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Dr Mary Schweitzer discovers T-rex blood cells - Horizon: Dinosaurs: The Hunt for Life - BBC Two
Dr Mary Schweitzer discovers T-rex blood cells - Horizon: Dinosaurs: The Hunt for Life - BBC Two
Published: 2013/08/22
Channel: BBC
Dr  Mary Schweitzer On Dinosaur DNA, Red Blood Cells, And The Age Of The Earth
Dr Mary Schweitzer On Dinosaur DNA, Red Blood Cells, And The Age Of The Earth
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: Bill Ludlow
Why paleontology? The role of a relic: Mary Schweitzer at TEDxBozeman
Why paleontology? The role of a relic: Mary Schweitzer at TEDxBozeman
Published: 2014/05/03
Channel: TEDx Talks
60 Minutes Presents: B-Rex
60 Minutes Presents: B-Rex
Published: 2010/12/26
Channel: CBS News
Mary Schweitzer P1
Mary Schweitzer P1
Published: 2011/04/09
Channel: mercurialism
Dr. Mary Schweitzer on T-Rex Soft Tissue Discovery.flv
Dr. Mary Schweitzer on T-Rex Soft Tissue Discovery.flv
Published: 2014/03/01
Channel: dino saur
Dinosaur Soft Tissue
Dinosaur Soft Tissue
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: Kaloyan Yorgov
Dr Mary Schweitzer On Threatening Emails
Dr Mary Schweitzer On Threatening Emails
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: Bill Ludlow
DINOSAUR SOFT TISSUES PROVE CREATION & BIBLE IS TRUE AND EVOLUTION IS WRONG
DINOSAUR SOFT TISSUES PROVE CREATION & BIBLE IS TRUE AND EVOLUTION IS WRONG
Published: 2016/06/07
Channel: Divine Health & Life
Dr. Mary Schweitzer joins the Great Debate Community to discuss dinosaur blood and her work.
Dr. Mary Schweitzer joins the Great Debate Community to discuss dinosaur blood and her work.
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: Steve McRae
Faith and Science; Dr. Mary Schweitzer and Dr. Randy Isaac
Faith and Science; Dr. Mary Schweitzer and Dr. Randy Isaac
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: PineCreek
Dinosaur Soft Tissues - The Fantastic Discoveries of Mary Schweitzer
Dinosaur Soft Tissues - The Fantastic Discoveries of Mary Schweitzer
Published: 2012/04/23
Channel: Seanpit1
T Rex Femur Bone Raw Blood Cells
T Rex Femur Bone Raw Blood Cells
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Janessa Cooper
MECFS Alert Episode 14 - Patient Perspectives: Mary Schweitzer
MECFS Alert Episode 14 - Patient Perspectives: Mary Schweitzer
Published: 2011/12/03
Channel: ME/CFS Alert
Mary Schweitzer
Mary Schweitzer's paper
Published: 2014/07/19
Channel: Phoneybeetlemaniacxs
Dinosaur Soft Tissue Discovery The Fidelity of this message
Dinosaur Soft Tissue Discovery The Fidelity of this message
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: Gregory Mason
28 - Public Testimony  Schweitzer CFSAC May 2010
28 - Public Testimony Schweitzer CFSAC May 2010
Published: 2010/05/15
Channel: CFSACvideos
Tissue in Dinosaur Bones: An Update 6-20-2015 by Paul Giem
Tissue in Dinosaur Bones: An Update 6-20-2015 by Paul Giem
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: ItIsAboutGod
Hall of Shame: Mischaracterizing Mary Schweitzer yet again
Hall of Shame: Mischaracterizing Mary Schweitzer yet again
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: Max Trivium
Mary Schweitzer P2
Mary Schweitzer P2
Published: 2011/04/09
Channel: mercurialism
Molecular evidence that T-rex is distant cousin to modern chicken
Molecular evidence that T-rex is distant cousin to modern chicken
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
NOVA scienceNOW : 30 - Trex Blood
NOVA scienceNOW : 30 - Trex Blood
Published: 2012/08/05
Channel: araniel
Is Genesis History, Science? Part 7 - Dinosaur Soft Tissue (feat. Dr. Mary Schweitzer)
Is Genesis History, Science? Part 7 - Dinosaur Soft Tissue (feat. Dr. Mary Schweitzer)
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Paulogia
CFSAC October 13 2010 Afternoon Public Testimony Mary Schweitzer.wmv
CFSAC October 13 2010 Afternoon Public Testimony Mary Schweitzer.wmv
Published: 2010/10/14
Channel: Khalyal
Dear Young Earth Creationists, No Dinosaur Soft Tissue Has Ever Been Found
