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Should I Use Cow Manure in My Vegetable Garden? & More Organic Gardening Q&A
Should I Use Cow Manure in My Vegetable Garden? & More Organic Gardening Q&A
Published: 2014/05/11
Channel: Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens
Spreading Liquid Cow Manure | John Deere 8420 Houle 6300
Spreading Liquid Cow Manure | John Deere 8420 Houle 6300
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: BDetterline
Hauling Cow Manure
Hauling Cow Manure
Published: 2013/01/21
Channel: MRHillard1
All about manure
All about manure
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: City
Improving Soil with Manure
Improving Soil with Manure
Published: 2013/04/28
Channel: Bright Agrotech
Manure Can DESTROY Your Garden: Here
Manure Can DESTROY Your Garden: Here's How!
Published: 2016/04/09
Channel: David The Good
Jamie Spreads Manure - John Deere 7600
Jamie Spreads Manure - John Deere 7600
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: How Farms Work
Drag Line Manure From Lagoon || Morning Dew Aerial Footage || Breeweg Custom Work
Drag Line Manure From Lagoon || Morning Dew Aerial Footage || Breeweg Custom Work
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: Peter Hanson
Young Indian innovators are recycling cigarette butts into manure
Young Indian innovators are recycling cigarette butts into manure
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Hauling Cow Manure in Northern Indiana
Hauling Cow Manure in Northern Indiana
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Mike Less
Spreading manure
Spreading manure
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: swampratman2000
Jaylor M1600HD Manure Spreaders: Papermill Waste Spreading at Sutton Farm
Jaylor M1600HD Manure Spreaders: Papermill Waste Spreading at Sutton Farm
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Jaylor
Side Dressing Corn with Manure
Side Dressing Corn with Manure
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Ohio Ag Net & Ohio's Country Journal
How to Compost Manure in Thirty Days
How to Compost Manure in Thirty Days
Published: 2011/03/22
Channel: GrowPoppies
hauling manure with the (old) 4840 and night spreader
hauling manure with the (old) 4840 and night spreader
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: emerald valley farms
Cow Manure & Weed | Cow Manure In The Backyard Garden
Cow Manure & Weed | Cow Manure In The Backyard Garden
Published: 2016/11/01
Channel: AgroSuede Backyard Gardening
Garden tips - manure 101
Garden tips - manure 101
Published: 2013/11/30
Channel: MIgardener | Simple Organic Gardening & Sustainable Living
Amazing Cow Dung Manure(Fertilizer) | Vlog
Amazing Cow Dung Manure(Fertilizer) | Vlog
Published: 2016/04/10
Channel: Laal Garden
How Much Does MANURE Weigh???
How Much Does MANURE Weigh???
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Rodeo Video
Horse Manure: A Key To Growing Great Marijuana
Horse Manure: A Key To Growing Great Marijuana
Published: 2013/05/16
Channel: Gobiginternational Justice Genetics
Horse manure preparation
Horse manure preparation
Published: 2013/11/30
Channel: andy160676
Spreading chicken manure | John Deere 8360R & Tebbe HS240 spreader on tracks | ERF
Spreading chicken manure | John Deere 8360R & Tebbe HS240 spreader on tracks | ERF
Published: 2016/12/11
Channel: Tractorspotter
Témoignages Manure Sensing John Deere
Témoignages Manure Sensing John Deere
Published: 2017/02/07
Channel: John Deere France
Manure Scraper
Manure Scraper
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: Hasan Hulker
Neupork Manure Services - Liquid Manure 2014
Neupork Manure Services - Liquid Manure 2014
Published: 2014/05/10
Channel: SaskDairy
Claas Arion 550 w/ Bergmann TSW 5210 S spreading manure - Veerman Goudswaard
Claas Arion 550 w/ Bergmann TSW 5210 S spreading manure - Veerman Goudswaard
Published: 2014/10/16
Channel: Tractorspotter
