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The People Of Malta
The People Of Malta
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: The People of Malta
Shit Malta People Say (tal-pepé)
Shit Malta People Say (tal-pepé)
Published: 2012/11/14
Channel: Jon Aedyn King
Trying English Food For The First Time - Maltese People React
Trying English Food For The First Time - Maltese People React
Published: 2015/08/09
Channel: Rob Chapman
More Shit Malta People Say  (in-
More Shit Malta People Say (in-'nouveaus')
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: Jon Aedyn King
Maltese People In Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People In Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
People of Malta
People of Malta
Published: 2012/02/07
Channel: sudika
Maltese people
Maltese people
Published: 2015/02/19
Channel: Robert90norway
Faces of white Maltese people
Faces of white Maltese people
Published: 2011/10/30
Channel: El Jamaiquino
FAQs Maltese People Living Abroad Always Get
FAQs Maltese People Living Abroad Always Get
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: expressingwordz
Why the Maltese people should oppose multiculturalism
Why the Maltese people should oppose multiculturalism
Published: 2012/04/19
Channel: VoiceOfTheNewRight
Valletta ( Malta ) streets and people
Valletta ( Malta ) streets and people
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: Mircea Costiniuc
STUDENTS TRY MALTESE FOOD - Making Malta Great
STUDENTS TRY MALTESE FOOD - Making Malta Great
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: 89.7 Bay
Orange juice tal-PEACH!
Orange juice tal-PEACH!
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: Jon Aedyn King
IN MALTA they speak arabic !!  فمالتا كيدويوك بالعربية
IN MALTA they speak arabic !! فمالتا كيدويوك بالعربية
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: Jalal Ben Yassine
Ellen
Ellen's Hot Guys: Chris Hemsworth Speaks Some Strange Languages
Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: TheEllenShow
MALTA FOR YOUNG PEOPLE!
MALTA FOR YOUNG PEOPLE!
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Hassan Hosseini
Funny maltese people
Funny maltese people
Published: 2013/08/21
Channel: Nancey Jones
Maltese people
Maltese people
Published: 2011/11/14
Channel: thatsitize
The Maltese Language: An Arabic Descendant
The Maltese Language: An Arabic Descendant
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: Langfocus
A better way to do a Maltese accent than Howcast
A better way to do a Maltese accent than Howcast's!
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: mosesandthe7dwarves
Are Maltese people Yesmen? TX Current Affairs - Prog 2 Part1
Are Maltese people Yesmen? TX Current Affairs - Prog 2 Part1
Published: 2011/10/12
Channel: TX Current Affairs
Shit Malta People Say (The
Shit Malta People Say (The 'TTYL' crowd)
Published: 2013/08/21
Channel: Jon Aedyn King
Maltese People In Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People In Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People in Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People in Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Published: 2016/05/01
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People In Malta By Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People In Malta By Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Fr. Philip Mulryne
Fr. Philip Mulryne's Message to the Maltese People
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: True Light Catholic Media
Maltese Words - Language
Maltese Words - Language
Published: 2012/04/06
Channel: Davidsbeenhere
Maltese People in Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People in Malta by Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese people jumping diving in the sea
Maltese people jumping diving in the sea
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
What makes Maltese people lovely?
What makes Maltese people lovely?
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: eve.com.mt
Maltese People In Malta By Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Maltese People In Malta By Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
The Problem Of Malta (1955)
The Problem Of Malta (1955)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
"Mara Ragel!" Maltese Chavs. Nisa Maltin
"Mara Ragel!" Maltese Chavs. Nisa Maltin
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: Ken Bondin
Maltese people in Malta by lillian chetcuti riolo
Maltese people in Malta by lillian chetcuti riolo
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Lillian Chetcuti Riolo
Swearing in Maltese
Swearing in Maltese
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: Uncle Davey
Great party,for maltese people.
Great party,for maltese people.
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: Peters Peter
Owen Gusman for Malta & The Maltese People
Owen Gusman for Malta & The Maltese People
Published: 2008/11/06
Channel: Owen Gusman
Funny maltese people @ airport
Funny maltese people @ airport
Published: 2014/06/24
Channel: Kurt Cristina
crazy maltese people
crazy maltese people
Published: 2011/11/27
Channel: ddd84205
Maltese People on TV -Craig Ferguson
Maltese People on TV -Craig Ferguson
Published: 2014/03/14
Channel: HiippChick
A message from Fatboy Slim to the Maltese people.
A message from Fatboy Slim to the Maltese people.
Published: 2011/03/11
Channel: knockouteventstv
Plane with 118 people hijacked in Libya, force lands in Malta
Plane with 118 people hijacked in Libya, force lands in Malta
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: NYOOOZ TV
180 GOOD NEWS FOR MALTA PEOPLE PROPHET EYU CHUFA የድንቅ የተአምራት ነጻ የመውጣት የፈውስ የትንቢት ኮንፍራንስ በማልታ.
180 GOOD NEWS FOR MALTA PEOPLE PROPHET EYU CHUFA የድንቅ የተአምራት ነጻ የመውጣት የፈውስ የትንቢት ኮንፍራንስ በማልታ.
Published: 2017/08/26
Channel: Prophet Eyu Chufa
The Maltese Falcon - people loose teeth talking like that extract
The Maltese Falcon - people loose teeth talking like that extract
Published: 2010/02/09
Channel: 地獄へ落ちろ !
The Italian Man Who Went To Malta [FULL VERSION]
The Italian Man Who Went To Malta [FULL VERSION]
Published: 2009/04/17
Channel: HaXz4you
Maltese people in Thailand - 2013
Maltese people in Thailand - 2013
Published: 2013/03/26
Channel: Maltese Maniacs
malta people when they go out ...
malta people when they go out ...
Published: 2010/03/23
Channel: alexiadavid
SKY PEOPLE MALTA
SKY PEOPLE MALTA
Published: 2012/11/10
Channel: Wallaby 46
Thrift shop - Macklemore funny short video ( for maltese people)
Thrift shop - Macklemore funny short video ( for maltese people)
Published: 2015/09/09
Channel: Eric Bezzina
Vince Fabri  - GHALIEX  - A Maltese song in solidarity with the Libyan people..wmv
Vince Fabri - GHALIEX - A Maltese song in solidarity with the Libyan people..wmv
Published: 2011/08/24
Channel: censinu
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Maltese people
Maltin
Total population
c. 690,000[a]
Regions with significant populations
 Malta 395,969
(Maltese descent only)[1]
 Australia 163,990[2]
 United States 43,831 (2012)[3]
 United Kingdom 40,230[4]
(Maltese-born)
 Canada 38,780[5]
Languages
Religion
Roman Catholicism[6]
Related ethnic groups
Italians, Spaniards, Britons[7]

