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Mass Media in the United States
Mass Media in the United States
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: jc18634
FOX NEWS REACTION ON TRUMP WELCOME MODI (AMERICAN MEDIA PRAISING INDIA AND NARENDRA MODI)
FOX NEWS REACTION ON TRUMP WELCOME MODI (AMERICAN MEDIA PRAISING INDIA AND NARENDRA MODI)
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Videsh TV
Who owns the media.
Who owns the media.
Published: 2012/10/28
Channel: Dr. Strangelove
Propaganda Terms in the Media and What They Mean - Noam Chomsky
Propaganda Terms in the Media and What They Mean - Noam Chomsky
Published: 2012/06/01
Channel: The Film Archives
The United States of Hate: From Springsteen to Fake News Alt-Left Media, Hate Motivates the Masses
The United States of Hate: From Springsteen to Fake News Alt-Left Media, Hate Motivates the Masses
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: Lionel Nation
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Trump Breaking News Network
UNITED STATES READY to PULL The TRIGGER on NORTH KOREA!?
UNITED STATES READY to PULL The TRIGGER on NORTH KOREA!?
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: GONEWS
How social media makes us unsocial | Allison Graham | TEDxSMU
How social media makes us unsocial | Allison Graham | TEDxSMU
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: TEDx Talks
WATCH: The Biggest Media Meltdowns to Trump
WATCH: The Biggest Media Meltdowns to Trump's Win
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: MRCTV
NWO and the United States: the Vatican controls the US media
NWO and the United States: the Vatican controls the US media
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: Follower of Christ777
"DIVISIVE PRESIDENT OF THE United States"
"DIVISIVE PRESIDENT OF THE United States"
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: SHYDUX MEDIA
Media Censorship in the United States
Media Censorship in the United States
Published: 2013/11/09
Channel: Ashley Marin
US media on INDIA Independence Day 2017
US media on INDIA Independence Day 2017
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: GOOD news INDIA
Finnish politician: Jews control money, media in the United States
Finnish politician: Jews control money, media in the United States
Published: 2012/12/01
Channel: om86xx
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Published: 2017/03/23
Channel: THE WATCH DOG MEDIA
PAKI MEDIA -UNITED STATES WARN PAKISTAN "DO MORE, OTHERWISE YOU WILL BE NO MORE"
PAKI MEDIA -UNITED STATES WARN PAKISTAN "DO MORE, OTHERWISE YOU WILL BE NO MORE"
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: PAKI COMEDY CLUB
Denmark versus United States Media
Denmark versus United States Media
Published: 2014/06/17
Channel: Favorite Vlogger
Japan vs United States of America - Military Power Comparison 2017
Japan vs United States of America - Military Power Comparison 2017
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Daily Media
Full Show - Emergency: Communist Chinese Attempt Takeover Of United States Media - 01/26/2017
Full Show - Emergency: Communist Chinese Attempt Takeover Of United States Media - 01/26/2017
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: The Alex Jones Channel
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Lucid Dreamer
R. McChesney: Media and Politics in the United States Today
R. McChesney: Media and Politics in the United States Today
Published: 2008/11/14
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: MLN-TV.COM
NWO and the United States: the media admits using mind control
NWO and the United States: the media admits using mind control
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Christianman777
WATCH: Great American Eclipse Footage from NASA around the United States
WATCH: Great American Eclipse Footage from NASA around the United States
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: Golden State Times
US Media Plunges Into Epic Meltdown After Trump Downs Top FBI “Swamp Monster”
US Media Plunges Into Epic Meltdown After Trump Downs Top FBI “Swamp Monster”
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Anonymous EXPOSED
UNITED STATES WANTS MILITARY READY for KOREA!?
UNITED STATES WANTS MILITARY READY for KOREA!?
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: GONEWS
UNITED STATES and SOUTH KOREA starts MASSIVE DRILLS!
UNITED STATES and SOUTH KOREA starts MASSIVE DRILLS!
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: GONEWS
Who Controls the MASS MEDIA in the United States?
Who Controls the MASS MEDIA in the United States?
Published: 2008/09/11
Channel: INFOaboutISRAEL
13. MEDIA CONCENTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES
13. MEDIA CONCENTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES
Published: 2010/10/30
Channel: JENSEN4PRESIDENT2020
Russia, the United States, and the Growing Media War
Russia, the United States, and the Growing Media War
