♫ FREE INSTANT MUSIC PLAYER: Select one artist from the list below
Play Video
1
How To Build Soil by Composting Horse Manure
How To Build Soil by Composting Horse Manure
::2014/01/17::
Play Video
2
Sound Horsekeeping: Composting Manure
Sound Horsekeeping: Composting Manure
::2014/05/19::
Play Video
3
How to Compost Manure in Thirty Days
How to Compost Manure in Thirty Days
::2011/03/22::
Play Video
4
How we make comfrey green manure tea/organic fertiliser..
How we make comfrey green manure tea/organic fertiliser..
::2013/05/13::
Play Video
5
Equipment demonstrations: Manure agitation boats
Equipment demonstrations: Manure agitation boats
::2014/07/09::
Play Video
6
Hauling Cow Manure
Hauling Cow Manure
::2013/01/21::
Play Video
7
Should I Use Horse Manure in My Vegetable Garden? and other Organic Gardening Q&A
Should I Use Horse Manure in My Vegetable Garden? and other Organic Gardening Q&A
::2013/10/31::
Play Video
8
Artex Manufacturing SB Series Manure Spreaders
Artex Manufacturing SB Series Manure Spreaders
::2014/09/23::
Play Video
9
Phil
Phil's Pumping - Prototype dumpster, dumping liquid manure
::2012/04/05::
Play Video
10
Composting Chicken Manure
Composting Chicken Manure
::2012/03/13::
Play Video
11
Brewing Manure and Compost Tea
Brewing Manure and Compost Tea
::2011/03/14::
Play Video
12
An organic manure factory for Rs. 800 only!
An organic manure factory for Rs. 800 only!
::2013/06/03::
Play Video
13
Vredo 4546 loonbedrijf Markvoort Schalkhaar Trekkerweb gulle slurry manure
Vredo 4546 loonbedrijf Markvoort Schalkhaar Trekkerweb gulle slurry manure
::2015/03/29::
Play Video
14
Claas Arion 550 w/ Bergmann TSW 5210 S spreading manure - Veerman Goudswaard
Claas Arion 550 w/ Bergmann TSW 5210 S spreading manure - Veerman Goudswaard
::2014/10/16::
Play Video
15
15,000 GAL Triple-Tank Manure Spreader
15,000 GAL Triple-Tank Manure Spreader
::2013/06/25::
Play Video
16
Fendt 724 Vario + Bossini B260 - Liquid Manure Spreading 2015
Fendt 724 Vario + Bossini B260 - Liquid Manure Spreading 2015
::2015/01/17::
Play Video
17
Farming Simulator 2015 : COW MANURE YAY! ( Gameplay ) E18
Farming Simulator 2015 : COW MANURE YAY! ( Gameplay ) E18
::2015/01/06::
Play Video
18
Should I Use Cow Manure in My Vegetable Garden? & More Organic Gardening Q&A
Should I Use Cow Manure in My Vegetable Garden? & More Organic Gardening Q&A
::2014/05/11::
Play Video
19
Farming Simulator 2013 How to: Make Manure
Farming Simulator 2013 How to: Make Manure
::2012/12/04::
Play Video
20
World
World's Best Manure Spreader
::2011/09/01::
Play Video
21
Farming Simulator 2015 - Manure Spreading and Minimum Tillage
Farming Simulator 2015 - Manure Spreading and Minimum Tillage
::2014/12/06::
Play Video
22
Kubota SVL 90 Loading wet Manure
Kubota SVL 90 Loading wet Manure
::2013/02/17::
Play Video
23
COW DUNG producing Biogas, Electricity / Power, Organic Manure
COW DUNG producing Biogas, Electricity / Power, Organic Manure
::2014/04/18::
Play Video
24
Modern Manure Management
Modern Manure Management
::2013/01/14::
