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Learn American Holidays - Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Learn American Holidays - Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Published: 2013/11/28
Channel: Learn English with EnglishClass101.com
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Tribute Video
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Tribute Video
Published: 2014/01/20
Channel: WWE
How Martin Luther King Jr. Was Nearly Assassinated in 1958
How Martin Luther King Jr. Was Nearly Assassinated in 1958
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Complex News
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Published: 2013/05/09
Channel: Studies Weekly
The Story of Martin Luther King Jr. by Kid President
The Story of Martin Luther King Jr. by Kid President
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: SoulPancake
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Video Message
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Video Message
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Arnold Schwarzenegger
Martin Luther King Jr. Day 2013: How Far Have We Come?
Martin Luther King Jr. Day 2013: How Far Have We Come?
Published: 2013/01/21
Channel: Seeker
The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. - MLK Day! (Animated)
The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. - MLK Day! (Animated)
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: 88 Brains
I HAVE A DREAM... MARTIN LUTHER KING - August 28, 1963
I HAVE A DREAM... MARTIN LUTHER KING - August 28, 1963
Published: 2010/12/17
Channel: CESSqc
Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King's Last Day
Published: 2013/04/05
Channel: NewsPoliticsInfo
Martin Luther King Jr. Day of Service Video
Martin Luther King Jr. Day of Service Video
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: The Obama White House
"We Shall Overcome" - Martin Luther King, Jr.
"We Shall Overcome" - Martin Luther King, Jr.
Published: 2008/01/29
Channel: trippin2billie
Martin Luther King Jr. - I
Martin Luther King Jr. - I've Been to the Mountaintop (Last Speech; Assassinated Next Day)
Published: 2012/01/16
Channel: AHAVA78
Martin Luther King, Jr. Parade 2017 - Jackson State University
Martin Luther King, Jr. Parade 2017 - Jackson State University
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: JSU Bands
Martin Luther King Jr. Day 2016
Martin Luther King Jr. Day 2016
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: GVSU
Our Friend, Martin
Our Friend, Martin
Published: 2012/01/05
Channel: dandmonline
Happy Martin Luther King Jr. Day! | The View
Happy Martin Luther King Jr. Day! | The View
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: The View
Participating in a Service Project for Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Participating in a Service Project for Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: The Obama White House
Why Do We Celebrate Martin Luther King Jr. Day?
Why Do We Celebrate Martin Luther King Jr. Day?
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: Siarra Schramm
Charlie Brown Martin Luther King Day
Charlie Brown Martin Luther King Day
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: kyle StyleS
WWE honors Martin Luther King Jr.
WWE honors Martin Luther King Jr.
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: WWE
Fun Cartoon on Dr.Martin Luther King Jr for Kids! Dr. Martin Luther King Jr Bio: Black History Month
Fun Cartoon on Dr.Martin Luther King Jr for Kids! Dr. Martin Luther King Jr Bio: Black History Month
Published: 2016/01/07
Channel: Educational Videos for Students (Cartoons on Bullying, Leadership & More)
Martin Luther King Jr. Day - mysimpleshow
Martin Luther King Jr. Day - mysimpleshow
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: simpleshow
Why We Celebrate - Martin Luther King Day
Why We Celebrate - Martin Luther King Day
Published: 2015/01/15
Channel: IKE CadetNewsNetwork
Large Parade Held In Miami For Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Large Parade Held In Miami For Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: CBS Miami
A DAY WITH MARTIN LUTHER KING JR!! - VLOG
A DAY WITH MARTIN LUTHER KING JR!! - VLOG
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Kway and LaLa
The Maccabeats and Naturally 7 - Shed a Little Light - MLK Jr. Day -  (James Taylor Cover)
The Maccabeats and Naturally 7 - Shed a Little Light - MLK Jr. Day - (James Taylor Cover)
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: MaccabeatsVideos
NASA Celebrates Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
NASA Celebrates Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: NASA
Rethinking Ronald Reagan
Rethinking Ronald Reagan's Martin Luther King, Jr. Day speech | Author Eddie Glaude