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Verso Books
First Amendment vs The Media?
First Amendment vs The Media?
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: RT America
STATE MEDIA in the United States of America - DESPICABLE!
STATE MEDIA in the United States of America - DESPICABLE!
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: BestPoliticalVideos
United States of....Russia? Social media crazy over
United States of....Russia? Social media crazy over 'USR' Trump pre-inaugural fireworks
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: RT
THE BANKRUPTCY OF THE UNITED STATES - JAMES TRAFICANT
THE BANKRUPTCY OF THE UNITED STATES - JAMES TRAFICANT
Published: 2016/05/25
Channel: RTR TRUTH MEDIA™ Tom Lacovara Stewart
CHINA and UNITED STATES MEETS OVER KOREA TENSIONS
CHINA and UNITED STATES MEETS OVER KOREA TENSIONS
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: GONEWS
Bitcoin adoption in the United States of America (USA)
Bitcoin adoption in the United States of America (USA)
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: Bit Media
China next generation aircraft official exposure! Russian media said the United States will become a
China next generation aircraft official exposure! Russian media said the United States will become a
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: MILITARY NEWS UPDATE
UNITED STATES officially puts TRADE PROBE on CHINA
UNITED STATES officially puts TRADE PROBE on CHINA
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: GONEWS
WORLD LEADERS SCARED of UNITED STATES STRIFE With NORTH KOREA
WORLD LEADERS SCARED of UNITED STATES STRIFE With NORTH KOREA
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: GONEWS
Client Testimonial - ABUV Media ( San Francisco, United States )
Client Testimonial - ABUV Media ( San Francisco, United States )
Published: 2015/01/09
Channel: Multidots Solutions Pvt Ltd
United States MEDIA pushing WWIII
United States MEDIA pushing WWIII
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: state of emergency
Pakistan Media Post Analysis of Modi
Pakistan Media Post Analysis of Modi's Visit to United States | Trump & Modi Great Partners
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: MEGA INDIA
ALTAR OF PRAISE CONCERT, United States Vomoz Media 1920x1080 MOV 2
ALTAR OF PRAISE CONCERT, United States Vomoz Media 1920x1080 MOV 2
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: Christopher Ejenake
Former United States Secretary of Education Speaks on WH Ban The Media & Russian Hacks.
Former United States Secretary of Education Speaks on WH Ban The Media & Russian Hacks.
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
NWO and the United States: mainstream media lies linked to government propaganda (1)
NWO and the United States: mainstream media lies linked to government propaganda (1)
Published: 2014/03/23
Channel: Christianman777
Biafra Debate continues in DC United States. PANEL 5: Transnational Media Images ..
Biafra Debate continues in DC United States. PANEL 5: Transnational Media Images ..
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: Restore Biafra
NORTH KOREA CLAIMS ONLY TO AIM  AT UNITED STATES ALLIES!
NORTH KOREA CLAIMS ONLY TO AIM AT UNITED STATES ALLIES!
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: GONEWS
United States Media - US Media - USM
United States Media - US Media - USM
Published: 2016/01/16
Channel: United States Media
Top Fast Food Chains on Social Media in the United States
Top Fast Food Chains on Social Media in the United States
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: Slidez Plaza
Trump Is Furious That The Media Is Still Mad At His Response To Charlottesville
Trump Is Furious That The Media Is Still Mad At His Response To Charlottesville
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: The Ring of Fire
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Media of the United States consist of several different types of media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites. The U.S. also has a strong music industry. Many of the media are controlled by large for-profit corporations who reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and sale of copyrighted material. American media conglomerates tend to be leading global players, generating large revenues as well as large opposition in many parts of the world. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, further deregulation and convergence are under way, leading to mega-mergers, further concentration of media ownership, and the emergence of multinational media conglomerates. These mergers enable tighter control of information.[1] Currently, five corporations control roughly 90% of the media.[2][3] Critics allege that localism, local news and other content at the community level, media spending and coverage of news, and diversity of ownership and views have suffered as a result of these processes of media concentration.[4]

