Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Mahadev Songs Collection - Shiv Bhajans, Shiv Mantra, Shiva Songs, भजन हिंदी Hindi Bhajan
Mahadev Songs Collection - Shiv Bhajans, Shiv Mantra, Shiva Songs, भजन हिंदी Hindi Bhajan
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Spiritual India
MahaShivRatri 2018 Live - Isha Yoga Center
MahaShivRatri 2018 Live - Isha Yoga Center
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: Sadhguru
Maha Shivaratri Full Movie || DVD Rip
Maha Shivaratri Full Movie || DVD Rip
Published: 2014/02/07
Channel: Telugu Movies
Sadhguru - Why Shiva gave only 112 Methods to attain Enlightenment? | Mahashivaratri Special 2018
Sadhguru - Why Shiva gave only 112 Methods to attain Enlightenment? | Mahashivaratri Special 2018
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Mystics of India
Chaganti Pravachanam Maha Shivaratri Special || Sri Chaganti Koteswara Rao Speeches Latest
Chaganti Pravachanam Maha Shivaratri Special || Sri Chaganti Koteswara Rao Speeches Latest
Published: 2018/02/11
Channel: Sri Chaganti
Maha Shivaratri special song by Madhu Priya - TV1
Maha Shivaratri special song by Madhu Priya - TV1
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: TV1
Maha Shivratri 2018: शिवरात्रि के दिन न करें ये 7 काम, वरना भोले बाबा हो जाएंगे नाराज
Maha Shivratri 2018: शिवरात्रि के दिन न करें ये 7 काम, वरना भोले बाबा हो जाएंगे नाराज
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: News Air Service
MahaShivRatri 2018 - Isha Yoga Center - Chinese Translation
MahaShivRatri 2018 - Isha Yoga Center - Chinese Translation
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: Isha Foundation
శివరాత్రి రోజు ఉపవాసం ఎలా చేయాలి Chaganti Koteswara Rao || Maha Shivaratri Fasting imporatance
శివరాత్రి రోజు ఉపవాసం ఎలా చేయాలి Chaganti Koteswara Rao || Maha Shivaratri Fasting imporatance
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Sri Chaganti
மகாசிவராத்திரி அன்று தப்பி தவறியும் இந்த தவறை பண்ணாதீங்க ! Maha Shivaratri | Astrology in Tamil
மகாசிவராத்திரி அன்று தப்பி தவறியும் இந்த தவறை பண்ணாதீங்க ! Maha Shivaratri | Astrology in Tamil
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Top News - Tamil
Sadhus of Pashupatinath | Maha Shivaratri in Kathmandu, Nepal | Shivaratri in Pashupatinath Temple
Sadhus of Pashupatinath | Maha Shivaratri in Kathmandu, Nepal | Shivaratri in Pashupatinath Temple
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Deo Creations
Maha Shivaratri Mahatyam Chaganti Koteswara Rao || మహా శివరాత్రి మహత్యం by శ్రీ చాగంటి గారు 2018
Maha Shivaratri Mahatyam Chaganti Koteswara Rao || మహా శివరాత్రి మహత్యం by శ్రీ చాగంటి గారు 2018
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Sri Chaganti
Mahashivaratri 2018 Live - Sounds of Isha
Mahashivaratri 2018 Live - Sounds of Isha
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Sounds of Isha
Maha Shivaratri 2018 Special Song | Harom Hara Song | song on Lord Shiva | Karthik Kodakandla
Maha Shivaratri 2018 Special Song | Harom Hara Song | song on Lord Shiva | Karthik Kodakandla
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: KK Studios
mahashivratri date 2018 - maha shivaratri 2018 date
mahashivratri date 2018 - maha shivaratri 2018 date
Published: 2018/01/07
Channel: Chaudhary Anil jaat
சிவராத்திரி விரத முறை | Maha Shivratri 2018 in Tamil | சிவராத்திரி விரதம் இருப்பது எப்படி
சிவராத்திரி விரத முறை | Maha Shivratri 2018 in Tamil | சிவராத்திரி விரதம் இருப்பது எப்படி
Published: 2018/02/11
Channel: SIMMAA
Mahashivaratri 2018 Live - Sounds of Isha
Mahashivaratri 2018 Live - Sounds of Isha
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Sounds of Isha
