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1
Safe Use of Magnesium Sulfate in Pregnancy
Safe Use of Magnesium Sulfate in Pregnancy
::2015/01/16::
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2
Magnesium Sulfate: Most Important Points You Should Remember
Magnesium Sulfate: Most Important Points You Should Remember
::2007/07/03::
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Why is Epsom Salt/Magnesium Sulfate Good For Tomato & Vegetable Plants: The Details! - TRG 2014
Why is Epsom Salt/Magnesium Sulfate Good For Tomato & Vegetable Plants: The Details! - TRG 2014
::2014/06/02::
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4
Chemistry of magnesium sulfate
Chemistry of magnesium sulfate
::2013/07/02::
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5
Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
::2013/10/17::
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6
Magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate
::2014/05/08::
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7
Simplifying the Treatment for Preeclampsia/Eclampsia with Rectally Delivered Magnesium Sulfate
Simplifying the Treatment for Preeclampsia/Eclampsia with Rectally Delivered Magnesium Sulfate
::2013/08/19::
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Lead Acid Battery Desulfation Using Epsom Salt --Add Solution to Dead Interstate battery Part 2 of 6
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::2012/10/06::
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jour 04 prise du sulfate de magnésium en direct
jour 04 prise du sulfate de magnésium en direct
::2015/01/04::
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Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate
Dehydrating Magnesium Sulfate
::2014/04/01::
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11
#08-043 Electrolysis Test with Magnesium Sulfate
#08-043 Electrolysis Test with Magnesium Sulfate
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12
What happens when you microwave Hydrogen peroxide and Magnesium Sulfate?
What happens when you microwave Hydrogen peroxide and Magnesium Sulfate?
::2014/06/13::
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13
Joe N. - Magnesium Sulfate
Joe N. - Magnesium Sulfate
::2013/10/03::
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14
Determine the Enthalpy change in hydration of Anhydrous Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)
Determine the Enthalpy change in hydration of Anhydrous Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)
::2009/10/27::
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Magnesium Sulfate + Zinc
Magnesium Sulfate + Zinc
::2012/09/28::
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16
Magnesium sulfate  recrystallisation
Magnesium sulfate recrystallisation
::2014/09/26::
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17
Make magnesium hydroxide and sodium sulfate
Make magnesium hydroxide and sodium sulfate
::2014/01/06::
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18
3b.3 Magnesium Sulfate in Nigeria
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::2014/11/29::
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Sintesis de Sulfato de Magnesio (Magnesium Sulfate Synthesis)
Sintesis de Sulfato de Magnesio (Magnesium Sulfate Synthesis)
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Anhydrous Magnesium Sulfate
Anhydrous Magnesium Sulfate
::2012/01/18::
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21
Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt) Timelapse
Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt) Timelapse
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22
Reaction Equations - Dehydration of Hydrate - Magnesium Sulfate Pentahydrate
Reaction Equations - Dehydration of Hydrate - Magnesium Sulfate Pentahydrate
::2013/02/02::
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23
Copper Sulfate + Magnesium
Copper Sulfate + Magnesium
::2012/09/28::
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24
All About - Magnesium sulfate
All About - Magnesium sulfate
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25
What is Epsom Salt?
What is Epsom Salt?
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26
How To Drip Treat pellets for administering Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
How To Drip Treat pellets for administering Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
::2013/04/14::
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27
Dissolution of Magnesium Sulfate in Water
Dissolution of Magnesium Sulfate in Water
::2012/11/10::
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28
Copper sulfate / magnesium flash powder (CuSO4 / Mg)
Copper sulfate / magnesium flash powder (CuSO4 / Mg)
::2012/07/23::
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29
Magnesium Sulfate Lab Expierment
Magnesium Sulfate Lab Expierment
::2014/06/03::
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30
Reaction type Magnesium sulfate and calcium chloride
Reaction type Magnesium sulfate and calcium chloride
::2013/10/12::
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31
Molar Mass of a Hydrate - Magnesium Sulfate Pentahydrate
Molar Mass of a Hydrate - Magnesium Sulfate Pentahydrate
::2013/02/16::
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32
Magnified look at MgSO4, magnesium sulfate heated to form a single crystal.
Magnified look at MgSO4, magnesium sulfate heated to form a single crystal.
::2011/09/01::
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Magnesium Sulfate Crystals on the March