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: Signature Views
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (January 20) | This Day in History #42
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (January 20) | This Day in History #42
Published: 2014/01/20
Channel: Stuff You Should Know - HowStuffWorks
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Parade
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Parade
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: The Brunswick News
DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. DAY MEMORIAL CELEBRATION 2015 1
DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. DAY MEMORIAL CELEBRATION 2015 1
Published: 2015/01/27
Channel: Nazim ABDUL-LATIF
Martin Luther King Jr. Day 2017 @ CDS
Martin Luther King Jr. Day 2017 @ CDS
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Community Day School
D.C.
D.C.'s Martin Luther King Jr. Day parade
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: ABC7 WJLA
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Parade, Los Angeles
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Parade, Los Angeles
Published: 2008/01/24
Channel: BarackObamadotcom
Martin Luther King, Jr. said, "That dream that I had that day has turned into a nightmare."
Martin Luther King, Jr. said, "That dream that I had that day has turned into a nightmare."
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: NehemiYAH
6 year old sings Who Would Imagine a King for Martin Luther King Jr. Day
6 year old sings Who Would Imagine a King for Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: Heavenly Joy
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day 2017
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day 2017
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: OIC South Florida
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day in miami fl 1/16/2017
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day in miami fl 1/16/2017
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: jorge el montro
MARTIN LUTHER KING MLK DAY TALK BY A 3 YEAR OLD
MARTIN LUTHER KING MLK DAY TALK BY A 3 YEAR OLD
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Casey Simpson
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Turns In To Tragedy in Miami Florida
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Turns In To Tragedy in Miami Florida
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Road2Fame Network
Residents Celebrate Martin Luther King, Jr. Day At 31st Annual Kingdom Day Parade
Residents Celebrate Martin Luther King, Jr. Day At 31st Annual Kingdom Day Parade
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: CBS Los Angeles
Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination recalled by Taxi Driver witness
Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination recalled by Taxi Driver witness
Published: 2011/01/17
Channel: News 5 Cleveland
Tyron Woodley: Martin Luther King Jr. Day Tribute Video
Tyron Woodley: Martin Luther King Jr. Day Tribute Video
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Tyron Woodley
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Parade in Miami
Martin Luther King Jr. Day Parade in Miami
Published: 2014/01/21
Channel: Miami Herald
NASA Celebrates Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day of Service
NASA Celebrates Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day of Service
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: NASA
President Obama Delivers Remarks at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Dedication
President Obama Delivers Remarks at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Dedication
Published: 2011/10/16
Channel: The Obama White House
Cincinnati Martin Luther King Jr. Day events
Cincinnati Martin Luther King Jr. Day events
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: WCPO.com | 9 On Your Side
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day 2016
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day 2016
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: Casey Lucius
FULL: Rep. John Lewis Martin Luther King Day speech
FULL: Rep. John Lewis Martin Luther King Day speech
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: ABC15 Arizona
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King press conference 01269u edit.jpg
Martin Luther King Jr. in 1964
Official name Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr.
Also called MLK Day, King Day, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Observed by United States
Type National
Date Third Monday in January
2016 date January 18  (2016-01-18)
2017 date January 16  (2017-01-16)
2018 date January 15  (2018-01-15)
2019 date January 21  (2019-01-21)
Frequency Yearly

