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Rosa Parks: A Beloved (and Resented) Icon of the Civil Rights Movement - Biography
Rosa Parks: A Beloved (and Resented) Icon of the Civil Rights Movement - Biography
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: The Film Archives
Rosa Parks (Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005))
Rosa Parks (Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005))
Published: 2016/04/07
Channel: FOALENG LOWE Rene
ROSA PARKS BUS
ROSA PARKS BUS
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: JAW BOB
Book | Madam Chairman: Mary Louise Smith and the Republican Revival after Watergate
Book | Madam Chairman: Mary Louise Smith and the Republican Revival after Watergate
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Luciano Villasenor
Rosa Parks: President Obama Dedicates a Statue in Honor of the Civil Rights Leader (2013)
Rosa Parks: President Obama Dedicates a Statue in Honor of the Civil Rights Leader (2013)
Published: 2013/03/03
Channel: Political History
What Did Jo Ann Robinson Do For The Civil Rights Movement
What Did Jo Ann Robinson Do For The Civil Rights Movement
Published: 2017/11/29
Channel: Sri View
What Did Jo Ann Robinson Do For The Civil Rights Movement
What Did Jo Ann Robinson Do For The Civil Rights Movement
Published: 2017/12/07
Channel: Charline Hollar Tipz
What Did Jo Ann Robinson Do For The Civil Rights Movement
What Did Jo Ann Robinson Do For The Civil Rights Movement
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: sparky heights
Claudette Colvin
Claudette Colvin
Published: 2014/07/12
Channel: Audiopedia
Phillip M. Hoose & Claudette Colvin: 2010 National Book Festival
Phillip M. Hoose & Claudette Colvin: 2010 National Book Festival
Published: 2010/10/13
Channel: LibraryOfCongress
Why We
Why We're Not Told the Truth about Rosa Parks | Interview with Wilmer Leon
Published: 2014/12/03
Channel: breakingtheset
John F. Kennedy 100th Anniversary: 2017 National Book Festival
John F. Kennedy 100th Anniversary: 2017 National Book Festival
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: LibraryOfCongress
Top 10 Most Famous Lesbians in History
Top 10 Most Famous Lesbians in History
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: BestTop10
Oral History on the Founding of Sojourner House by Students at Brown University
Oral History on the Founding of Sojourner House by Students at Brown University
Published: 2016/04/19
Channel: Brown University
The Market: Women Artists from Collection to Cultural Record
The Market: Women Artists from Collection to Cultural Record
Published: 2011/12/27
Channel: Brooklyn Museum
HIDDENROANOKE
HIDDENROANOKE
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: WFXR NEWS
CITIBANK GROUP WORLDWIDE (AO-OFFICIAL COMMUNIQUE)
CITIBANK GROUP WORLDWIDE (AO-OFFICIAL COMMUNIQUE)
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: AlphaOmega Code: MRO-026
Teachers College Convocation 2017 - Masters I
Teachers College Convocation 2017 - Masters I
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Teachers College, Columbia University
Dustin Lance Black at the PFLAG LA Event 2010
Dustin Lance Black at the PFLAG LA Event 2010
Published: 2010/10/04
Channel: Red Carpet Report on Mingle Media TV
The 2015 Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards Ceremony
The 2015 Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards Ceremony
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: ideastream
Oh Shenandoah
Oh Shenandoah
Published: 2015/01/05
Channel: hbostore
Night I Part I
Night I Part I
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: ABCTVONDEMAND
ACCESS News Kathy Miller
ACCESS News Kathy Miller
Published: 2011/11/14
Channel: Civication, Inc. ~
Convocation Thursday, November 16, 2017, 9:30 a.m.
Convocation Thursday, November 16, 2017, 9:30 a.m.
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: McMasterUTV
From the Ashes
From the Ashes
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: FHEfoxconnect
Let Rosa Be the One: Constitutive Exclusion and Political Unintelligibility
Let Rosa Be the One: Constitutive Exclusion and Political Unintelligibility
Published: 2015/03/04
Channel: RowanCHSS
Khalil Gibran Muhammad in Conversation with Robert Reid-Pharr
