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Improving Soil with Manure
Improving Soil with Manure
Published: 2013/04/28
Channel: Bright Agrotech
Spreading Liquid Cow Manure | John Deere 8420 Houle 6300
Spreading Liquid Cow Manure | John Deere 8420 Houle 6300
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: BDetterline
Hauling Cow Manure
Hauling Cow Manure
Published: 2013/01/21
Channel: MRHillard1
All about manure
All about manure
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: City
How Much Does MANURE Weigh???
How Much Does MANURE Weigh???
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Rodeo Video
Spreading Manure
Spreading Manure
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: Dwarted
Farmer Sprays Manure on Protesting Trespassers
Farmer Sprays Manure on Protesting Trespassers
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Bubble News
Sound Horsekeeping: Composting Manure
Sound Horsekeeping: Composting Manure
Published: 2014/05/19
Channel: Snohomish Conservation District
Manure Can DESTROY Your Garden: Here
Manure Can DESTROY Your Garden: Here's How!
Published: 2016/04/09
Channel: David The Good
Dad Throws Manure On Lazy Teen | World
Dad Throws Manure On Lazy Teen | World's Strictest Parents
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: World's Strictest Parents
I hate Manure
I hate Manure
Published: 2010/03/08
Channel: WhiteSnoop
How to Compost Manure in Thirty Days
How to Compost Manure in Thirty Days
Published: 2011/03/22
Channel: GrowPoppies
Should I Use Cow Manure in My Vegetable Garden? & More Organic Gardening Q&A
Should I Use Cow Manure in My Vegetable Garden? & More Organic Gardening Q&A
Published: 2014/05/11
Channel: Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens
An organic manure factory for Rs. 800 only!
An organic manure factory for Rs. 800 only!
Published: 2013/06/03
Channel: IndiaWater Portal
Spreading chicken manure | John Deere 8360R & Tebbe HS240 spreader on tracks | ERF
Spreading chicken manure | John Deere 8360R & Tebbe HS240 spreader on tracks | ERF
Published: 2016/12/11
Channel: Tractorspotter
hauling manure with the (old) 4840 and night spreader
hauling manure with the (old) 4840 and night spreader
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: emerald valley farms
Manure Scraper
Manure Scraper
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: Hasan Hulker
How to Clean out the manure
How to Clean out the manure
Published: 2016/04/06
Channel: Family Dairy Days
Manure In Gardening
Manure In Gardening
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: LearnHowToGarden
Horse manure preparation
Horse manure preparation
Published: 2013/11/30
Channel: andy160676
spreading manure
spreading manure
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: OkieRob
Garden tips - manure 101
Garden tips - manure 101
Published: 2013/11/30
Channel: MIgardener | Simple Organic Gardening & Sustainable Living
See how a manure lagoon works and why farmers want to build even more of them
See how a manure lagoon works and why farmers want to build even more of them
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: syracuse.com
Drag Line Manure From Lagoon || Morning Dew Aerial Footage || Breeweg Custom Work
Drag Line Manure From Lagoon || Morning Dew Aerial Footage || Breeweg Custom Work
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: Peter Hanson
Amazing Cow Dung Manure(Fertilizer) | Vlog
Amazing Cow Dung Manure(Fertilizer) | Vlog
Published: 2016/04/10
Channel: Laal Garden
Jamie Spreads Manure - John Deere 7600
Jamie Spreads Manure - John Deere 7600
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: How Farms Work
No-Dig gardening - Use green manures effectively! WWN Vlog
No-Dig gardening - Use green manures effectively! WWN Vlog
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: Work With Nature
This bullsht might save the world - composting cow manure with biochar | Thomas Rippel | TEDxZurich
This bullsht might save the world - composting cow manure with biochar | Thomas Rippel | TEDxZurich
Published: 2015/09/19
Channel: Thomas Rippel
Never been so excited to haul manure!
Never been so excited to haul manure!
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: How Farms Work
Mensch - Manure Vacuum 2012
Mensch - Manure Vacuum 2012
Published: 2012/01/16
Channel: MenschMFG
Difference between Organic Manures and Fertilisers
Difference between Organic Manures and Fertilisers
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: Difference Between
TRACTORS IN ACTION / Vyvážení hnoje  - Manure
TRACTORS IN ACTION / Vyvážení hnoje - Manure
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: pavelkubes1
Spreading Manure with Two Spreaders!
Spreading Manure with Two Spreaders!
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: iowadairyboys
How to make easy money with rabbit manure
How to make easy money with rabbit manure
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: NWRedworms
Manure Spreader, Manure Spreaders, Classic Spreader by ABI
Manure Spreader, Manure Spreaders, Classic Spreader by ABI
Published: 2012/09/25
Channel: ABI
Neupork Manure Services - Liquid Manure 2014
Neupork Manure Services - Liquid Manure 2014
Published: 2014/05/10
Channel: SaskDairy
Farming Simulator 17 Tutorial | Solid Manure
Farming Simulator 17 Tutorial | Solid Manure
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: Moose2006LP
How To Make The Most Of Chicken Manure
How To Make The Most Of Chicken Manure
Published: 2012/04/30
Channel: Deco Bliss
loading and spreading manure
loading and spreading manure
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Ted Kahler
Farm-Based Composting: Manure and More
Farm-Based Composting: Manure and More
Published: 2012/08/06
Channel: Farmingmagazine
How to Compost Chicken Manure from Half-Way Farm
How to Compost Chicken Manure from Half-Way Farm
Published: 2014/04/12
Channel: Parisienne Farmgirl
Attracting Worms Using Hay and Goat Manure
Attracting Worms Using Hay and Goat Manure
Published: 2015/10/20
Channel: Pauly Piccirillo
Get off my fracking land! Furious farmer sprays MANURE at Oscar winning actress Emma...
Get off my fracking land! Furious farmer sprays MANURE at Oscar winning actress Emma...
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: Breaking News
Spreading manure
Spreading manure
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: swampratman2000
Organic Composted Manure on Lawn - Time Lapse - Central California - Amazing Results!
Organic Composted Manure on Lawn - Time Lapse - Central California - Amazing Results!
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: Kelsey Gallegos
North Carolina Hog Farms Spray Manure Around Black Communities; Residents Fight Back
North Carolina Hog Farms Spray Manure Around Black Communities; Residents Fight Back
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Democracy Now!
kubota and Mill Creek manure spreader
kubota and Mill Creek manure spreader
Published: 2013/05/19
Channel: J Walker
How to Manure your Fruit Tree and Why?
How to Manure your Fruit Tree and Why?
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: Hertfordshire Allotment Life
HIGHTOP® Automatic Manure Cleaning System
HIGHTOP® Automatic Manure Cleaning System
Published: 2016/06/14
Channel: Niu Alice
Cover Crop / Green Manure: Fall Update
Cover Crop / Green Manure: Fall Update
Published: 2013/11/09
Channel: OYR Frugal & Sustainable Organic Gardening
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Animal manure is often a mixture of animal feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable

Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are utilised by bacteria, fungi and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web.

In the past, the term "manure" included inorganic fertilizers, but this usage is now very rare.

Types

There are three main classes of manures used in soil management:

Animal manure

Cement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water. This is common in rural Hainan Province, China.

Most animal manure consists of feces. Common forms of animal manure include farmyard manure (FYM) or farm slurry (liquid manure). FYM also contains plant material (often straw), which has been used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine. Agricultural manure in liquid form, known as slurry, is produced by more intensive livestock rearing systems where concrete or slats are used, instead of straw bedding. Manure from different animals has different qualities and requires different application rates when used as fertilizer. For example horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, turkeys, rabbits, and guano from seabirds and bats all have different properties.[1] For instance, sheep manure is high in nitrogen and potash, while pig manure is relatively low in both. Horses mainly eat grass and a few weeds so horse manure can contain grass and weed seeds, as horses do not digest seeds the way that cattle do. Cattle manure is a good source of nitrogen as well as organic carbon.[2]Chicken litter, coming from a bird, is very concentrated in nitrogen and phosphate and is prized for both properties."[2][3]

Animal manures may be adulterated or contaminated with other animal products, such as wool (shoddy and other hair), feathers, blood, and bone. Livestock feed can be mixed with the manure due to spillage. For example, chickens are often fed meat and bone meal, an animal product, which can end up becoming mixed with chicken litter.