Martin Luther King Jr. Day (officially Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.)[1] is an American federal holiday marking the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. It is observed on the third Monday of January each year, which is around King's birthday, January 15. The holiday is similar to holidays set under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act.

King was the chief spokesman for nonviolent activism in the Civil Rights Movement, which successfully protested racial discrimination in federal and state law. The campaign for a federal holiday in King's honor began soon after his assassination in 1968. President Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, and it was first observed three years later. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays. It was officially observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000.

History[edit]

Sign from 1969 promoting a holiday to honor the anniversary of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

The idea of Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a holiday was promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations.[2] After King's death, U.S. Representative John Conyers (a Democrat from Michigan) and U.S. Senator Edward Brooke (a Republican from Massachusetts) introduced a bill in Congress to make King's birthday a national holiday. The bill first came to a vote in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1979. However, it fell five votes short of the number needed for passage.[3] Two of the main arguments mentioned by opponents were that a paid holiday for federal employees would be too expensive, and that a holiday to honor a private citizen would be contrary to longstanding tradition (King had never held public office).[3] Only two other figures have national holidays in the U.S. honoring them: George Washington and Christopher Columbus.

Soon after, the King Center turned to support from the corporate community and the general public. The success of this strategy was cemented when musician Stevie Wonder released the single "Happy Birthday" to popularize the campaign in 1980 and hosted the Rally for Peace Press Conference in 1981. Six million signatures were collected for a petition to Congress to pass the law, termed by a 2006 article in The Nation as "the largest petition in favor of an issue in U.S. history."[2]

Ronald Reagan and Coretta Scott King at the Martin Luther King Jr. Day signing ceremony.

Senators Jesse Helms and John Porter East (both North Carolina Republicans) led opposition to the holiday and questioned whether King was important enough to receive such an honor. Helms criticized King's opposition to the Vietnam War and accused him of espousing "action-oriented Marxism".[4] Helms led a filibuster against the bill and on October 3, 1983, submitted a 300-page document to the Senate alleging that King had associations with communists. New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan declared the document a "packet of filth", threw it on the Senate floor and stomped on it.[5][6]

President Ronald Reagan originally opposed the holiday, citing cost concerns. When asked to comment on Helms' accusations that King was a communist, the president said "We'll know in thirty-five years, won't we?", in reference to the eventual release of FBI surveillance tapes that had previously been sealed.[7] But on November 2, 1983, Reagan signed a bill, proposed by Representative Katie Hall of Indiana, to create a federal holiday honoring King.[8][9] The bill had passed the House of Representatives by a count of 338 to 90, a veto-proof margin.[4] The holiday was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986.

The bill also established the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal Holiday Commission to oversee observance of the holiday, and Coretta Scott King, King's wife, was made a member of this commission for life by President George H. W. Bush in May 1989.[10][11]

State-level passage[edit]

Although the federal holiday honoring King was signed into law in 1983 and took effect three years later, not every U.S. state chose to observe the holiday at the state level until 1991, when the New Hampshire legislature created "Civil Rights Day" and abolished "Fast Day".[12] In 2000, Utah became the last state to have a holiday named after King when "Human Rights Day" was officially changed to "Martin Luther King Jr. Day."[13]

In 1986, Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt, a Democrat, created a paid state MLK holiday in Arizona by executive order just before he left office, but in 1987, his Republican successor Evan Mecham, citing an attorney general's opinion that Babbitt's order was illegal, reversed Babbitt's decision days after taking office.[14] Later that year, Mecham proclaimed the third Sunday in January to be "Martin Luther King Jr./Civil Rights Day" in Arizona, albeit as an unpaid holiday.[15] In 1990, Arizona voters were given the opportunity to vote on giving state employees a paid MLK holiday. That same year, the National Football League threatened to move Super Bowl XXVII, which was planned for Arizona in 1993, if the MLK holiday was voted down.[16] In the November election, the voters were offered two King Day options: Proposition 301, which replaced Columbus Day on the list of paid state holidays, and Proposition 302, which merged Lincoln's and Washington's birthdays into one paid holiday to make room for MLK Day. Both measures failed to pass, with only 49% of voters approving Prop 302, the more popular of the two options; although some who voted "no" on 302 voted "yes" on Prop 301.[17] Consequently, the state lost the chance to host Super Bowl XXVII, which was subsequently held at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California.[16] In a 1992 referendum, the voters, this time given only one option for a paid King Day, approved state-level recognition of the holiday.[18]

On May 2, 2000, South Carolina governor Jim Hodges signed a bill to make King's birthday an official state holiday. South Carolina was the last state to recognize the day as a paid holiday for all state employees. Prior to this, employees could choose between celebrating Martin Luther King Jr. Day or one of three Confederate holidays.[19]

Alternative names[edit]

While all states now observe the holiday, some did not name the day after King. For example, in New Hampshire, the holiday was known as "Civil Rights Day" until 1999, when the State Legislature voted to change the name of the holiday to Martin Luther King Day.[20]

Several additional states have chosen to combine commemorations of King's birthday with other observances:

Workplace observance[edit]