Dear Young Earth Creationists, No Dinosaur Soft Tissue Has Ever Been Found
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: Conservative News
Dr. Mary Schweitzer
Dr. Mary Schweitzer's live hangout *AFTERSHOW*
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: Steve McRae
Creation Today Claims - Disney Dinosaur Extinction (feat. Dr. Mary Schweitzer)
Creation Today Claims - Disney Dinosaur Extinction (feat. Dr. Mary Schweitzer)
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Paulogia
Which History Fits Best? - Ep 1 - Dinosaur soft tissue
Which History Fits Best? - Ep 1 - Dinosaur soft tissue
Published: 2016/05/04
Channel: CMIcreationstation
Dinosaur Soft Tissue Destroys Millions of Years Ideas - HD
Dinosaur Soft Tissue Destroys Millions of Years Ideas - HD
Published: 2011/08/26
Channel: CreationScience
Taking Questions for Dr. Mary Schweitzer (Thursday) & Dr. Tomkins "coordinator" responds to the GDC
Taking Questions for Dr. Mary Schweitzer (Thursday) & Dr. Tomkins "coordinator" responds to the GDC
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: Steve McRae
Proposition to Mary H Schweitzer: do a C14-test on the T-Rex bone tissues
Proposition to Mary H Schweitzer: do a C14-test on the T-Rex bone tissues
Published: 2014/01/28
Channel: thewaytruthandlife
Adam Schweitzer - Mary
Adam Schweitzer - Mary
Published: 2015/08/28
Channel: Adam Schweitzer
Museum of the Rockies - Soft Tissue Discovery
Museum of the Rockies - Soft Tissue Discovery
Published: 2014/10/13
Channel: John Little
Refutando Criacionistas da Terra Jovem Parte 3/4
Refutando Criacionistas da Terra Jovem Parte 3/4
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Nix Dorf
April 10, 2017
April 10, 2017
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: Mary Schweitzer
Dinosaur Soft Tissue vesves Dr. Mary Schweitzer
Dinosaur Soft Tissue vesves Dr. Mary Schweitzer
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Matthew Osborne
Dr. Mary Schweitzer and Atheist Round Table: Debunked (Science vs Scientism Episode 13)
Dr. Mary Schweitzer and Atheist Round Table: Debunked (Science vs Scientism Episode 13)
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Cathexis
IRON1B
IRON1B
Published: 2015/09/25
Channel: MarkHArmitage
Scientist Fired After Soft Tissue Found On A Dinosaur Fossil!
Scientist Fired After Soft Tissue Found On A Dinosaur Fossil!
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Gms HollandZ
Dinosaurs OFFICALLY YOUNG: A RECORDED CALL you
Dinosaurs OFFICALLY YOUNG: A RECORDED CALL you'll want to HEAR
Published: 2015/06/09
Channel: Trey Smith
Dinosaur Protein Denial
Dinosaur Protein Denial
Published: 2011/05/17
Channel: CMIcreationstation
Dinosaur to bird evolution 1of5
Dinosaur to bird evolution 1of5
Published: 2008/11/10
Channel: djarm67
2016 Crime Epi. NOVA ScienceNow S02E05 T Rex Blood, Epigenetics, Kryptos
2016 Crime Epi. NOVA ScienceNow S02E05 T Rex Blood, Epigenetics, Kryptos
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: michelle white
DEBUNKING "The Greatest Lie Ever Told" (Part 4)
DEBUNKING "The Greatest Lie Ever Told" (Part 4)
Published: 2015/05/14
Channel: ExaByte Spyder
Dino Protein is for the Birds
Dino Protein is for the Birds
Published: 2007/04/26
Channel: DNA Learning Center
Dinosaur to bird evolution 2of5
Dinosaur to bird evolution 2of5
Published: 2008/11/10
Channel: djarm67
Dinosaur to bird evolution 5of5
Dinosaur to bird evolution 5of5
Published: 2008/11/10
Channel: djarm67
Pastor Chui Dinosaur Soft Tissue Case Strenghtened
Pastor Chui Dinosaur Soft Tissue Case Strenghtened
Published: 2012/11/13
Channel: Christopher Chui
Dinosaur to bird evolution 3of5
Dinosaur to bird evolution 3of5
Published: 2008/11/10
Channel: djarm67
Dinosaur to bird evolution 3 of 5
Dinosaur to bird evolution 3 of 5
Published: 2010/07/02
Channel: mrphoo67
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Mary Higby Schweitzer
Nationality American
Citizenship United States
Alma mater B.S., Communicative Disorders,
Utah State University, 1977
Ph. D., Biology,
Montana State University, 1995
Scientific career
Fields Paleontology