Khalil Gibran Muhammad in Conversation with Robert Reid-Pharr
Published: 2013/05/16
Channel: The Graduate Center, CUNY
Women
Women's March State Representative Donna Bullock D Philadelphia 195th Legislative District SD
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: stronger together
MLK Week 2017: Dr. Derrick Brooms
MLK Week 2017: Dr. Derrick Brooms
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Highline College
Current Conversations: NCORE 2016, Adrienne Keene, Episode #107
Current Conversations: NCORE 2016, Adrienne Keene, Episode #107
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: OU Outreach Video & Media Services
Smith College 2015 Commencement Ceremony Complete Webcast
Smith College 2015 Commencement Ceremony Complete Webcast
Published: 2015/05/18
Channel: Smith College
2016 Selden Society Lecture - David Jackson AM QC on Sir Harry Gibbs CJ
2016 Selden Society Lecture - David Jackson AM QC on Sir Harry Gibbs CJ
Published: 2016/03/28
Channel: Supreme Court Library Queensland
Campus Welcome: President-Elect Kathleen McCartney
Campus Welcome: President-Elect Kathleen McCartney
Published: 2013/01/28
Channel: Smith College
Williams Commencement 2017: Full Ceremony
Williams Commencement 2017: Full Ceremony
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: WilliamsCollege
Georgia Tech Doctoral and Masters Ceremony Spring 2017
Georgia Tech Doctoral and Masters Ceremony Spring 2017
Published: 2017/05/12
Channel: Georgia Tech
ZEITGEIST: MOVING FORWARD | OFFICIAL RELEASE | 2011
ZEITGEIST: MOVING FORWARD | OFFICIAL RELEASE | 2011
Published: 2011/01/26
Channel: TZMOfficialChannel
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Published: 2014/11/24
Channel: weinsteinvod
Inauguration of President William C  Dudley
Inauguration of President William C Dudley
Published: 2017/09/25
Channel: Washington and Lee University
Spring Commencement 2017
Spring Commencement 2017
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: University of Evansville
Auburn Coach Wife Kristi Malzahn Agrees with Match & eHarmony: Men are Jerks
Auburn Coach Wife Kristi Malzahn Agrees with Match & eHarmony: Men are Jerks
Published: 2011/11/29
Channel: Shari Wing
The Amazing Nina Simone
The Amazing Nina Simone
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: PremiereDigitalServ
Feminist Change and the University: A Panel of Brown University Faculty (Video 2 of 3)
Feminist Change and the University: A Panel of Brown University Faculty (Video 2 of 3)
Published: 2015/03/18
Channel: Brown University
2014 Iowa Women
2014 Iowa Women's Hall of Fame Ceremony
Published: 2014/09/18
Channel: iahumanrights
2013 Iowa Women
2013 Iowa Women's Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony
Published: 2013/09/17
Channel: iahumanrights
State of Michigan Board of Education Open Forum
State of Michigan Board of Education Open Forum
Published: 2011/05/31
Channel: GRCCtv
Gary Lavergne talks about his new book "Before Brown" in the Texas Union
Gary Lavergne talks about his new book "Before Brown" in the Texas Union
Published: 2011/02/01
Channel: The University of Texas at Austin
University of Iowa Graduate College Commencement - May 13, 2016
University of Iowa Graduate College Commencement - May 13, 2016
Published: 2016/05/14
Channel: University of Iowa
Jackson, MS: Consumer Advisory Board Meeting
Jackson, MS: Consumer Advisory Board Meeting
Published: 2013/09/20
Channel: cfpbvideo
The 86th Annual Spring Commencement, May 2014
The 86th Annual Spring Commencement, May 2014
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: UNCA Ramsey Library Video Production
Spring 2017 Undergraduate Commencement Ceremony
Spring 2017 Undergraduate Commencement Ceremony
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: UMBC Life
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Mary Louise Smith (later Mary Louise Smith Ware) (born 1937) is an African-American civil rights activist. She is notable for having been arrested in October 1955 at the age of 18 in Montgomery, Alabama for refusing to give up her seat on the segregated bus system. She is one of several women who were arrested for this offense prior to Rosa Parks that year. Parks was the figure around whom the Montgomery Bus Boycott was organized, starting December 5, 1955.[1]