महाशिवरात्रि किस दिन 13 या 14 फरवरी 2018 ,Maha Shivratri Date 2018
महाशिवरात्रि किस दिन 13 या 14 फरवरी 2018 ,Maha Shivratri Date 2018
Published: 2018/02/08
Channel: JDJ Astrology (Jeevan Darpan Jyotish)
Maha shivaratri 2018 || Shivaratri Pooja vidhanam in Telugu || Shivaratri Special || Shivaratri
Maha shivaratri 2018 || Shivaratri Pooja vidhanam in Telugu || Shivaratri Special || Shivaratri
Published: 2018/02/03
Channel: Mana Telugu Channel
Celebrate Mahashivratri - A Night Like No Other | Mahashivratri 2018
Celebrate Mahashivratri - A Night Like No Other | Mahashivratri 2018
Published: 2018/01/17
Channel: Isha Foundation
महाशिवरात्रि 2018 Special,Top Shivratri Bhajans!!Anuradha Paudwal,Hariharan,Sonu Nigam,Suresh Wadkar
महाशिवरात्रि 2018 Special,Top Shivratri Bhajans!!Anuradha Paudwal,Hariharan,Sonu Nigam,Suresh Wadkar
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: T-Series Bhakti Sagar
daler mehndi soung @ Maha Shivratri Celebrations 2018 |Isha Yoga Center LIVE
daler mehndi soung @ Maha Shivratri Celebrations 2018 |Isha Yoga Center LIVE
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Bhakthi
Maha Shivaratri Special Songs 2018 | Hindu Devotional Songs Kannada | Shiva Devotional Songs Kannada
Maha Shivaratri Special Songs 2018 | Hindu Devotional Songs Kannada | Shiva Devotional Songs Kannada
Published: 2018/02/10
Channel: mcvideoskannada
Maha Shivaratri Celebration 2018 | Anandmurti Gurumaa
Maha Shivaratri Celebration 2018 | Anandmurti Gurumaa
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: Gurumaa Ashram
Importance Of Maha Shivratri -- The Night Of Shiva
Importance Of Maha Shivratri -- The Night Of Shiva
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: pitarau
13 -14 फरवरी महा शिवरात्रि अपने नहाने के पानी मे ये डाल दे इतना आएगा पैसा सम्हाल नहीं पाओगे
13 -14 फरवरी महा शिवरात्रि अपने नहाने के पानी मे ये डाल दे इतना आएगा पैसा सम्हाल नहीं पाओगे
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Bhagawan
Sadhguru 2018: Full discourse at Isha MahaShivaRatri night long festival
Sadhguru 2018: Full discourse at Isha MahaShivaRatri night long festival
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: Mahabharat
Maha Shivaratri Celebrations at Prasanthi Nilayam (Morning Program) - 13 Feb 2018
Maha Shivaratri Celebrations at Prasanthi Nilayam (Morning Program) - 13 Feb 2018
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Radio Sai Global Harmony
13 फरवरी 2018 महाशिवरात्रि पर इन 5 राशि वालों की लगेगी लॉटरी || Maha Shivratri 2018
13 फरवरी 2018 महाशिवरात्रि पर इन 5 राशि वालों की लगेगी लॉटरी || Maha Shivratri 2018
Published: 2018/02/02
Channel: Brijnaari Sumi
MahaShivRatri 2018 Live - Part 2 (Music & Culturals)
MahaShivRatri 2018 Live - Part 2 (Music & Culturals)
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Sadhguru
Maha shivratri (shivaratri)  2018 | History and types of shivaratri
Maha shivratri (shivaratri) 2018 | History and types of shivaratri
Published: 2018/02/02
Channel: Namma Bhoomi Namma Samy
Maha Shivaratri | Most Powerful Mantra | ** WARNING**
Maha Shivaratri | Most Powerful Mantra | ** WARNING**
Published: 2017/02/19
Channel: Music Temple
Maha Shivaratri charithra by Sri Chaganti | మహా శివరాత్రి చరిత్ర
Maha Shivaratri charithra by Sri Chaganti | మహా శివరాత్రి చరిత్ర
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Sri Vishwamitra
maha Shivratri Full Story || शिवरात्रि की असली कथा || Fire Pillor Shiva Story
maha Shivratri Full Story || शिवरात्रि की असली कथा || Fire Pillor Shiva Story
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: Chitra Katha
Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra by Anup Jalota | महामृत्युंजय मंत्र | Maha Shivaratri Special
Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra by Anup Jalota | महामृत्युंजय मंत्र | Maha Shivaratri Special
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: bhaktisongs
Maha Shivratri 2018 | Short Film | Brahma Kumaris
Maha Shivratri 2018 | Short Film | Brahma Kumaris
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Godlywood Studio
ಶಿವರಾತ್ರಿಯಂದು ಈ 2 ರಾಶಿಯವರಿಗೆ ಧನ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಿ.! | Significance Of Maha Shivaratri 2018
ಶಿವರಾತ್ರಿಯಂದು ಈ 2 ರಾಶಿಯವರಿಗೆ ಧನ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಿ.! | Significance Of Maha Shivaratri 2018
Published: 2018/02/07
Channel: Arivu Kannada
शिवरात्रि कब है | सही मुहूर्त | Maha Shivratri Kab Hai | Mahashivratri 13 फरवरी या 14 सही तिथि
शिवरात्रि कब है | सही मुहूर्त | Maha Shivratri Kab Hai | Mahashivratri 13 फरवरी या 14 सही तिथि
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Vinod Pandey
#2 Maha Shivaratri Pooja Vidhanam Sri Chaganti Koteswara Rao Garu Pravachanam  మహా శివరాత్రి చరిత్ర
#2 Maha Shivaratri Pooja Vidhanam Sri Chaganti Koteswara Rao Garu Pravachanam మహా శివరాత్రి చరిత్ర
Published: 2018/02/10
Channel: Sri Chaganti
Mahashivaratri Chants : Jukebox
Mahashivaratri Chants : Jukebox
Published: 2018/02/06
Channel: Strumm Spiritual
2018 Maha Shivaratri Date Time for India, Shiv Ratri Puja Schedule Update Puja News 2018
2018 Maha Shivaratri Date Time for India, Shiv Ratri Puja Schedule Update Puja News 2018
Published: 2017/10/28
Channel: Hare Krishna
[HINDI] Maha Shivaratri Sandesh | महाशिवरात्रि संदेश (Promo)
[HINDI] Maha Shivaratri Sandesh | महाशिवरात्रि संदेश (Promo)
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Tejgyan
Non Stop Mahashivaratri Sahajayoga bhajans
Non Stop Mahashivaratri Sahajayoga bhajans
Published: 2018/02/07
Channel: Sy Prathmesh Tapdiya
Maha Shivaratri Pooja Vidhanam In Telugu | Shivaratri Pooja Vidhanam | Shivratri 2018 |  Anandasiddi
Maha Shivaratri Pooja Vidhanam In Telugu | Shivaratri Pooja Vidhanam | Shivratri 2018 | Anandasiddi
Published: 2018/02/05
Channel: ANANDASIDDI
Maha Shivratri Fasting Rules And What to Eat for Shivratri | Maha Shivaratri 2018 | YOYO TV Health
Maha Shivratri Fasting Rules And What to Eat for Shivratri | Maha Shivaratri 2018 | YOYO TV Health
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: YOYO TV Health
Maha Shivratri 2018 Date Shiv Pooja Vidhi महाशिवरात्रि 2018 शुभ मुहूर्त
Maha Shivratri 2018 Date Shiv Pooja Vidhi महाशिवरात्रि 2018 शुभ मुहूर्त
Published: 2018/02/03
Channel: Upchar Nuskhe
The Fasting Rules of Maha Shivaratri | rituals | vrat niyam
The Fasting Rules of Maha Shivaratri | rituals | vrat niyam
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Speaking Tree
#SHIVA STHUTHI | MAHA SHIVARATRI SPECIAL SONGS AND STOTRAS
#SHIVA STHUTHI | MAHA SHIVARATRI SPECIAL SONGS AND STOTRAS
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: BHAKTHI
శివరాత్రి 13వ తేదినా? 14వ తేదినా? | Confusion over Shivaratri dates | 2018 Maha Shivaratri Date
శివరాత్రి 13వ తేదినా? 14వ తేదినా? | Confusion over Shivaratri dates | 2018 Maha Shivaratri Date
Published: 2018/02/11
Channel: NATURE CURE
Top 5 Maha Shivratri  Bhajan || 2017 Video Juke Box || Hits Of Lakkha || Ram Kumar# Ambey Bhakti
Top 5 Maha Shivratri Bhajan || 2017 Video Juke Box || Hits Of Lakkha || Ram Kumar# Ambey Bhakti
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Ambey Bhakti
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Maha Shivaratri
02 Mahashivratree festival.JPG
Meditating Shiva on Maha-Shivratri
Also called