Mary Higby Schweitzer is a paleontologist at North Carolina State University, who is known for leading the groups that discovered the remains of blood cells in dinosaur fossils and later discovered soft tissue remains in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen MOR 1125,[1][2] as well as evidence that the specimen was a gravid female when she died.[3] More recently, Schweitzer's work has shown molecular similarities between Tyrannosaurus remains and chickens, providing further evidence of the bird-dinosaur connection.[4]

Biography[edit]

Schweitzer earned a B.S. in Communicative Disorders from Utah State University in 1977, and got a Certificate of Secondary Education in Broadfield Science from Montana State University in 1988. Under the direction of mentor Jack Horner, she received her Ph.D. in Biology from Montana State University in 1995.

Mary Higby Schweitzer´s mobile laboratory, Museum of the Rockies, Bozeman (Montana)

She has three children.[5]

Based at the North Carolina State University, Schweitzer is currently researching Molecular Paleontology, molecular diagenesis and taphonomy, evolution of physiological and reproductive strategies in dinosaurs and their bird descendants, and astrobiology.[6]

Discoveries[edit]

In 2000, Bob Harmon, chief preparator of paleontology at the Museum of the Rockies, discovered a Tyrannosaurus skeleton in the Hell Creek Formation in Montana. After a two-year retrieval process, Jack Horner, director of the Museum, gave the femur bone to Schweitzer. Schweitzer was able to retrieve proteins from this femur in 2007.[7]

Schweitzer was the first researcher to identify and isolate soft tissues from a 68-million-year-old fossil bone. The soft tissues are collagen, a connective protein. Amino acid sequencing of several samples have shown matches with the known collagens of chickens, frogs, newts and other animals. Prior to Schweitzer’s discovery, the oldest soft tissue recovered from a fossil was less than one million years old.[8] Schweitzer has also isolated organic compounds and antigenic structures in sauropod egg shells.[9] With respect to the significance of her work, Kevin Padian, Curator of Paleontology, University of California Museum of Paleontology, has stated "Chemicals that might degrade in a laboratory over a short period need not do so in a protected natural chemical environment...it's time to readjust our thinking."[8]

Schweitzer previously announced similar discoveries in 1993.[10][11] Since then, the claim of discovering soft tissues in a 68 million year old fossil has been disputed by some molecular biologists. Later research by Kaye et al.[12] published in PLoS ONE (30 July 2008) challenged the claims that the material found is the soft tissue of Tyrannosaurus. A more recent study (October 2010) published in PLoS ONE contradicts the conclusion of Kaye and supports Schweitzer's original conclusion.[13] Evidence for the extraction of short segments of ancient DNA from dinosaur fossils has been reported on two separate occasions.[14] The extraction of protein, soft tissue, remnant cells and organelle-like structures from dinosaur fossils has been confirmed.[15][16][17] Blood-derived porphyrin proteins have also been discovered in a mid Eocene mosquito fossil.[18]

