H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. It can be prepared by heating the hexahydrate to approximately 150 °C. Further heating to approximately 200 °C gives anhydrous magnesium sulfate. Upon further heating, the anhydrous salt decompose into MgO and SO3.

The heptahydrate can be prepared by neutralizing sulfuric acid with magnesium carbonate or oxide, but it is usually obtained directly from natural sources.

Uses[edit]

Medical[edit]

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4]

Magnesium sulfate is a common mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. Magnesium sulfate is highly water-soluble and solubility is inhibited with lipids typically used in lotions. Lotions often employ the use of emulsions or suspensions to include both oil and water-soluble ingredients. Hence, magnesium sulfate in a lotion may not be as freely available to migrate to the skin nor to be absorbed through the skin, hence both studies may properly suggest absorption or lack thereof as a function of the carrier (in a water solution vs. in an oil emulsion/suspension). Temperature and concentration gradients may also be contributing factors to absorption.

Epsom salt is used as bath salts and for isolation tanks. Magnesium sulfate is the main preparation of intravenous magnesium.

Internal uses include:

  • Oral magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative.
  • Replacement therapy for hypomagnesemia[5]
  • Magnesium sulfate is a antiarrhythmic agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac arrest under the ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced arrhythmias.[6]
  • As a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma,[7] magnesium sulfate can be nebulized to reduce the symptoms of acute asthma.[7] It is commonly administered via the intravenous route for the management of severe asthma attacks.
  • Magnesium sulfate is effective in decreasing the risk that pre-eclampsia progresses to eclampsia.[8] IV magnesium sulfate is used to prevent and treat seizures of eclampsia. It reduces the systolic blood pressure but doesn't alter the diastolic blood pressure, so the blood perfusion to the fetus isn't compromised. It is also commonly used for eclampsia where compared to diazepam or phenytoin it results in better outcomes.[9][10]

Agriculture[edit]

In agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to increase magnesium or sulfur content in soil. It is most commonly applied to potted plants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes, roses, tomatoes, lemon trees, carrots, and peppers. The advantage of magnesium sulfate over other magnesium soil amendments (such as dolomitic lime) is its high solubility, which also allows the option of foliar feeding. Solutions of magnesium sulfate are also nearly neutral, compared with alkaline salts of magnesium as found in limestone; therefore, the use of magnesium sulfate as a magnesium source for soil does not significantly change the soil pH.[11]

Food preparation[edit]

Magnesium sulfate is used as a brewing salt in beer.

It may also be used as a coagulant for making tofu.[12]

Chemistry[edit]

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water. During work-up, an organic phase is treated with anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The hydrated solid is then removed with filtration or decantation. Other inorganic sulfate salts such as sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate may be used in the same way.

Niche uses[edit]

Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is also used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which contain large amounts of stony corals, as it is slowly depleted in their calcification process. In a magnesium-deficient marine aquarium, calcium and alkalinity concentrations are very difficult to control because not enough magnesium is present to stabilize these ions in the saltwater and prevent their spontaneous precipitation into calcium carbonate.[13]

Minerals[edit]

Magnesium sulfates are common minerals in geological environments. Their occurrence is mostly connected with supergene processes. Some of them are also important constituents of evaporitic potassium-magnesium (K-Mg) salts deposits.

Bright spots observed by the Dawn Spacecraft in Occator Crater on the dwarf planet Ceres are most consistent with reflected light from magnesium sulfate hexahydrate.[14]

Almost all known mineralogical forms of MgSO4 are hydrates. Epsomite is the natural analogue of "Epsom salt". Another heptahydrate, the copper-containing mineral alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4·7H2O,[15] was recently recognized. Both are, however, not the highest known hydrates of MgSO4, due to the recent terrestrial find of meridianiite, MgSO4·11H2O, which is thought to also occur on Mars. Hexahydrite is the next lower (6) hydrate. Three next lower hydrates—pentahydrite, starkeyite, and especially sanderite are rare. Kieserite is a monohydrate and is common among evaporitic deposits. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was reported from some burning coal dumps.

Double salts[edit]

Double salts containing magnesium sulfate exist, for example there are several known sodium magnesium sulfates and potassium magnesium sulfates.