ਮਹਾਂ ਸ਼ਿਵਰਾਤਰੀ (Punjabi)
ମହା ଶିବରାତ୍ରି (Odia)
মহা শিবরাত্রি (Bengali)
महा शिवरात्रि (Sanskrit)
மகா சிவராத்திரி (Tamil)
മഹാ ശിവരാത്രി (Malayalam)

ಮಹಾಶಿವರಾತ್ರಿ (Kannada)
మహా శివరాత్రి (Telugu)
મહા શિવરાત્રી (Gujarati)
Observed by Hindus in Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana
Type Religious
Significance self study, Marriage of Shiva and Parvati, yoga[1]
Observances Fasting, yoga, all night vigil, worship of Lingam[1]
Date February 24
2017 date 24 February (Friday) [2]
2018 date 13 February (Tuesday)[3]
Frequency Annual

Maha Shivaratri is a Hindu festival celebrated annually in honour of the god Shiva. There is a Shivaratri in every luni-solar month of the Hindu calendar, on the month's 13th night/14th day, but once a year in late winter (February/March, or Phalguna) and before the arrival of Summer, marks Maha Shivaratri which means "the Great Night of Shiva".[4][5]

It is a major festival in Hinduism, this festival is solemn and marks a remembrance of "overcoming darkness and ignorance" in life and the world. It is observed by remembering Shiva and chanting prayers, fasting, doing Yoga, and meditating on ethics and virtues such as self-restraint, honesty, noninjury to others, forgiveness, and the discovery of Shiva.[5] The ardent devotees keep awake all night. Others visit one of the Shiva temples or go on pilgrimage to Jyotirlingams. This is an ancient Hindu festival whose origin date is unknown.[5]

In Kashmir Shaivism, the festival is called Har-ratri or phonetically simpler Haerath or Herath by Shiva faithfuls of the Kashmir region.[6][7]

Description[edit]

A festival of contemplation

During the Vigil Night of Shiva, Mahashivaratri,
we are brought to the moment of interval
between destruction and regeneration;
it symbolizes the night
when we must contemplate on that which
watches the growth out of the decay.
During Mahashivaratri we have to be alone
with our sword, the Shiva in us.
We have to look behind and before,
to see what evil needs eradicating from our heart,
what growth of virtue we need to encourage.
Shiva is not only outside of us but within us.
To unite ourselves with the One Self
is to recognize the Shiva in us.