Human manure

Some people refer to human excreta as human manure, and the word "humanure" has also been used. Just like animal manure, it can be applied as a soil conditioner (reuse of excreta in agriculture). Sewage sludge is a material that contains human excreta, as it is generated after mixing excreta with water and treatment of the wastewater in a sewage treatment plant.

Compost

Compost containing turkey manure and wood chips from bedding material is dried and then applied to pastures for fertilizer.

Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials. It is usually of plant origin, but often includes some animal dung or bedding.

Green manure

Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of plowing them in, thus increasing fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil. Leguminous plants such as clover are often used for this, as they fix nitrogen using Rhizobia bacteria in specialized nodes in the root structure.

Other types of plant matter used as manure include the contents of the rumens of slaughtered ruminants, spent grain (left over from brewing beer) and seaweed.

Uses of manure

Animal manure

Manure on a wall.

Animal manure, such as chicken manure and cow dung, has been used for centuries as a fertilizer for farming. It can improve the soil structure (aggregation) so that the soil holds more nutrients and water, and therefore becomes more fertile. Animal manure also encourages soil microbial activity which promotes the soil's trace mineral supply, improving plant nutrition. It also contains some nitrogen and other nutrients that assist the growth of plants.

Manures with a particularly unpleasant odor (such as slurries from intensive pig farming) are usually knifed (injected) directly into the soil to reduce release of the odor. Manure from pigs and cattle is usually spread on fields using a manure spreader. Due to the relatively lower level of proteins in vegetable matter, herbivore manure has a milder smell than the dung of carnivores or omnivores. However, herbivore slurry that has undergone anaerobic fermentation may develop more unpleasant odors, and this can be a problem in some agricultural regions. Poultry droppings are harmful to plants when fresh but, after a period of composting, are valuable fertilizers.

Manure is also commercially composted and bagged and sold retail as a soil amendment.[citation needed]

Issues

Any quantity of manure may be a source of pathogens or food spoilage organisms which may be carried by flies, rodents or a range of other vector organisms and cause disease or put food safety at risk.

Livestock antibiotics

In 2007, a University of Minnesota study[4] indicated that foods such as corn, lettuce, and potatoes have been found to accumulate antibiotics from soils spread with animal manure that contains these drugs.

Organic foods may be much more or much less likely to contain antibiotics, depending on their sources and treatment of manure. For instance, by Soil Association Standard 4.7.38, most organic arable farmers either have their own supply of manure (which would, therefore, not normally contain drug residues) or else rely on green manure crops for the extra fertility (if any nonorganic manure is used by organic farmers, then it usually has to be rotted or composted to degrade any residues of drugs and eliminate any pathogenic bacteria—Standard 4.7.38, Soil Association organic farming standards). On the other hand, as found in the University of Minnesota study, the non-usage of artificial fertilizers, and resulting exclusive use of manure as fertilizer, by organic farmers can result in significantly greater accumulations of antibiotics in organic foods.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Manure". h2g2. July 15, 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Bernal, M.P.; Alburquerque, J.A.; Moral, R. (November 2009). "Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review" (PDF). Bioresource Technology. 100 (22): 5444-5453. Retrieved October 18, 2017. 
  3. ^ Lustosa Filha, Jose; Penido, Evanise; Castro, Patricia; Silva, Carlos; Melo, Leonidas (September 4, 2017). "Co-pyrolysis of poultry litter and phosphate and magnesium generates alternative slow-release fertilizer suitable for tropical soils". ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 5 (10): 9043-9052. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b01935. Retrieved October 18, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Staff (2007-07-12). "Livestock Antibiotics Can End Up in Human Foods". ENS Newswire. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 

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