Overall, in 2007, 33% of employers gave employees the day off, a 2% increase over the previous year. There was little difference in observance by large and small employers: 33% for firms with over 1,000 employees; and, 32% for firms with under 1,000 employees. The observance is most popular among nonprofit organizations and least popular among factories and manufacturers.[27] The reasons for this have varied, ranging from the recent addition of the holiday, to its occurrence just two weeks after the week between Christmas and New Year's Day, when many businesses are closed for part or sometimes all of the week. Additionally, many schools and places of higher education are closed for classes; others remain open but may hold seminars or celebrations of King's message. Some factories and manufacturers used MLK Day as a floating or movable holiday.[citation needed]

King Day of Service[edit]

In honor of the Martin Luther King Day of Service, President Barack Obama serves lunch in the dining room at So Others Might Eat, a soup kitchen in Washington, January 18, 2010.
A Martin Luther King Day march in Oregon

The national Martin Luther King Day of Service[28] was started by former Pennsylvania U.S. Senator Harris Wofford and Atlanta Congressman John Lewis, who co-authored the King Holiday and Service Act. The federal legislation challenges Americans to transform the King Holiday into a day of citizen action volunteer service in honor of King. The federal legislation was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on August 23, 1994. Since 1996, Wofford's former state office director, Todd Bernstein, has been directing the annual Greater Philadelphia King Day of Service,[29] the largest event in the nation honoring King.[30]

Several other universities and organizations around the U.S., such as Arizona State University, Greater DC Cares and City Year, participate in the Martin Luther King Jr. Day of Service. In honor of MLK, hundreds of Volunteer Centers, and volunteers across the country donate their time to make a difference on this day.[citation needed]

The only other official national day of service in the USA, as designated by the government, is September 11 National Day of Service (9/11 Day).[citation needed]

Outside the United States[edit]

One place outside the U.S. where Martin Luther King Jr. Day is observed with equal importance is in the Japanese city of Hiroshima under mayor Tadatoshi Akiba, who holds a special banquet at the mayor's office as an act of unifying his city's call for peace with King's message of human rights.[31]

The City of Toronto, in Ontario, Canada, is another city that has officially recognized Martin Luther King Jr. Day, although not as a paid holiday: all government services and businesses remain open.[32]

In 1984, during a visit by the U.S. Sixth Fleet, Navy chaplain Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff conducted the first Israeli presidential ceremony in commemoration of Martin Luther King Jr. Day, held in the President's Residence, Jerusalem. Aura Herzog, wife of Israel's then-President Chaim Herzog, noted that she was especially proud to host this special event, because Israel had a national forest in honor of King, and that Israel and King shared the idea of "dreams".[33] Resnicoff continued this theme in his remarks during the ceremony, quoting the verse from Genesis, spoken by the brothers of Joseph when they saw their brother approach, "Behold the dreamer comes; let us slay him and throw him into the pit, and see what becomes of his dreams." Resnicoff noted that, from time immemorial, there have been those who thought they could kill the dream by slaying the dreamer, but – as the example of King's life shows – such people are always wrong.[34]

Every year, since 1986, the Dr. Martin Luther King Tribute and Dinner is held in Wassenaar, The Netherlands.[35] The Tribute includes young people and veterans of the Civil Rights Movement as well as music. it always ends with everyone holding hands in a circle and singing "We Shall Overcome." The Tribute is held on the last Sunday in January and bridges Dr. King's birthday and Black History Month.[citation needed]

Dates[edit]

1985–2100

Year
January 21 1985 1991 2002 2008 2013 2019 2030 2036 2041 2047 2058 2064 2069 2075 2086 2092 2097
January 20 1986 1992 1997 2003 2014 2020 2025 2031 2042 2048 2053 2059 2070 2076 2081 2087 2098
January 19 1987 1998 2004 2009 2015 2026 2032 2037 2043 2054 2060 2065 2071 2082 2088 2093 2099
January 18 1988 1993 1999 2010 2016 2021 2027 2038 2044 2049 2055 2066 2072 2077 2083 2094 2100
January 17 1994 2000 2005 2011 2022 2028 2033 2039 2050 2056 2061 2067 2078 2084 2089 2095
January 16 1989 1995 2006 2012 2017 2023 2034 2040 2045 2051 2062 2068 2073 2079 2090 2096
January 15 1990 1996 2001 2007 2018 2024 2029 2035 2046 2052 2057 2063 2074 2080 2085 2091