Schweitzer has also discovered that iron particles may play a part in the preservation of soft tissue over geologic time.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schweitzer, Mary H.; Wittmeyer, Jennifer L.; Horner, John R. (2007). "Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present". Proc Biol Sci. 274 (1607): 183–97. PMC 1685849Freely accessible. PMID 17148248. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3705. 
  2. ^ Hitt J (2005). "New discoveries hint there's a lot more in fossil bones than we thought". Discover. October. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on February 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  3. ^ "Geologists Find First Clue To Tyrannosaurus Rex Gender In Bone Tissue". Science Daily. 2005-06-03. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  4. ^ Clabby, Catherine (2007-04-13). "T. rex remains yield new treasure". News &Observer. Archived from the original on August 16, 2009. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  5. ^ Yeoman, Barry (2006). "Schweitzer's Dangerous Discovery". Discover (April). 
  6. ^ "Schweitzer bio page". NCSU. 
  7. ^ Wilfor, John Noble (April 12, 2007). "Scientists Retrieve Proteins From Dinosaur Bone". New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Perlman, David (April 13, 2007). "T. Rex Tissue Offers Evolution Insights". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  9. ^ Schweitzer, Mary H.; Chiappe, L; Garrido, A.C; Lowenstein, J.M; Pincus, S.H (April 22, 2005). "Molecular preservation in Late Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur eggshells". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 272 (1565): 775–784. PMC 1599869Freely accessible. PMID 15888409. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2876. 
  10. ^ Schweitzer, Mary H. (Sep 23, 1993). "Biomolecule Preservation in Tyrannosaurus Rex". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 13: 56A. doi:10.1080/02724634.1993.10011533. 
  11. ^ Schweitzer, Mary H.; Cano, R. J.; Horner, J. R. (Sep 7, 1994). "Multiple Lines of Evidence for the Preservation of Collagen and Other Biomolecules in Undemineralized Bone from Tyrannosaurus Rex". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 14: 45A. doi:10.1080/02724634.1994.10011592. 
  12. ^ Kaye, Thomas G.; Gaugler, Gary; Sawlowicz, Zbigniew (July 30, 2008). Stepanova, Anna, ed. "Dinosaurian Soft Tissues Interpreted as Bacterial Biofilms". PLoS ONE. 3 (7): e2808. PMC 2483347Freely accessible. PMID 18665236. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002808. 
  13. ^ Peterson, J. E.; Lenczewski, M. E.; Reed, P. S. (October 2010). Stepanova, Anna, ed. "Influence of Microbial Biofilms on the Preservation of Primary Soft Tissue in Fossil and Extant Archosaurs". PLoS ONE. 5 (10): 13A. PMC 2953520Freely accessible. PMID 20967227. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013334. 
  14. ^ Schweitzer MH, Zheng W, Cleland TP, Bern M (2012-10-17). "Molecular analyses of dinosaur osteocytes support the presence of endogenous molecules". Bone. 52 (1): 414–23. PMID 23085295. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2012.10.010. 
  15. ^ San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P. R. O. (2011-06-08). Van Veen, Hendrik W., ed. "Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival". PLoS ONE. 6 (6): e20381. PMC 3110760Freely accessible. PMID 21687667. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020381. 
  16. ^ Armitage, Mark H.; Anderson, Kevin L. (2013-02-13). "Soft sheets of fibrillar bone from a fossil of the supraorbital horn of the dinosaur Triceratops horridus". Acta Histochemica. 115 (6): 603–8. PMID 23414624. doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2013.01.001. 
  17. ^ Cleland, Timothy P.; Schroeter, Elena R. (2015-11-23). "Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus Canadensis". Journal of Proteome Research. 14 (12): 5252–5262. PMC 4768904Freely accessible. PMID 26595531. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00675. 
  18. ^ Greenwalta, Dale E.; Gorevab, Yulia S.; Siljeströmb, Sandra M.; Roseb, Tim; Harbache, Ralph E. (2013-02-13). "Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins preserved in a Middle Eocene blood-engorged mosquito". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (46): 18496–18500. PMC 3831950Freely accessible. PMID 24127577. doi:10.1073/pnas.1310885110. 
  19. ^ Schweitzer, Mary H.; Zheng, Wenxia; Cleland, Timothy P.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Boatman, Elizabeth; Theil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C. (January 2014). "A role for iron and oxygen chemistry in preserving soft tissues, cells and molecules from deep time". Proc. R. Soc. B. 281: 20132741. PMC 3866414Freely accessible. PMID 24285202. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2741. 

External links[edit]

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