Theories to explain the success of such companies include reliance on certain policies of the American federal government or a tendency to natural monopolies in the industry. See Media bias in the United States.

The organisation Reporters Without Borders compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organisation's assessment of their press freedom records. In 2013–14 United States was ranked 46th out of 180 countries, a drop of thirteen points from the preceding year.[5][6]

Newspapers[edit]

The Washington Post on Monday, July 21, 1969 stating "'The Eagle Has Landed'—Two Men Walk on the Moon".

Newspapers have declined in their influence and penetration into American households over the years. The U.S. does not have a national paper. The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and USA Today are the most circulated newspapers in the United States and are sold in most U.S. cities.[7]

Although the Times' primary audience has always been the people of New York City, the New York Times has gradually become the dominant national "newspaper of record." Apart from its daily nationwide distribution, the term means that back issues are archived on microfilm by every decent-sized public library in the nation, and the Times' articles are often cited by both historians and judges as evidence that a major historical event occurred on a certain date. The Los Angeles Times and the Wall Street Journal are also newspapers of record to a lesser extent. Although USA Today has tried to establish itself as a national paper, it has been widely derided by the academic world as the "McPaper" and is not subscribed to (let alone archived) by most libraries.[citation needed]

Apart from the newspapers just mentioned, all major metropolitan areas have their own local newspapers. Typically, a metropolitan area will support at most one or two major newspapers, with many smaller publications targeted towards particular audiences. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major news agency wire service, such as the Associated Press, Reuters or Bloomberg News[8] for their national and world coverage.

With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.

Most general-purpose newspapers are either being printed one time a week, usually on Thursday or Friday, or are printed daily. Weekly newspapers tend to have much smaller circulation and are more prevalent in rural communities or small towns. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily paper(s), for example, New York City's Village Voice or Los Angeles' L.A. Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups.

Probably due to competition from other media, the number of daily newspapers in the U.S. has declined over the past half-century, according to Editor & Publisher, the trade journal of American newspapers. In particular, the number of evening newspapers has fallen by almost one-half since 1970, while the number of morning editions and Sunday editions has grown.

For comparison, in 1950, there were 1,772 daily papers (and 1,450 – or about 70 percent – of them were evening papers) while in 2000, there were 1,480 daily papers (and 766—or about half—of them were evening papers.)

Daily newspaper circulation is also slowly declining in America, partly due to the near-demise of two-newspaper towns, as the weaker newspapers in most cities have folded:

Year Circulation
1960 58.8 million
1970 62.1 million
1980 62.2 million
1990 62.3 million
2000 55.8 million

The primary source of newspaper income is advertising – in the form of "classifieds" or inserted advertising circulars – rather than circulation income. However, since the late 1990s, this revenue source has been directly challenged by Web sites like eBay (for sales of secondhand items), Monster.com (jobs), and Craigslist (everything).

Additionally, as investigative journalism declined at major daily newspapers in the 2000s, many reporters formed their own non-profit investigative newsrooms. Examples include ProPublica on the national level, Texas Tribune at the state level and Voice of OC at the local level.

The largest newspapers (by circulation) in the United States are USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

Magazines[edit]

Thanks to the huge size of the English-speaking North American media market, the United States has a large magazine industry with hundreds of magazines serving almost every interest, as can be determined by glancing at any newsstand in any large American city. Most magazines are owned by one of the large media conglomerates or by one of their smaller regional brethren. The American Society of Magazine Editors sponsors the annual National Magazine Awards recognizing excellence.