See also[edit]

Other holidays honoring African Americans[edit]

Other civil rights holidays[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Federal Holidays". Opm.gov. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Jones, William P. (January 30, 2006). "Working-Class Hero". The Nation. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Wolfensberger, Don (January 14, 2008). "The Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday: The Long Struggle in Congress, An Introductory Essay" (PDF). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Dewar, Helen (October 4, 1983). "Helms Stalls King's Day in Senate". The Washington Post. p. A01. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  5. ^ Romero, Frances (January 18, 2010). "A Brief History of Martin Luther King Jr. Day". Time. 
  6. ^ Courtwright, David T. (2010). No Right Turn: Conservative Politics in a Liberal America. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-674-04677-3. 
  7. ^ Younge, Gary (September 2–9, 2013). "The Misremembering of 'I Have a Dream'". The Nation. Retrieved April 12, 2015. 
  8. ^ Woolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (November 2, 1983). "Ronald Reagan: Remarks on Signing the Bill Making the Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., a National Holiday". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  9. ^ Pub.L. 98–399, 98 Stat. 1475, enacted November 2, 1983
  10. ^ Woolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (May 17, 1989). "George Bush: Remarks on Signing the Martin Luther King Jr., Federal Holiday Commission Extension Act". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  11. ^ Pub.L. 101–30, 103 Stat. 60, enacted May 17, 1989
  12. ^ Gilbreth, Donna (1997). "Rise and Fall of Fast Day". New Hampshire State Library. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  13. ^ a b Petrie, Phil W. (May–June 2000). "The MLK holiday: Branches work to make it work". The New Crisis. Retrieved November 12, 2008. 
  14. ^ Ye Hee Lee, Michelle (January 15, 2012). "Recalling Arizona's struggle for MLK holiday". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 20, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Civil Rights Day in United States". timeanddate.com. Time and Date AS. Retrieved April 12, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "tucsonsentinel.com". tucsonsentinel.com. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  17. ^ Shumway, Jim (November 26, 1990). "STATE OF ARIZONA OFFICIAL CANVASS – GENERAL ELECTION – November 6, 1990" (PDF). Arizona Secretary of State ~ Home Page. Arizona Secretary of State. p. 12. Retrieved April 11, 2015. 
  18. ^ Reingold, Beth (2000). Representing Women: Sex, Gender, and Legislative Behavior in Arizona and California. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 66–. ISBN 9780807848500. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  19. ^ The History of Martin Luther King Day, Infoplease
  20. ^ Goldberg, Carey (May 26, 1999). "Contrarian New Hampshire To Honor Dr. King, at Last". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Calendar". Alabama.gov. 
  22. ^ "1–301. Holidays enumerated". Arizona Legislature. 
  23. ^ "TItle 73". Idaho.gov. 
  24. ^ "State Holidays". MS.gov. 
  25. ^ "CHAPTER 288 HOLIDAYS". New Hampshire General Court. 
  26. ^ Duran, April (April 10, 2000). "Virginia creates holiday honoring Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.". On The Lege. Virginia Commonwealth University. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  27. ^ Cody, Karen James (January 9, 2007). "More Employers Plan to Observe Martin Luther King Day". Bureau of National Affairs. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. 
  28. ^ "MLK Day – 1.18.2016". Corporation for National and Community Service. 
  29. ^ "Greater Philadelphia Martin Luther King Day of Service". Global Citizen. 
  30. ^ Moore, Doug (January 16, 2011). "MLK events in Missouri form man's legacy". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. 
  31. ^ 広島市ホームページリニューアルのお知らせ
  32. ^ Miller, David (2008). "City of Toronto Proclamation". City of Toronto. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. 
  33. ^ The Jewish Week & The American Examiner, pg 37, February 3, 1986.
  34. ^ Library of Congress Veterans History Project Oral History, Arnold Resnicoff, May 2010. At 1 hour 37 Min. http://memory.loc.gov/diglib/vhp/story/loc.natlib.afc2001001.70629/mv0001001.stream.
  35. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. Tribute Dinner". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in the Netherlands. 2017-01-30. Retrieved 2017-03-30. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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