a. ^ The total figure is merely an estimation; sum of all the referenced populations.

The Maltese (Maltese: Maltin) are an ethnic group indigenous to Malta, and identified with the Maltese language. Malta is an island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Included within the ethnic group defined by the Maltese people are the Gozitans (Maltese: Għawdxin) who inhabit Malta's sister island, Gozo.

History[edit]

The current Maltese people, characterised by the use of the Maltese language and by Roman Catholicism, is the descendant - through much mixing and hybridation - of the Siculo-Arabic colonists who repopulated the Maltese islands in the beginning of the second millennium after a two-century lapse of depopulation that followed the Arab conquest by the Aghlabids in AD 870.[8][9] A genetic study by Capelli et al. indicates that Malta was barely inhabited at the turn of the tenth century and was likely to have been repopulated by settlers from Sicily and Calabria who spoke Siculo-Arabic.[10][9] Previous inhabitants of the islands - Phoenicians, Romans, Byzantines - did not leave many traces, as most nameplaces were lost and replaced. The Normans conquered the island in 1091 and completely re-Christianised them by 1249.[11]

The influences on the population after this have been fiercely debated among historians and geneticists. The origins question is complicated by numerous factors, including Malta's turbulent history of invasions and conquests, with long periods of depopulation followed by periods of immigration to Malta and intermarriage with the Maltese by foreigners from the Mediterranean, Western and Southern European countries that ruled Malta. The many demographic influences on the island include:

  • The exile to Malta of the entire male population of the town of Celano (Italy) in 1223
  • The stationing of Swabian and Sicilian Italian troops on Malta in 1240
  • The removal of all remaining Arabs from Malta in 1224[12]
  • The arrival of several thousands Aragonese (i.e. Catalans, Valencians, Majorcans and proper Aragonese, from current Spain) soldiers in 1283 to 1425.
  • Further waves of European repopulation throughout the 13th century[13]
  • The settlement in Malta of noble families from Sicily (Italy) and the Crown of Aragon (now mostly part of Spain) between 1372 and 1450
  • The arrival of several thousand Greek Rhodian sailors, soldiers and slaves with the Knights of St. John
  • The introduction of several thousand Sicilian laborers in 1551 and again in 1566
  • The emigration of some 891 Italian exiles to Malta during the Risorgimento in 1849
  • The posting of some 22,000 British servicemen in Malta from 1807 to 1979,[14] as well as other British and Irish that settled in Malta over the decades
  • The mass emigration occurring after World War II and well into the 1960s and 70s. Many Maltese left the island for the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the USA. Following Malta's accession to the EU in 2004 expatriate communities grew in European countries such as the one in Belgium.

Over time, the various rulers of Malta published their own view of the ethnicity of the population.[15] The Knights of Malta downplayed the role of Islam in Malta and promoted the idea of a continuous Roman Catholic presence,[16] and the British colonial rule disregarded a genetic and cultural connection between the Maltese and Italians in an attempt to counteract growing Fascist power in the area.[17]

Genetics[edit]

Genetic distributions in Europe. The Maltese people have a similar Y-DNA haplogroups distrution as Southern Italians

Y-DNA haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Malta: R1 (35.55% including 32.2% R1b), J (28.90% including 21.10% J2 and 7.8% J1), I (12.20%), E (11.10% including 8.9% E1b1b), F (6.70%), K (4.40%), P (1.10%).[18] Haplogroup R1, I and J2 are typical in European populations and E, K, F haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. The study by Capelli et al. has concluded that the contemporary males of Malta most likely originated from Southern Italy.[19] The study also indicates that Malta was barely inhabited at the turn of the tenth century and was likely to have been repopulated by settlers from Sicily and Calabria who spoke Siculo-Arabic.[20][9]

The study clustered the male Maltese genetic markers with those of Sicilians and Calabrians, while showing a minuscule input from the Eastern Mediterranean with genetic affinity to Christian Lebanon.[21] There was also little genetic input found from North Africa.[22]

Another study carried out by geneticists Spencer Wells and Pierre Zalloua of the American University of Beirut claimed that more than 50% of Y-chromosomes from Maltese men could have Phoenician origins.[23] However, the Wells and Zalloua study was not published in a peer-reviewed academic journal and its conclusions disagree with the findings of major peer-reviewed studies. It is thus considered unsound.[24]

Culture[edit]

The culture of Malta is a reflection of various cultures that have come into contact with the Maltese Islands throughout the centuries, including neighbouring Mediterranean cultures, and the cultures of the nations that ruled Malta for long periods of time prior to its independence in 1964.

The culture of modern Malta has been described as a "rich pattern of traditions, beliefs and practices," which is the result of "a long process of adaptation, assimilation and cross fertilization of beliefs and usages drawn from various conflicting sources." It has been subjected to the same complex, historic processes that gave rise to the linguistic and ethnic admixture that defines who the people of Malta and Gozo are today.[25]

Language[edit]

Il-Kantilena by Pietru Caxaro, the oldest text in Maltese language, 15th century

Maltese people speak the Maltese language, a Semitic language written in the Latin alphabet in its standard form. The language is descended from Siculo-Arabic, an extinct dialect of Arabic that was spoken in Sicily.[26] In the course of Malta's history, the language has adopted large amounts of vocabulary from Sicilian, Italian, English, and to a smaller degree, French. The official languages of Malta are Maltese and English.