The U.S. has three leading weekly news magazines: Time, Newsweek and U.S. News and World Report. Time and Newsweek are center-left while U.S. News and World Report tends to be center-right. Time is well known for naming a "Person of the Year" each year, while U.S. News publishes annual ratings of American colleges and universities.

The U.S. also has over a dozen major political magazines, including The Atlantic and The New Yorker among others.

Finally, besides the hundreds of specialized magazines that serve the diverse interests and hobbies of the American people, there are also dozens of magazines published by professional organizations for their members, such as Communications of the ACM (for computer science specialists) and the ABA Journal (for lawyers).

Radio[edit]

Fireside chat on government and capitalism (September 30, 1934)

American radio broadcasts in two bands: FM and AM. Some stations are only talk radio – featuring interviews and discussions – while music radio stations broadcast one particular type of music: Top 40, hip-hop, country, etc. Radio broadcast companies have become increasingly consolidated in recent years. National Public Radio is the nation's primary public radio network, but most radio stations are commercial and profit-oriented.

Talk radio as a political medium has also exploded in popularity during the 1990s, due to the 1987 repeal of the Fairness Doctrine, which meant that stations no longer had to "balance" their day by programming alternative points of view.[citation needed]

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970 had limited the number of radio station one person or company could own to 1 AM and 1 FM locally, and 7 AM and 7 FM stations nationally. But due to extensive concentration of media ownership stemming from the Telecommunications Act of 1996, radio companies could own not more than 8 local stations per area market. Most stations are now owned by major radio companies such as iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel Communications), Cumulus Media, Townsquare Media, and CBS Radio. See IBOC and HD Radio.

A new form of radio that is gaining popularity is satellite radio. The two biggest subscriptions based radio services are Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio, which have recently merged to form Sirius XM Radio. Unlike terrestrial radio music channels are commercial free and other channels feature minimal commercials. Satellite radio also is not regulated by the FCC.

During the advent of the internet in the 21st century, internet radio and digital streaming services have been emerged. Among popular brands are Pandora and iHeartRadio. Although, the recording industry also sees Internet radio as a threat and has attempted to impose high royalty rates for the use of recorded music to discourage independent stations from playing popular songs.

Arbitron, a consumer research company, provides ratings (similar to the Nielsen ratings) for national and local radio stations in the United States.

Television[edit]

Press photographers and film crews at Barack Obama rally, February 4, 2008

Ninety-nine percent of American households have at least one television and the majority of households have more than one.[citation needed] The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), CBS (formerly the Columbia Broadcasting System), the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and the Fox Broadcasting Company (Fox).[citation needed]

Several Spanish language broadcast (as well as cable) networks exist, which are the most common form of non-English television broadcasts. These networks are not as widely distributed over-the-air as their English counterparts, available mostly in markets with sizeable Latino and Hispanic populations; several of these over-the-air networks are alternatively fed directly to cable, satellite and IPTV providers in markets without either the availability or the demand for a locally based owned-and-operated or affiliate station.

The largest of these networks, Univision, launched in 1986 as a successor to the Spanish International Network. Its major competition is Telemundo (est. 1986), a sister network of NBC (which acquired Telemundo in 2001).

Public television has a far smaller role than in most other countries. However, a number of states, including West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, and South Carolina, among others, do have state-owned public broadcasting authorities which operate and fund all public television stations in their respective states. The income received from the government is insufficient to cover expenses and stations also rely on corporate sponsorships and viewer contributions.

DirecTV and Dish Network are the major satellite television providers, with 20 and 14 million customers respectively as of February 2014.[9] Meanwhile, the major cable television providers are Comcast with 22 million customers, Time Warner Cable with 11 million, and Cox Communications, Charter Communications, AT&T U-verse and Verizon FiOS with 5–6 million each.