Play Video
25
Jones manure hauling
Jones manure hauling
::2011/12/17::
Play Video
26
Green Manure
Green Manure
::2013/04/30::
Play Video
27
Using Animal Manure in Your Garden
Using Animal Manure in Your Garden
::2014/01/03::
Play Video
28
Farming Simulator 15 Manure e Sewage System
Farming Simulator 15 Manure e Sewage System
::2014/11/06::
Play Video
29
How to Compost Chicken Manure
How to Compost Chicken Manure
::2013/03/18::
Play Video
30
Fendt 933 Hauling Manure with Nuhn Spreader
Fendt 933 Hauling Manure with Nuhn Spreader
::2012/08/02::
Play Video
31
Spreading Manure
Spreading Manure
::2015/01/03::
Play Video
32
Manure Spreader Fail
Manure Spreader Fail
::2013/07/31::
Play Video
33
Why & How To Grow Green Manure
Why & How To Grow Green Manure
::2011/05/04::
Play Video
34
Poop to Power: How a Florida dairy farm turns cow manure into electricity
Poop to Power: How a Florida dairy farm turns cow manure into electricity
::2013/10/02::
Play Video
35
Spreading Manure "Old School" Ferguson TO-20
Spreading Manure "Old School" Ferguson TO-20
::2014/01/31::
Play Video
36
Mensch - Manure Vacuum 2012
Mensch - Manure Vacuum 2012
::2012/01/15::
Play Video
37
Redworms, rabbit manure and a commercial compost bin
Redworms, rabbit manure and a commercial compost bin
::2014/09/21::
Play Video
38
Improving Soil with Manure
Improving Soil with Manure
::2013/04/28::
Play Video
39
Spreading Manure
Spreading Manure
::2012/10/14::
Play Video
40
Starting a worm farm using goat manure
Starting a worm farm using goat manure
::2014/05/08::
Play Video
41
Small Farm Manure Storages
Small Farm Manure Storages
::2010/11/17::
Play Video
42
Improve soil fertility in your food garden with a green manure crop
Improve soil fertility in your food garden with a green manure crop
::2011/01/31::
Play Video
43
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan's Cow Manure Joke
::2012/08/25::
Play Video
44
Back To The Future Part II - Manure I Hate Manure!!!
Back To The Future Part II - Manure I Hate Manure!!!
::2014/04/03::
Play Video
45
Nitrogen Rich Manure Tea
Nitrogen Rich Manure Tea
::2010/07/12::
Play Video
46
ABI Elite Manure Spreader - 37 cuft Ground Drive
ABI Elite Manure Spreader - 37 cuft Ground Drive
::2013/01/15::
Play Video
47
Rabbit Manure Better than Cow Manure for Organic Gardening? and more Q&A
Rabbit Manure Better than Cow Manure for Organic Gardening? and more Q&A
::2015/02/04::
Play Video
48
Spreading Manure
Spreading Manure
::2014/01/26::
Play Video
49
GEA Farming EL48 Manure Steerable Spreader - Houle - EN
GEA Farming EL48 Manure Steerable Spreader - Houle - EN
::2014/06/02::
Play Video
50
More Than Manure (MTM)
More Than Manure (MTM)
::2011/10/18::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about organic material used as soil fertilizer. For animal dung used for other purposes, see feces.
"Animal waste" redirects here. For other types of animal waste, see metabolic waste.
Animal manure is often a mixture of animal feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable

Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are trapped by bacteria in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web. It is also a product obtained after decomposition of organic matter like cow dung which replenishes the soil with essential elements and add humus to the soil.

In the past, the term “manure” included inorganic fertilizers, but this usage is now very rare.

Types[edit]

There are three main classes of manures used in soil management:

Animal manure[edit]

Cement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water. This is common in rural Hainan Province, China.

Most animal manure consist of feces. Common forms of animal manure include farmyard manure (FYM) or farm slurry (liquid manure). FYM also contains plant material (often straw), which has been used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine. Agricultural manure in liquid form, known as slurry, is produced by more intensive livestock rearing systems where concrete or slats are used, instead of straw bedding. Manure from different animals has different qualities and requires different application rates when used as fertilizer. For example horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, turkeys, rabbits, and guano from seabirds and bats all have different properties.[1] For instance, sheep manure is high in nitrogen and potash, while pig manure is relatively low in both. Horses mainly eat grass and a few weeds so horse manure can contain grass and weed seeds, as horses do not digest seeds the way that cattle do. Chicken litter, coming from a bird, is very concentrated in nitrogen and phosphate and is prized for both properties.

Animal manures may be adulterated or contaminated with other animal products, such as wool (shoddy and other hair), feathers, blood, and bone. Livestock feed can be mixed with the manure due to spillage. For example, chickens are often fed meat and bone meal, an animal product, which can end up becoming mixed with chicken litter.

Human manure[edit]

Main article: Reuse of excreta

Some people refer to human excreta as human manure, and the word "humanure" has also been used. Just like animal manure, it can be applied as a soil conditioner (reuse of excreta in agriculture). Sewage sludge is a material that contains human excreta, as it is generated after mixing excreta with water and treatment of the wastewater in a sewage treatment plant.

Compost containing turkey manure and wood chips from bedding material is dried and then applied to pastures for fertilizer.

Compost[edit]

Main article: Compost

Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials. It is usually of plant origin, but often includes some animal dung or bedding.

Green manure[edit]

Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of plowing them in, thus increasing fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil. Leguminous plants such as clover are often used for this, as they fix nitrogen using Rhizobia bacteria in specialized nodes in the root structure.

Other types of plant matter used as manure include the contents of the rumens of slaughtered ruminants, spent hops (left over from brewing beer) and seaweed.

Uses of manure[edit]

Animal manure[edit]

Manure on a wall.

Animal manure, such as chicken manure and cow dung, has been used for centuries as a fertilizer for farming. It can improve the soil structure (aggregation) so that the soil holds more nutrients and water, and therefore becomes more fertile. Animal manure also encourages soil microbial activity which promotes the soil's trace mineral supply, improving plant nutrition. It also contains some nitrogen and other nutrients that assist the growth of plants.

Manures with a particularly unpleasant odor (such as slurries from intensive pig farming) are usually knifed (injected) directly into the soil to reduce release of the odor. Manure from pigs and cattle is usually spread on fields using a manure spreader. Due to the relatively lower level of proteins in vegetable matter, herbivore manure has a milder smell than the dung of carnivores or omnivores. However, herbivore slurry that has undergone anaerobic fermentation may develop more unpleasant odors, and this can be a problem in some agricultural regions. Poultry droppings are harmful to plants when fresh but, after a period of composting, are valuable fertilizers.

Manure is also commercially composted and bagged and sold retail as a soil amendment.[citation needed]

Before motor vehicles became common, horse droppings were a big part of the rubbish that communities needed to clean off roads.

Precautions[edit]

Manure generates heat as it decomposes, and it is possible for manure to ignite spontaneously if stored in a very large pile.[2] Once such a large pile of manure is burning, it will foul the air over a wide area and require considerable effort to extinguish. Therefore, large feedlots must take care to ensure that piles of fresh manure do not get excessively large. There is no serious risk of spontaneous combustion in smaller operations.[citation needed]

There is also a risk of insects carrying feces to food and water supplies, making them unsuitable for human consumption.

Livestock antibiotics[edit]

In 2007, a University of Minnesota study[3] indicated that foods such as corn, lettuce, and potatoes have been found to accumulate antibiotics from soils spread with animal manure that contains these drugs.

Organic foods may be much more or much less likely to contain antibiotics, depending on their sources and treatment of manure. For instance, by Soil Association Standard 4.7.38, most organic arable farmers either have their own supply of manure (which would, therefore, not normally contain drug residues) or else rely on green manure crops for the extra fertility (if any nonorganic manure is used by organic farmers, then it usually has to be rotted or composted to degrade any residues of drugs and eliminate any pathogenic bacteria — Standard 4.7.38, Soil Association organic farming standards). On the other hand, as found in the University of Minnesota study, the non-usage of artificial fertilizers, and resulting exclusive use of manure as fertilizer, by organic farmers can result in significantly greater accumulations of antibiotics in organic foods.[3]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Manure". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  2. ^ "Spontaneous Combustion of Manure Starts 200-Acre Blaze 1/08/07 |". abc7.com. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  3. ^ a b staff (2007-07-12). "Livestock Antibiotics Can End Up in Human Foods". Ens-newswire.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Winterhalder, B., R. Larsen, and R. B. Thomas. (1974). "Dung as an essential resource in a highland Peruvian community". Human Ecology 2 (2): 89–104. doi:10.1007/BF01558115. 

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015