Maltese became an official language of Malta in 1934, replacing Italian and joining English. There are an estimated 371,900 speakers in Malta of the language, with statistics citing that 100% of the people are able to speak Maltese, 88% English, 66% Italian and 17% French, showing a greater degree of linguistic capabilities than most other European countries.[27] In fact multilingualism is a common phenomenon in Malta, with English, Maltese and on occasion Italian, used in everyday life. Whilst Maltese is the national language, it has been suggested that with the ascendancy of English a language shift may begin;[28] however, this has been discredited by contemporary studies.[29]

Religion[edit]

The Constitution of Malta provides for freedom of religion but establishes Roman Catholicism as the state religion.

Malta is described in the Book of Acts (Acts 27:39-42 and Acts 28:1-11) as the place where Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on his way to Rome, awaiting trial. Freedom House and the World Factbook report that 98% of the Maltese are Roman Catholic, making the nation one of the most Catholic countries in the world.[30]

Emigration[edit]

Child Migrants' Memorial at the Valletta Waterfront, commemorating the 310 Maltese child migrants who travelled to Australia between 1950 and 1965.

Malta has long been a country of emigration, with big Maltese communities in English-speaking countries abroad. Mass emigration picked up in the 19th century, reaching its peak in the decades after World War II. Migration was initially to north African countries (particularly Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt); later Maltese migrants headed towards the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Australia. There is little trace left of the Maltese communities in north Africa, most of them having been displaced, after the rise of independence movements, to places like Marseille, the United Kingdom or Australia. Although migration has ceased to be a social phenomenon of significance there are still important Maltese communities in Australia, Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. Emigration dropped dramatically after the mid-1970s and has since ceased to be a social phenomenon of significance. Since Malta joined the EU in 2004 expatriate communities emerged in a number of European countries particularly in Belgium and Luxembourg.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Census of population and housing 2011. pp. 37. National Statistics Office of Malta
  2. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Redirect to Census data page". Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  3. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Population data". OECD. Archived from the original (xls) on 2009-06-17. 
  5. ^ "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. 
  6. ^ "Malta". State.gov. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Claire, Walz, Leah (1 August 2008). Malta, Motherhood, and Infant Mortality: Integrating Biological and Sociocultural Insights (Thesis). University of Toronto. hdl:1807/11272Freely accessible. 
  8. ^ "Gozo". IslandofGozo.org. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c So who are the ‘real’ Maltese. There’s a gap between 800 and 1200 where there is no record of civilisation. It doesn’t mean the place was completely uninhabited. There may have been a few people living here and there, but not much……..The Arab influence on the Maltese language is not a result of Arab rule in Malta, Prof. Felice said. The influence is probably indirect, since the Arabs raided the island and left no-one behind, except for a few people. There are no records of civilisation of any kind at the time. The kind of Arabic used in the Maltese language is most likely derived from the language spoken by those that repopulated the island from Sicily in the early second millennium; it is known as Siculo-Arab. The Maltese are mostly descendants of these people. 
  10. ^ Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese People. Repopulation is likely to have occurred by a clan or clans (possibly of Arab or Arab-like speaking people) from neighbouring Sicily and Calabria. Possibly, they could have mixed with minute numbers of residual inhabitants, with a constant input of immigrants from neighbouring countries and later, even from afar. There seems to be little input from North Africa. 
  11. ^ The origin of the Maltese surnames. Ibn Khaldun puts the expulsion of Islam from the Maltese Islands to the year 1249. It is not clear what actually happened then, except that the Maltese language, derived from Arabic, certainly survived. Either the number of Christians was far larger than Giliberto had indicated, and they themselves already spoke Maltese, or a large proportion of the Muslims themselves accepted baptism and stayed behind. Henri Bresc has written that there are indications of further Muslim political activity on Malta during the last Suabian years. Anyhow there is no doubt that by the beginning of Angevin times no professed Muslim Maltese remained either as free persons or even as serfs on the island. 