Motion pictures[edit]

In the 20th century, the motion picture industry rose to become one of the most successful and powerful industries in the U.S. Along with other intellectual property industries, its relative importance to the American economy has strengthened as the importance of manufacturing and agriculture have decreased (due to globalization[citation needed]).

Rise of the home video market (1980s–1990s)[edit]

Robert Rodriguez launched his own cable television channel, El Rey.[10]

The 1980s and 1990s saw another significant development. The full acceptance of home video by studios opened a vast new business to exploit. Films such as Showgirls, The Secret of NIMH, and The Shawshank Redemption, which may have performed poorly in their theatrical run, were now able to find success in the video market. It also saw the first generation of filmmakers with access to videotapes emerge. Directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Paul Thomas Anderson had been able to view thousands of films and produced films with vast numbers of references and connections to previous works. Tarantino has had a number of collaborations with director Robert Rodriguez. Rodriguez directed the 1992 action film El Mariachi, which was a commercial success after grossing $2 million against a budget of $7,000. In 2011, El Mariachi was inducted into the Library of Congress to be preserved as part of its National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". The film is further immortalized by Guinness World Records as the lowest-budgeted film ever to gross $1 million at the box office.[11]

This, along with the explosion of independent film and ever-decreasing costs for filmmaking, changed the landscape of American movie-making once again and led a renaissance of filmmaking among Hollywood's lower and middle-classes—those without access to studio financial resources. With the rise of the DVD in the 21st century, DVDs have quickly become even more profitable to studios and have led to an explosion of packaging extra scenes, extended versions, and commentary tracks with the films.[citation needed]

Internet[edit]

The Internet has provided a means for newspapers and other media organizations to deliver news and keep archives public. Revenue is generated through advertising or subscription payments.

Online Streaming[edit]

The days of having to tune in live or buy expensive discs in order to watch your favorite shows and movies are gone. Online streaming makes it possible to watch everything from live news and sports to classic movies to modern TV favorites on their own time, and on any device they choose. Some of online streaming service providers are Netflix, Hulu Plus, Amazon Video and YouTube. Over-the-top subscription services that mirrored cable and TV Everywhere services began emerging in the mid-2010s. In 2015, Dish Network and Sony respectively launched Sling TV and PlayStation Vue, cable-style online and mobile streaming services priced at lower monthly rates than packages offered by traditional pay television system operators.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. p. 671 ISBN 0060838655
  2. ^ These 6 Corporations Control 90% Of The Media In America. Business Insider. 14 June 2012.
  3. ^ Frances Goldin, Debby Smith, Michael Smith (2014). Imagine: Living in a Socialist USA. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0062305573 p. 189:
    • "Twenty years ago, thirty corporations controlled 90 percent of the media. Today, it is a grand total of six mega-corporations - Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, CBS and Comcast. Besides accumulating their own profits, the media are daily trumpets for the rest of the corporate world's advertising."
  4. ^ Converging Media, Diverging Politics: A Political Economy of News Media in the United States and Canada. Edited by David Skinner, James R. Compton, and Michael Gasher, Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. Robert William Jensen, review essay of "Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times," published in The Texas Observer, September 17, 1999, archived here
  5. ^ "World Press Freedom Index 2014". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Stearns, Josh (11 February 2014). U.S. Plummets in Global Press Freedom Rankings. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  7. ^ Stynes, Tess (October 28, 2014). "USA Today Remains Top Newspaper by Circulation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 28, 2016. 
  8. ^ "High wires". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  9. ^ Consumers wary of Comcast, Time Warner Cable merger - USA Today, 13 February 2014
  10. ^ Craig Hunter. "T2's Robert Patrick & More Join 'From Dusk Till Dawn: The Series'". Thehollywoodnews.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  11. ^ Oscars 2015: The Guinness World Records alternative Academy Award

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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