Is Chicken Manure Safe to use in the Garden?
Is Chicken Manure Safe to use in the Garden?
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Alberta Urban Garden Simple Organic and Sustainable
Sound Horsekeeping: Composting Manure
Sound Horsekeeping: Composting Manure
Published: 2014/05/19
Channel: Snohomish Conservation District
An organic manure factory for Rs. 800 only!
An organic manure factory for Rs. 800 only!
Published: 2013/06/03
Channel: IndiaWater Portal
Pellon Manure Master
Pellon Manure Master
Published: 2014/11/21
Channel: Pellon Group Oy
Turning menacing hyacinth into manure |  DW English
Turning menacing hyacinth into manure | DW English
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: DW English
Spreading Manure "Old School" Ferguson TO-20
Spreading Manure "Old School" Ferguson TO-20
Published: 2014/01/31
Channel: Musher Deeds
Manure, ploughing, cultivating, seeding - UTH map [Dolenjska]
Manure, ploughing, cultivating, seeding - UTH map [Dolenjska]
Published: 2016/05/04
Channel: senicadoo
Maxx-Trac (Manure Tanker/Épandeur) - Jamesway Farm Equipment
Maxx-Trac (Manure Tanker/Épandeur) - Jamesway Farm Equipment
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Jamesway Farmequipment
Why You Don
Why You Don't Need Animal Manure in Your Organic Vegetable Garden
Published: 2012/06/03
Channel: Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens
Pig manure paves road to sustainable asphalt - Science Nation
Pig manure paves road to sustainable asphalt - Science Nation
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: National Science Foundation
Spreading Manure On The 11 Acre Corn Field
Spreading Manure On The 11 Acre Corn Field
Published: 2016/03/20
Channel: How Farms Work
How To Make Liquid Fertiliser From Horse Manure For Free
How To Make Liquid Fertiliser From Horse Manure For Free
Published: 2012/05/09
Channel: Shane60328
Farmer Sprays Manure on Protesting Trespassers
Farmer Sprays Manure on Protesting Trespassers
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Bubble News
GEA Farming EL48 Manure Steerable Spreader - Houle - EN
GEA Farming EL48 Manure Steerable Spreader - Houle - EN
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: GEA Farming
Courtland Waste Handling Leading Provider of Liquid Waste and Manure handling Solutions
Courtland Waste Handling Leading Provider of Liquid Waste and Manure handling Solutions
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Courtland Waste Handling
Redworms, rabbit manure and a commercial compost bin
Redworms, rabbit manure and a commercial compost bin
Published: 2014/09/21
Channel: NWRedworms
Cover Crop / Green Manure: Fall Update
Cover Crop / Green Manure: Fall Update
Published: 2013/11/09
Channel: OneYardRevolution | Frugal & Sustainable Organic Gardening
Spreading Manure
Spreading Manure
Published: 2014/01/26
Channel: Pennsylvania Farming
Green Manure
Green Manure
Published: 2013/04/30
Channel: GrowOrganic Peaceful Valley
Millcreek 57 Ground Driven Manure Spreader.wmv
Millcreek 57 Ground Driven Manure Spreader.wmv
Published: 2012/06/08
Channel: Kevin Melling
Episode 25 Shaping beds and testing horse manure vs regular compost
Episode 25 Shaping beds and testing horse manure vs regular compost
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: Rafs Kitchen Garden
New KUHN Knight SL 100 Series ProTwin® Slinger® Manure Spreader Hi 5
New KUHN Knight SL 100 Series ProTwin® Slinger® Manure Spreader Hi 5
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Kuhn North America
Spreading Manure
Spreading Manure
Published: 2012/10/14
Channel: Peterson Farm Bros
A cleaning day: Scraping manure and feeding cows
A cleaning day: Scraping manure and feeding cows
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: The Farming Life
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Animal manure is often a mixture of animal feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable

Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are trapped by bacteria in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web. It is also a product obtained after decomposition of organic matter like cow dung which replenishes the soil with essential elements and add humus to the soil.

In the past, the term "manure" included inorganic fertilizers, but this usage is now very rare.

Types

There are three main classes of manures used in soil management:

Animal manure

Cement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water. This is common in rural Hainan Province, China.

Most animal manure consists of feces. Common forms of animal manure include farmyard manure (FYM) or farm slurry (liquid manure). FYM also contains plant material (often straw), which has been used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine. Agricultural manure in liquid form, known as slurry, is produced by more intensive livestock rearing systems where concrete or slats are used, instead of straw bedding. Manure from different animals has different qualities and requires different application rates when used as fertilizer. For example horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, turkeys, rabbits, and guano from seabirds and bats all have different properties.[1] For instance, sheep manure is high in nitrogen and potash, while pig manure is relatively low in both. Horses mainly eat grass and a few weeds so horse manure can contain grass and weed seeds, as horses do not digest seeds the way that cattle do. Chicken litter, coming from a bird, is very concentrated in nitrogen and phosphate and is prized for both properties.

Animal manures may be adulterated or contaminated with other animal products, such as wool (shoddy and other hair), feathers, blood, and bone. Livestock feed can be mixed with the manure due to spillage. For example, chickens are often fed meat and bone meal, an animal product, which can end up becoming mixed with chicken litter.

Human manure

Some people refer to human excreta as human manure, and the word "humanure" has also been used. Just like animal manure, it can be applied as a soil conditioner (reuse of excreta in agriculture). Sewage sludge is a material that contains human excreta, as it is generated after mixing excreta with water and treatment of the wastewater in a sewage treatment plant.

Compost containing turkey manure and wood chips from bedding material is dried and then applied to pastures for fertilizer.

Compost

Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials. It is usually of plant origin, but often includes some animal dung or bedding.

Green manure

Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of plowing them in, thus increasing fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil. Leguminous plants such as clover are often used for this, as they fix nitrogen using Rhizobia bacteria in specialized nodes in the root structure.

Other types of plant matter used as manure include the contents of the rumens of slaughtered ruminants, spent grain (left over from brewing beer) and seaweed.

Uses of manure

Animal manure

Manure on a wall.

Animal manure, such as chicken manure and cow dung, has been used for centuries as a fertilizer for farming. It can improve the soil structure (aggregation) so that the soil holds more nutrients and water, and therefore becomes more fertile. Animal manure also encourages soil microbial activity which promotes the soil's trace mineral supply, improving plant nutrition. It also contains some nitrogen and other nutrients that assist the growth of plants.

Manures with a particularly unpleasant odor (such as slurries from intensive pig farming) are usually knifed (injected) directly into the soil to reduce release of the odor. Manure from pigs and cattle is usually spread on fields using a manure spreader. Due to the relatively lower level of proteins in vegetable matter, herbivore manure has a milder smell than the dung of carnivores or omnivores. However, herbivore slurry that has undergone anaerobic fermentation may develop more unpleasant odors, and this can be a problem in some agricultural regions. Poultry droppings are harmful to plants when fresh but, after a period of composting, are valuable fertilizers.

Manure is also commercially composted and bagged and sold retail as a soil amendment.[citation needed]

Before motor vehicles became common, horse droppings were a big part of the rubbish that communities needed to clean off roads.

Precautions

Manure generates heat as it decomposes, and it is possible for manure to ignite spontaneously if stored in a very large pile.[2] Once such a large pile of manure is burning, it will foul the air over a wide area and require considerable effort to extinguish. Therefore, large feedlots must take care to ensure that piles of fresh manure do not get excessively large. There is no serious risk of spontaneous combustion in smaller operations.[citation needed]

There is also a risk of insects carrying feces to food and water supplies, making them unsuitable for human consumption.

Livestock antibiotics

In 2007, a University of Minnesota study[3] indicated that foods such as corn, lettuce, and potatoes have been found to accumulate antibiotics from soils spread with animal manure that contains these drugs.

Organic foods may be much more or much less likely to contain antibiotics, depending on their sources and treatment of manure. For instance, by Soil Association Standard 4.7.38, most organic arable farmers either have their own supply of manure (which would, therefore, not normally contain drug residues) or else rely on green manure crops for the extra fertility (if any nonorganic manure is used by organic farmers, then it usually has to be rotted or composted to degrade any residues of drugs and eliminate any pathogenic bacteria — Standard 4.7.38, Soil Association organic farming standards). On the other hand, as found in the University of Minnesota study, the non-usage of artificial fertilizers, and resulting exclusive use of manure as fertilizer, by organic farmers can result in significantly greater accumulations of antibiotics in organic foods.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Manure". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  2. ^ "Spontaneous Combustion of Manure Starts 200-Acre Blaze". abc7.com. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  3. ^ a b staff (2007-07-12). "Livestock Antibiotics Can End Up in Human Foods". Ens-newswire.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 

Further reading

  • Winterhalder, B., R. Larsen, and R. B. Thomas. (1974). "Dung as an essential resource in a highland Peruvian community". Human Ecology. 2 (2): 89–104. doi:10.1007/BF01558115. 

External links

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