On February 1, 1956, Smith was one of five women named as plaintiffs in the federal civil suit, Browder v. Gayle, challenging the constitutionality of the state and local bus segregation laws. On June 13, 1956, a three-judge panel of the United States District Court ruled that the laws were unconstitutional. The ruling was upheld by the United States Supreme Court on November 13 in a landmark decision, and in December it declined to reconsider. On December 20, 1956, the Supreme Court ordered Alabama to desegregate its buses and the Montgomery Bus Boycott ended.

Early life and education[edit]

Mary Louise Smith was born in Montgomery, Alabama into a Catholic family. She and all her siblings attended and graduated from St. Jude Educational Institute. She is still a member of St. Jude Church, where she was baptized.

At the age of 18, on October 21, 1955, Smith was returning home on the Montgomery city bus, and was ordered to relinquish her seat to a white passenger who had boarded later. She refused to do so and was arrested. She was charged with failure to obey segregation orders, some 40 days before the arrest of Rosa Parks on similar charges. Her father bailed her out of jail and paid her nine-dollar fine. The incident was initially known only to family and neighbors.

Later a cousin, at a mass meeting to support a planned bus boycott, discussed her case with organizers. Attorney Fred Gray asked Smith and her father to become plaintiffs in a civil rights class-action lawsuit to end segregated seating on city buses. Her father agreed, for he wanted justice.

Browder v. Gayle[edit]

On February 1, 1956, Gray and other attorneys filed a civil suit, Browder v. Gayle in the United States District Court, challenging state and local laws on bus segregation. Smith was one of five plaintiffs, including Aurelia Browder, Claudette Colvin, Susie McDonald, and Jeanette Reese. (Reese left the case that month because of intimidation.)[2][3] The women testified before a three-judge panel, and on June 13, 1956, the court ruled that the laws were unconstitutional, based on equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment.

Appealed by the city and state, the case made its way to the United States Supreme Court. On November 13, 1956, it affirmed the lower court's ruling. On December 17, it declined an appeal by the city and state to reconsider, and on December 20 ordered the state to desegregate its buses. This ended the Montgomery Bus Boycott with success.

Later years[edit]

Smith married a Mr. Ware and they had four children together. They later divorced. Smith Ware continued to work for civil rights beyond the boycott and trial. For instance, she worked on voting rights campaigns before passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965, and participated in the 1963 March on Washington. In 1969, Smith contacted civil rights attorney Morris Dees to sue the Montgomery Y.M.C.A for not allowing her and her sister's children into their summer camp program.[4][5]

Smith is active with her 12 grandchildren and great-grandchildren. She enjoys reading, and she is active in several of her church auxiliaries and senior citizen clubs.

In 1995, Smith was told by a news reporter, that she had been discussed as being a test case by black leaders in relation to organizing a bus boycott. She was told they had not picked her because her father was said to be an alcoholic,[6] and they did not want any grounds for criticism of participants. Smith said this was untrue, and she was bothered more by the rumor than by having had her own contributions overlooked. Given the national attention commanded by the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Parks is the woman most associated with the issue. Smith was proud to be among the four women who took their case to the United States Supreme Court.

When Rosa Parks died in October 2005, Smith Ware, then 68, attended the memorial service in Montgomery. "I had to pay my tribute to her," Ware said. "She was our role model."[7]

Representation in popular culture[edit]

  • Rita Dove, a United States poet laureate, mentions Mary Louise Smith in her poem "The Enactment", in her collection, On the Bus with Rosa Parks (1999). She also referred to the young activist in her magazine article "The Torchbearer Rosa Parks".[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Horace Randall Williams; Ben Beard (2009). his Day in Civil Rights History. NewSouth Books. p. 319. ISBN 978-1-58835-241-5. Retrieved 11 January 2011. 
  2. ^ Dr. Gwen Patton. "Montgomery Bus Boycott — Biographic Sketches". Trenholm State Technical College Archives. Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Aurelia S. Browder et al. v. W. A. Gayle et al., No. 1147". National Archives. Retrieved October 22, 2016. 
  4. ^ Dees, Morris (2001). A Lawyer's Journey: The Morris Dees Story. Chicago: American Bar Association Publications. pp. 108–12, 131–33. ISBN 1570739943. 
  5. ^ "Smith v. Young Men's Christian Association". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2016-10-22. 
  6. ^ Brookes Barnes (November 25, 2009). "From Footnote to Fame in Civil Rights History". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  7. ^ "Other heroes of bus boycott". http://chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  External link in |website= (help)
  8. ^ [1], TIME, June 14, 1999

External links[edit]

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