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Magnesium Sulfate|Magnesium Sulphate|Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate-Rech
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How to make magnesium sulfate heptahydrate-tutorial
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Citrus Tree with Yellow Leaves  - not anymore after applying magnesium sulfate and fertilizer
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::2014/06/30::
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37
me trying to make anyhdrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)
me trying to make anyhdrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)
::2013/06/27::
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38
Dehydration of hydrate - Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate 002
Dehydration of hydrate - Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate 002
::2012/10/16::
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39
Zinc sulfate/ferrous sulfate/magnesium sulfate.mp4
Zinc sulfate/ferrous sulfate/magnesium sulfate.mp4
::2012/03/01::
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40
Magnesium Sulfate Cross Polarization Time-Lapse Test
Magnesium Sulfate Cross Polarization Time-Lapse Test
::2012/12/28::
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41
Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate (Epsom Salt) - 50 Lbs - www.pestrong.com
Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate (Epsom Salt) - 50 Lbs - www.pestrong.com
::2014/02/22::
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42
Magnesium Sulfate And Gum Disease
Magnesium Sulfate And Gum Disease
::2014/07/30::
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43
Magnesium Supplements | What Is The Best Magnesium Supplement? [See Inside]
Magnesium Supplements | What Is The Best Magnesium Supplement? [See Inside]
::2014/02/27::
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44
Mgso4 , 7 H2O , Magie sunfat , Magnesium sulfate 99,5%,Magiê sulphate giá rẻ- Hóa chất Việt Hoa
Mgso4 , 7 H2O , Magie sunfat , Magnesium sulfate 99,5%,Magiê sulphate giá rẻ- Hóa chất Việt Hoa
::2013/08/01::
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45
Magnesium sulfate improves neurological outcomes of severe perinatal asphyxia   Emergency Medicine Videos   The Doctor
Magnesium sulfate improves neurological outcomes of severe perinatal asphyxia Emergency Medicine Videos The Doctor's Channel
::2009/11/23::
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46
Preeclampsia (Obstetrics - Third Trimester / High Risk)
Preeclampsia (Obstetrics - Third Trimester / High Risk)
::2012/06/26::
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47
Magnesium Sulfate + Lead
Magnesium Sulfate + Lead
::2012/09/28::
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48
MgSO4 (Magnesium Sulfate) crystals through microscope with polarized light
MgSO4 (Magnesium Sulfate) crystals through microscope with polarized light
::2012/03/12::
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49
Rapid crystallization of magnesium sulfate.
Rapid crystallization of magnesium sulfate.
::2012/10/04::
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50
Magnesium Sulfate Video Lab
Magnesium Sulfate Video Lab
::2015/01/14::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Not to be confused with Magnesium sulfide.
Magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate anhydrous.jpg
Anhydrous magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate.JPG
Epsomite (heptahydrate)
Names
IUPAC name
Magnesium sulfate
Other names
Epsom salt (heptahydrate)
English salt
Bitter salts
Identifiers
ATC code A06AD04
7487-88-9 YesY
14168-73-1 (monohydrate) YesY
24378-31-2 (tetrahydrate) YesY
15553-21-6 (pentahydrate) YesY
13778-97-7 (hexahydrate) YesY
10034-99-8 (heptahydrate) YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:32599 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1200456 N
ChemSpider 22515 YesY
DrugBank DB00653 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 24083
RTECS number OM4500000
UNII ML30MJ2U7I YesY
Properties
MgSO4
Molar mass 120.366 g/mol (anhydrous)
138.38 g/mol (monohydrate)
174.41 g/mol (trihydrate)
210.44 g/mol (pentahydrate)
228.46 g/mol (hexahydrate)
246.47 g/mol (heptahydrate)
Appearance white crystalline solid
Odor odorless
Density 2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)
1.512 g/cm3 (11-hydrate)
Melting point anhydrous decomposes at 1,124°C
monohydrate decomposes at 200°C
heptahydrate decomposes at 150°C
undecahydrate decomposes at 2°C
anhydrous
26.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)
25.5 g/100 mL (20 °C)
50.2 g/100 mL (100 °C)
heptahydrate
71 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility 1.16 g/100 mL (18°C, ether)
slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerol
insoluble in acetone
1.523 (monohydrate)
1.433 (heptahydrate)
Structure
Crystal structure monoclinic (hydrate)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index Not listed
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Other cations
Beryllium sulfate
Calcium sulfate
Strontium sulfate
Barium sulfate
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Magnesium sulfate (or magnesium sulphate) is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt, taking its name from a bitter saline spring in Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay. The monohydrate, MgSO4·H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.[1]