Safety[edit]

An abnormally elevated plasma concentration of magnesium is called hypermagnesemia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Industrial Inorganic Chemistry, Karl Heinz Büchel, Hans-Heinrich Moretto, Dietmar Werner, John Wiley & Sons, 2d edition, 2000, ISBN 978-3-527-61333-5
  2. ^ "Quick Cures/Quack Cures: Is Epsom Worth Its Salt?". Wall Street Journal. April 9, 2012. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012. 
  3. ^ Lucia Odochian "Study of the nature of the crystallization water in some magnesium hydrates by thermal methods," Archived 26 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Volume 45, Number 6, December, 1995. doi:10.1007/BF02547437
  4. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  5. ^ "Pharmaceutical Information – Magnesium Sulfate". RxMed. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009. 
  6. ^ "CPR and First Aid: Antiarrhythmic Drugs During and Immediately After Cardiac Arrest (section)". American Heart Association. Retrieved 29 August 2016. Previous ACLS guidelines addressed the use of magnesium in cardiac arrest with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (ie, torsades de pointes) or suspected hypomagnesemia, and this has not been reevaluated in the 2015 Guidelines Update. These previous guidelines recommended defibrillation for termination of polymorphic VT (ie, torsades de pointes), followed by consideration of intravenous magnesium sulfate when secondary to a long QT interval. 
  7. ^ a b Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH. Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest 2005;128:337-44. doi:10.1378/chest.128.1.337 PMID 16002955.
  8. ^ Duley, L; Gülmezoglu, AM; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Chou, D (Nov 10, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): CD000025. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000025.pub2. PMID 21069663. 
  9. ^ Duley, L; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Walker, GJ; Chou, D (Dec 8, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD000127. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000127.pub2. PMID 21154341. 
  10. ^ Duley, L; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Chou, D (Oct 6, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): CD000128. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000128.pub2. PMID 20927719. 
  11. ^ "Pubchem: magnesium sulfate". Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. 
  12. ^ US The present invention relates to a novel process for producing packed tofu, particularly a process for producing long-life packed tofu from sterilized soybean milk. 6042851, Matsuura, Masaru; Masaoki Sasaki & Jun Sasakib et al., "Process for producing packed tofu", published 28 Mar 2000 
  13. ^ "Do-It-Yourself Magnesium Supplements for the Reef Aquarium". Reefkeeping. 2006. Archived from the original on 22 March 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2008. 
  14. ^ M. C. De Sanctis; E. Ammannito; A. Raponi; S. Marchi; T. B. McCord; H. Y. McSween; F. Capaccioni; M. T. Capria; F. G. Carrozzo; M. Ciarniello; A. Longobardo; F. Tosi; S. Fonte; M. Formisano; A. Frigeri; M. Giardino; G. Magni; E. Palomba; D. Turrini; F. Zambon; J.-P. Combe; W. Feldman; R. Jaumann; L. A. McFadden; C. M. Pieters (2015). "Ammoniated phyllosilicates with a likely outer Solar System origin on (1) Ceres". Nature. 528: 241–244. doi:10.1038/nature16172. PMID 26659184. 
  15. ^ Peterson, Ronald C.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Seal, II, Robert R (Feb 2006). "Alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4·7H2O, a new mineral of the melanterite group, and cuprian pentahydrite: Their occurrence within mine waste". American Mineralogist. 91 (2–3): 261–269. doi:10.2138/am.2006.1911. 

External links[edit]

Salts and esters of the sulfate ion
H2SO4 He
Li2SO4 BeSO4 B esters
ROSO3
(RO)2SO2
(NH4)2SO4
[N2H5]HSO4
(NH3OH)2SO4
NOHSO4
HOSO4 F Ne
Na2SO4
NaHSO4
MgSO4 Al2(SO4)3
Al2SO4(OAc)4
Si P SO42−
HSO3HSO4
(HSO4)2
Cl Ar
K2SO4
KHSO4
CaSO4 Sc2(SO4)3 TiOSO4 VSO4
V2(SO4)3
VOSO4
CrSO4
Cr2(SO4)3
MnSO4 FeSO4
Fe2(SO4)3
CoSO4 NiSO4 CuSO4
Cu2SO4
[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)]SO4
ZnSO4 Ga2(SO4)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbHSO4
Rb2SO4
SrSO4 Y2(SO4)3 Zr(SO4)2 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh PdSO4 Ag2SO4 CdSO4 In2(SO4)3 SnSO4 Sb2(SO4)3 Te I Xe
Cs2SO4 BaSO4   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2SO4
HgSO4
Tl2SO4
Tl2(SO4)3
PbSO4 Bi2(SO4)3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La Ce2(SO4)3
Ce(SO4)2
Pr2(SO4)3 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb2(SO4)3 Lu
Ac Th Pa U(SO4)2
UO2SO4
Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

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