  12. ^ Debattista, Martin; Timeline of Malta History; retrieved on [2008-05-14]
  13. ^ Constantiae Imperatricis et Reginae Siciliae Diplomata: 1195-1198, ed. T.K.Slzer (Vienna, 1983), 237-240.
  14. ^ Joseph M. Brincat, "Language and Demography in Malta: The Social Foundations of the Symbiosis between Semitic and Romance in Standard Maltese," in Malta: A Case Study in International Cross-Currents. Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the history of the Central Mediterranean held at the University of Malta, 13–17 December 1989. Ed: S. Fiorini and V. Mallia-Milanes (Malta University Publications, Malta Historical Society, and Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta) at 91-110. Last visited 5 August 2007.
  15. ^ Anthony Luttrell, "Medieval Malta: the Non-written and the Written Evidence", in Malta: A Case Study in International Cross-Currents. Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the history of the Central Mediterranean held at the University of Malta, 13–17 December 1989. Ed: S. Fiorini and V. Mallia-Milanes (Malta University Publications, Malta Historical Society, and Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta) at 33-45. Last visited 5 August 2007.
  16. ^ Anthony T. Luttrell, "Girolamo Manduca and Gian Francesco Abela: Tradition and invention in Maltese Historiography," in Melita Historica, 7 (1977) 2 (105-132). Last visited 5 August 2007.
  17. ^ See, e.g.: "Malta: Civil History," in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX. Published 1910. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, 1 October 1910. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. Last visited 6 August 2007.
  18. ^ (n=90), Population structure in the Mediterranean basin: a Y chromosome perspective, Capelli et al. 2005
  19. ^ A.E. Felice; "The Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese", The Sunday Times of Malta, 5 August 2007.
  20. ^ Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese People. Repopulation is likely to have occurred by a clan or clans (possibly of Arab or Arab-like speaking people) from neighbouring Sicily and Calabria. Possibly, they could have mixed with minute numbers of residual inhabitants, with a constant input of immigrants from neighbouring countries and later, even from afar. There seems to be little input from North Africa. 
  21. ^ Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese People. Together with colleagues from other institutions across the Mediterranean and in collaboration with the group led by David Goldstein at the University College, London, we have shown that the contemporary males of Malta most likely originated from Southern Italy, including Sicily and up to Calabria. There is a minuscule amount of input from the Eastern Mediterranean with genetic affinity to Christian Lebanon....We documented clustering of the Maltese markers with those of Sicilians and Calabrians. The study is published in the Annals of Human Genetics by C. Capelli, N. Redhead, N. Novelletto, L. Terrenato, P. Malaspina, Z. Poulli, G. Lefranc, A. Megarbane, V. Delague, V. Romano, F. Cali, V.F. Pascali, M. Fellous, A.E. Felice, and D.B. Goldstein; "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin; A Y Chromosome Perspective", AHG, 69, 1-20, 2005.. 
  22. ^ Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese People. Possibly, they could have mixed with minute numbers of residual inhabitants, with a constant input of immigrants from neighbouring countries and later, even from afar. There seems to be little input from North Africa. 
  23. ^ "Phoenicians Online Extra @ National Geographic Magazine". Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  24. ^ Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese People. We are aware of conflicting conclusions published as an interview in the popular National Geographic magazine. Despite an intensive search we cannot find them reproduced in the mainstream scientific literature. We consider that data somewhat flawed, and furthermore, unsound. National Geographic is not a peer-reviewed academic journal and thus the weight of the evidence is poor compared to other peer-reviewed academic journals that are also in the public domain. One cannot be comfortable with data that have not passed the scrutiny of peer review. 
  25. ^ J. Cassar Pullicino, "Determining the Semitic Element in Maltese Folklore", in Studies in Maltese Folklore, Malta University Press (1992), p. 68.
  26. ^ "MED Magazine". 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  27. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf
  28. ^ European Commission, "Malta: Country Profile", Euromosaic Study (September 2004). Available online, at http://ec.europa.eu/[1] Europeans and Language
  29. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_237.en.pdf
  30. ^ "Catholic Church in Malta". GCatholic.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 

References[edit]

  • Bonanno A. (2005). Malta: Phoenician, Punic and Roman. Midsea Books: Valletta.

External links[edit]

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