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. The anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and is therefore difficult to weigh accurately; the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions (for example, in medical preparations). Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses. Epsom salt is also effective in the removal of splinters.[2]

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[3]

Uses[edit]

Medical[edit]

Magnesium sulfate is a common pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. Epsom salt is used as bath salts and for isolation tanks. Oral magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative. Magnesium sulfate is the main preparation of intravenous magnesium.

Internal use include:

An overdose of magnesium causes hypermagnesemia.

Agriculture[edit]

In gardening and other agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to correct a magnesium or sulfur deficiency in soil; magnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, and sulfur is another important micronutrient.[13] It is most commonly applied to potted plants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes, roses, tomatoes, lemon trees, carrots, and peppers. The advantage of magnesium sulfate over other magnesium soil amendments (such as dolomitic lime) is its high solubility, which also allows the option of foliar feeding. Solutions of magnesium sulfate are also nearly neutral, as compared to alkaline salts of magnesium, as found in limestone; therefore, the use of magnesium sulfate as a magnesium source for soil does not significantly change the soil pH.[citation needed]

Other[edit]

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water. During work-up, an organic phase is saturated with magnesium sulfate until it no longer forms clumps. The hydrated solid is then removed with filtration or decantation. Other inorganic sulfate salts such as sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate may also be used in the same way.

Magnesium sulfate is used in bath salts, particularly in flotation therapy, where high concentrations raise the bath water's specific gravity, effectively making the body more buoyant. Traditionally, it is also used to prepare foot baths, intended to soothe sore feet. The reason for the inclusion of the salt is partially cosmetic: the increase in ionic strength prevents some of the temporary skin wrinkling (partial maceration) which is caused by prolonged immersion of extremities in pure water. However, magnesium sulfate can also be absorbed into the skin, reducing inflammation.[citation needed] It is naturally present in some mineral waters.[citation needed]

It may also be used as a coagulant for making tofu.[14]

Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is also used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which contain large amounts of stony corals, as it is slowly depleted in their calcification process. In a magnesium-deficient marine aquarium, calcium and alkalinity concentrations are very difficult to control because not enough magnesium is present to stabilize these ions in the saltwater and prevent their spontaneous precipitation into calcium carbonate.[15]

Magnesium sulfate is used as the electrolyte to prepare copper sulfate. A magnesium sulfate solution is electrolyzed with a copper anode to form copper sulfate, magnesium hydroxide, and hydrogen:

Cu + MgSO4 + 2 H2O → H2 + CuSO4 + Mg(OH)2.[citation needed]

Magnesium sulfate is used as a brewing salt in beer production to adjust the ion content of the brewing water and enhance enzyme action in the mash or promote a desired flavor profile in the beer.

Pregnancy usage[edit]

Magnesium sulfate was once used as a tocolytic,[16][17] but meta-analyses have failed to support it as an anti-contraction medication.[18][19] And its use for prolonged periods (more than five to seven days) may result in health problems for the baby.[20]

In those at risk of an early delivery, magnesium sulfate appears to decrease the risk of cerebral palsy.[21][22] It is unclear if it helps those who are born at term.[23]

Debate[edit]

A study carried out in February 2015 found that Epsom salt only minutely raises magnesium levels in those who bathe in it regularly. According to Dr. Jordan Metlz, Epsom salt is more of a placebo than anything. Therefore, although Epsom salts may help relieve some muscle tightness, Epsom salts are less beneficial than once thought. [24]

Physical properties[edit]

Magnesium sulfate is highly soluble in water. The anhydrous form is strongly hygroscopic, and can be used as a desiccant. It is the primary substance that causes the absorption of sound in seawater[25] (acoustic energy is converted to thermal energy). Absorption is strongly dependent on frequency: lower frequencies are less absorbed by the salt, so that the sound travels much farther in the ocean. Boric acid also contributes to absorption, but the most abundant salt in seawater, sodium chloride, has negligible sound absorption.

Hydrates[edit]

Almost all known mineralogical forms of MgSO4 occur as hydrates. Epsomite is the natural analogue of "Epsom salt". Another heptahydrate, the copper-containing mineral alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4·7H2O,[26] was recently recognized. Both are, however, not the highest known hydrates of MgSO4, due to the recent terrestrial find of meridianiite, MgSO4·11H2O, which is thought to also occur on Mars. Hexahydrite is the next lower (6) hydrate. Three next lower hydrates — pentahydrite (5), starkeyite (4) and especially sanderite (2) — are more rarely found. Kieserite is a monohydrate and is common among evaporitic deposits. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was reported from some burning coal dumps, but was never treated as a mineral.

The pH of hydrates is average 6.0 (5.5 to 6.5). Magnesium hydrates have, like copper(II) sulfate, coordinated water.[27]

Manufacturing[edit]

The heptahydrate can be prepared by neutralizing sulfuric acid with magnesium carbonate or oxide, but it is usually obtained directly from natural sources.

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is prepared only by the dehydration of a hydrate.