The Theosophical Movement, Volume 72[8]

Maha Shivaratri is an annual festival dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, and is particularly important in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism. Unlike most Hindu festivals which are celebrated during the day, the Maha Shivaratri is celebrated at night. Furthermore, unlike most Hindu festivals which include expression of cultural revelry, the Maha Shivaratri is a solemn event notable for its introspective focus, fasting, meditation on Shiva, self study, social harmony and an all night vigil at Shiva temples.[5]

The celebration includes maintaining a "jaagaran", an all-night vigil and prayers, because Shaiva Hindus mark this night as "overcoming darkness and ignorance" in one's life and the world through Shiva. Offerings of fruits, leaves, sweets and milk to Shiva are made, some perform all-day fasting with vedic or tantric worship of Shiva, and some perform meditative Yoga.[9] In Shiva temples, "Om Namah Shivaya", the sacred mantra of Shiva, is chanted through the day.

Maha Shivaratri is celebrated over three or ten days based on the Hindu luni-solar calendar.[4] Every lunar month, there is a Shivaratri (12 per year). The main festival is called Maha Shivaratri, or great Shivaratri, and this is on 13th night (waning moon) and 14th day of the month Phalguna (Magha). According to the Gregorian calendar, the day falls in either February or March.[4]

History and significance[edit]

Many legends explain the significance of Maha Shivaratri, one being it is the night of Shiva's dance.

According to a few God realized Yogis, Maha Shivaratri was the day when Shiva drank poisonous negativity to protect the world. The Maha Shivaratri is mentioned in several Puranas, particularly the Skanda Purana, Linga Purana and Padma Purana. These medieval era Shaiva texts present different mythologies associated with this festival, but all mention fasting and reverence for icons of Shiva such as the Lingam.[5]

Different legends describe the significance of Maha Shivaratri. According to one legend in the Shaivism tradition, this is the night when Shiva performs the heavenly dance of creation, preservation and destruction.[10][11] The chanting of hymns, the reading of Shiva scriptures and the chorus of devotees joins this cosmic dance and remembers Shiva's presence everywhere. According to another legend, this is the night when Shiva and Parvati got married.[10][12] A different legend states that the offering to Shiva icons such as the linga is an annual occasion to get over past sins if any, to restart on a virtuous path and thereby reach Mount Kailasha and liberation.[10]

The significance of dance tradition to this festival has historical roots. The Maha Shivaratri has served as a historic confluence of artists for annual dance festivals at major Hindu temples such as at Konark, Khajuraho, Pattadakal, Modhera and Chidambaram.[13] This event is called Natyanjali, literally "worship through dance", at the Chidambaram temple which is famous for its sculpture depicting all dance mudras in the ancient Hindu text of performance arts called Natya Shastra.[14][15] Similarly, at Khajuraho Shiva temples, a major fair and dance festival on Maha Shivaratri, involving Shaiva pilgrims camped over miles around the temple complex, was documented by Alexander Cunningham in 1864.[16]

In India[edit]

Mahasivaratri is observed at night, usually in lighted temples or specially prepared prabha (above).

The major Jyotirlinga Shiva temples of India, such as in Varanasi and Somnatha, are particularly frequented on Maha Shivaratri. They serve also as sites for fairs and special events.[17]


The Mandi fair is in the town of Mandi is particularly famous as a venue for Maha Shivaratri celebrations. It transforms the town as devotees pour in. It is believed that all gods and goddesses of the area, said to number more than 200, assemble here on the day of Maha Shivaratri. Mandi, located on the banks of Beas, is popularly known as the "Cathedral of Temples" and one of the oldest towns of Himachal Pradesh, with about 81 temples of different Gods and Goddesses on its periphery.[18][19][20]

Maha Shivaratri is the most important festival in Kashmir Shaivism, found in north Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent. It is celebrated as the anniversary of the marriage of Shiva and Parvati.[6][7]

Central India has a large number of Shiva followers. The Mahakaleshwar Temple, Ujjain is one of the most venerated shrines consecrated to Shiva where a large congregation of devotees gathers to offer prayers on the day of Maha Shivaratri. Tilwara Ghat in the city of Jabalpur and the Math Temple in the village of Jeonara, Seoni are two other places where the festival is celebrated with much religious fervour.[citation needed]

In Punjab, Shobha Yatras would be organised by various Hindu organisations in different cities. It is a grand festival for Punjabi Hindus.

