Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labor and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers". Manufacturing systems are concerned with the conversion of physical inputs into physical outputs by using workers, machines, and equipment. Production systems are concerned with the modeling and engineering management of converting inputs into outputs using forecasting, inventory, production planning, and scheduling. Operation systems are concerned with a broad view of such conversions; they include strategic decisions such as product design and development, quality policies, logistical systems, facility location decisions, facility layout, human resources, supply chain management, quality control, reliability, and maintenance. Operation systems are also concerned with efficiently delivering quality products and services to customers in a timely and cost-effective manner. Supply chain management involves purchasing, storing, and distributing raw materials and semifinished and finished products through a network of suppliers, production facilities, and distributors. Production, operation, and manufacturing systems are also concerned with developing systems’ capabilities and utilizing resources effectively to fulfill the needs of the customers .
Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation.
Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.
The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.
Over thousands of years, the methods of production, operations, and manufacturing systems have been continually developed and improved. Such systems have been the concern of people from ancient Egyptians along the Nile River to Henry Ford in Detroit; from businessmen in the British Isles during the industrial revolution to current integrated circuits (IC) manufacturers .
According to some economists, manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-consuming. Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The increased use of technologies such as 3D printing also offer the potential to reduce the environmental impact of producing finished goods through distributed manufacturing.
The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the on-going process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Malakooti (2013)  provides a list of possible objectives in manufacturing systems as following.
|Minimize total cost||Maximize employees’ job satisfaction|
|Minimize risk||Maximize ease of change of systems|
|Maximize quality (products and services)||Maximize ease of use of systems|
|Maximize productivity||Maximize achievement of just-in-time|
|Maximize flexibility||Minimize adverse environmental impact|
|Maximize customer satisfaction||Minimize variations/fluctuations|
|Minimize use of energy||Maximize agility|
Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as:
In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors.
On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007. In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organisation has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda.
|Rank||Country/Region||(Millions of $US)||Year|
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