Occurrence[edit]

Magnesium sulfates are common minerals in geological environments. Their occurrence is mostly connected with supergene processes. Some of them are also important constituents of evaporitic potassium-magnesium (K-Mg) salts deposits.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Industrial Inorganic Chemistry, Karl Heinz Büchel, Hans-Heinrich Moretto, Dietmar Werner, John Wiley & Sons, 2d edition, 2000, ISBN 978-3-527-61333-5
  2. ^ a b "Quick Cures/Quack Cures: Is Epsom Worth Its Salt?". Wall Street Journal. April 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines". World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Pharmaceutical Information – Magnesium Sulfate". RxMed. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  5. ^ "When clicking citation, it is listed under ''Other medicinal and home uses''". Disabled-world.com. 2007-01-04. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  6. ^ a b Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH. Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest 2005;128:337-44. doi:10.1378/chest.128.1.337 PMID 16002955.
  7. ^ Duley, L; Gülmezoglu, AM; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Chou, D (Nov 10, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD000025. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000025.pub2. PMID 21069663. 
  8. ^ Duley, L; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Walker, GJ; Chou, D (Dec 8, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (12): CD000127. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000127.pub2. PMID 21154341. 
  9. ^ Duley, L; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Chou, D (Oct 6, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (10): CD000128. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000128.pub2. PMID 20927719. 
  10. ^ Doyle, LW; Crowther, CA; Middleton, P; Marret, S (Jun 2009). "Antenatal magnesium sulfate and neurologic outcome in preterm infants: a systematic review.". Obstetrics and gynecology 113 (6): 1327–33. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181a60495. PMID 19461430. 
  11. ^ Corkeron M (2003). "Magnesium infusion to treat Irukandji syndrome". Med J Aust 178 (8): 411. PMID 12697017. 
  12. ^ "BARIUM CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE 4. First Aid Measures". Jtbaker.com. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  13. ^ Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. (9th ed., p. 791). Boston: Benjamin Cummings
  14. ^ US The present invention relates to a novel process for producing packed tofu, particularly a process for producing long-life packed tofu from sterilized soybean milk. 6042851, Matsuura, Masaru; Masaoki Sasaki & Jun Sasakib et al., "Process for producing packed tofu", published 28 Mar 2000 
  15. ^ "Do-It-Yourself Magnesium Supplements for the Reef Aquarium". Reefkeeping. 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  16. ^ "Magnesium sulfate for preterm labor". Webmd.com. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  17. ^ Lewis DF (September 2005). "Magnesium sulfate: the first-line tocolytic". Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 32 (3): 485–500. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2005.03.002. PMID 16125045. 
  18. ^ Simhan HN, Caritis SN (2007). "Prevention of Preterm Delivery". New England Journal of Medicine 357 (5): 477–487. doi:10.1056/NEJMra050435. PMID 17671256. 
  19. ^ Nanda, K; Grimes, DA (2006). "Magnesium sulfate tocolysis: Time to quit". Obstetrics and Gynecology 108 (4): 986–989. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000236445.18265.93. PMID 17012463. 
  20. ^ "Magnesium Sulfate: Drug Safety Communication – Recommendation Against Prolonged Use in Pre-term Labor". FDA. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  21. ^ Doyle, LW; Crowther, CA; Middleton, P; Marret, S; Rouse, D (Jan 21, 2009). "Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD004661. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004661.pub3. PMID 19160238. 
  22. ^ Wolf, HT; Hegaard, HK; Greisen, G; Huusom, L; Hedegaard, M (Feb 2012). "Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.". Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 32 (2): 135–40. doi:10.3109/01443615.2011.638999. PMID 22296422. 
  23. ^ Nguyen, TM; Crowther, CA; Wilkinson, D; Bain, E (Feb 28, 2013). "Magnesium sulphate for women at term for neuroprotection of the fetus.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2: CD009395. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009395.pub2. PMID 23450601. 
  24. ^ Shea, Molly (March 10, 2015). "Can Soaking In Epsom Salt Help You De-stress—And Detox?". Yahoo. Retrieved March 12, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Underlying physics and mechanisms for the absorption of sound in seawater". Resource.npl.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  26. ^ Peterson, Ronald C.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Seal, II, Robert R (Feb 2006). "Alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4·7H2O, a new mineral of the melanterite group, and cuprian pentahydrite: Their occurrence within mine waste". American Mineralogist 91 (2–3): 261–269. doi:10.2138/am.2006.1911. 
  27. ^ Lucia Odochian "Study of the nature of the crystallization water in some magnesium hydrates by thermal methods," J. of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Volume 45, Number 6, December, 1995. doi:10.1007/BF02547437

External links[edit]


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