In Gujarat mahashivratri mela is held at Junagadh where bathing in the Damodar Kunda is considered holy.According to myth Lord Shiva himself comes to bath in the Damodar kunda.

Maha Shivaratri is celebrated widely in the temples all over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana.[citation needed]

In Nepal[edit]

Maha Shivaratri is a National Holiday in Nepal and celebrated widely in temples all over the country, but especially in the Pashupatinath temple. Thousands of devotees visit the famous Shiva Shakti Peetham nearby as well.Holy rituals are performed all over the nation. Artists from various classical music and dance forms perform through the night. On Maha Shivaratri, married women pray for the well being of their husbands, while unmarried women pray for a husband like Shiva, considered as the ideal husband. Shiva is also worshipped as the Adi Guru (first teacher) from whom the yogic tradition originates.[21]

Outside South Asia[edit]

Maha Shivaratri is the main Hindu festival among the Shaiva Hindu diaspora from Nepal and India. In Indo-Caribbean communities, thousands of Hindus spend the auspicious night in over four hundred temples across the country, offering special jhalls (an offering of milk and curd, flowers, sugarcane and sweets) to Lord Shiva.[22] In Mauritius, Hindus go on pilgrimage to Ganga Talao, a crater-lake.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Melton, J. Gordon (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. pp. 541–542. ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7. 
  2. ^ Govt of Odisha India, 2017 Holidays, "Maha Shivarathri 2017". 
  3. ^ February 2018 Marathi Calendar Panchang
  4. ^ a b c Dalal, Roshen (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. pp. 137, 186. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5. 
  6. ^ a b Brunn, Stanley D. (2015). The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices and Politics. Springer. pp. 402–403. ISBN 978-94-017-9376-6. 
  7. ^ a b Maitra, Asim (1986). Religious Life of the Brahman: A Case Study of Maithil Brahmans. Munshilal. p. 125. ISBN 978-81-210-0171-7. 
  8. ^ "Shiva". The Theosophical Movement (reprint). TEOS, Theosophy Company, Mumbai. 72 (4): 137. 2002 [February 1962]. 
  9. ^ Mahashivaratri Archived 27 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Government of Orissa; Maha Shivaratri, Public Holidays
  10. ^ a b c Dhoraisingam, Samuel S. (2006). Peranakan Indians of Singapore and Melaka. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 35. ISBN 978-981-230-346-2. 
  11. ^ Om Prakash Juneja; Chandra Mohan (1990). Ambivalence: Studies in Canadian Literature. Allied. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-81-7023-109-7. 
  12. ^ Leuthold, Steven (2010). Cross-Cultural Issues in Art: Frames for Understanding. Routledge. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-1-136-85455-2. 
  13. ^ Pintchman, Tracy (2007). Women's Lives, Women's Rituals in the Hindu Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0-19-803934-1. 
  14. ^ Pintchman, Tracy (2007). Women's Lives, Women's Rituals in the Hindu Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-19-803934-1. 
  15. ^ Pugh McCutchen, Brenda (2006). Teaching Dance as Art in Education. Human Kinetics. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-7360-5188-0. 
  16. ^ Shobita Punja (1999). Khajuraho: the first thousand years. Penguin Books. pp. 71–74. 
  17. ^ Eck, Diana L. (1982). Banras, City of Light. Knopf. pp. 113, 256, 276. 
  18. ^ "International Shivaratri fair in Mandi". Himachal tourism. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  19. ^ "The International Festival". Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  20. ^ "Mandi -The Seventh Heaven". Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  21. ^ "Mahashivaratri – The Night of Lord Shiva". Explore Himalaya. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  22. ^ "Trinidad Hindus observe Shivratri amid Carnival Celebration". Repeating Islands. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license