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Mass Media in the United States
Mass Media in the United States
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: jc18634
TRUMP JUST ANNOUNCED A $100 BILLION SURPRISE FOR THE UNITED STATES… MEDIA CAN’T HIDE THIS
TRUMP JUST ANNOUNCED A $100 BILLION SURPRISE FOR THE UNITED STATES… MEDIA CAN’T HIDE THIS
Published: 2017/11/06
Channel: The Next News Network
What the Media Won
What the Media Won't Tell You About the USA
Published: 2017/10/25
Channel: reallygraceful
Propaganda Terms in the Media and What They Mean - Noam Chomsky
Propaganda Terms in the Media and What They Mean - Noam Chomsky
Published: 2012/06/01
Channel: The Film Archives
Israeli Media on India and Pakistan
Israeli Media on India and Pakistan's Role in New United States Strategy in Afghanistan
Published: 2017/08/23
Channel: Indians Around The World
PAKI MEDIA -UNITED STATES WARN PAKISTAN "DO MORE, OTHERWISE YOU WILL BE NO MORE"
PAKI MEDIA -UNITED STATES WARN PAKISTAN "DO MORE, OTHERWISE YOU WILL BE NO MORE"
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: PAKI COMEDY CLUB
America Is Haunted
America Is Haunted
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Truthstream Media
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Mainstream media silent as 1,500 pedophiles arrested in the United States since Trump was elected
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Trump Breaking News Network
Trump Just Announced A $100 Billion Surprise For The United States… Media Can’t Hide This
Trump Just Announced A $100 Billion Surprise For The United States… Media Can’t Hide This
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: The Deplorables Army
NWO and the United States: mainstream media lies linked to government propaganda (1)
NWO and the United States: mainstream media lies linked to government propaganda (1)
Published: 2014/03/23
Channel: Christianman777
STATE MEDIA in the United States of America - DESPICABLE!
STATE MEDIA in the United States of America - DESPICABLE!
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: BestPoliticalVideos
PAKI MEDIA  UNITED STATES WARN PAKISTAN DO MORE, OTHERWISE WE WILL DO MORE
PAKI MEDIA UNITED STATES WARN PAKISTAN DO MORE, OTHERWISE WE WILL DO MORE
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Modi Fan Club Official
Gerald Celente  - The Media is Dividing the United States
Gerald Celente - The Media is Dividing the United States
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Franklin1776
13. MEDIA CONCENTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES
13. MEDIA CONCENTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES
Published: 2010/10/30
Channel: JENSEN4PRESIDENT2020
NWO and the United States: the media admits using mind control
NWO and the United States: the media admits using mind control
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Follower of Christ777
Who Controls the MASS MEDIA in the United States?
Who Controls the MASS MEDIA in the United States?
Published: 2008/09/11
Channel: INFOaboutISRAEL
United States Media Demo Reel
United States Media Demo Reel
Published: 2010/10/15
Channel: 13Youtoo
R. McChesney: Media and Politics in the United States Today
R. McChesney: Media and Politics in the United States Today
Published: 2008/11/14
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
Trump Just Announced a $100 Billion Surprise For The United States… Media Can’t Hide This
Trump Just Announced a $100 Billion Surprise For The United States… Media Can’t Hide This
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: BreakingNews24
TRUMP JUST ANNOUNCED A $100 BILLION SURPRISE FOR THE UNITED STATES   MEDIA CAN’T HIDE THIS
TRUMP JUST ANNOUNCED A $100 BILLION SURPRISE FOR THE UNITED STATES MEDIA CAN’T HIDE THIS
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: 24h News
Will Ferrell, Bruce Willis and other famous media personalities honor the United States Military
Will Ferrell, Bruce Willis and other famous media personalities honor the United States Military
Published: 2013/12/27
Channel: WWE
China next generation aircraft official exposure! Russian media said the United States will become a
China next generation aircraft official exposure! Russian media said the United States will become a
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: MILITARY NEWS UPDATE
Full Show - Emergency: Communist Chinese Attempt Takeover Of United States Media - 01/26/2017
Full Show - Emergency: Communist Chinese Attempt Takeover Of United States Media - 01/26/2017
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: The Alex Jones Channel
NASA TV  Media
NASA TV Media
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: NASA
Trump Just Announced A $100 Billion Surprise For The United States… Media Can’t Hide This
Trump Just Announced A $100 Billion Surprise For The United States… Media Can’t Hide This
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: TODAY NEWS
Media United States of America
Media United States of America
Published: 2012/12/20
Channel: Mediagroup1231
Media Censorship in the United States
Media Censorship in the United States
Published: 2013/11/09
Channel: Ashley Marin
Police Brutality, the US Media, and Systematic Racism in the United States
Police Brutality, the US Media, and Systematic Racism in the United States
Published: 2013/01/08
Channel: UrWorld NewsMedia
India and the United States: Partners in Media and Entertainment
India and the United States: Partners in Media and Entertainment
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Asia Society
Make America laugh again: Pro-Trump comedian Michael Joiner w/ Ben Davies
Make America laugh again: Pro-Trump comedian Michael Joiner w/ Ben Davies
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Rebel Media
State Visit of President of United States of America: Media Interaction
State Visit of President of United States of America: Media Interaction
Published: 2015/01/25
Channel: Ministry of External Affairs, India
Maxwell Boykoff "Climate Science and Mass Media in the United States and United Kingdom..."
Maxwell Boykoff "Climate Science and Mass Media in the United States and United Kingdom..."
Published: 2014/11/13
Channel: Situating Science
U.S. Media Suffered Most Humiliating Debacle in Ages
U.S. Media Suffered Most Humiliating Debacle in Ages
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: Martin Brodel
Tommy Robinson: New York is NOT Safe
Tommy Robinson: New York is NOT Safe
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: Rebel Media
Russia, the United States, and the Growing Media War
Russia, the United States, and the Growing Media War
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Verso Books
How social media makes us unsocial | Allison Graham | TEDxSMU
How social media makes us unsocial | Allison Graham | TEDxSMU
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: TEDx Talks
WOW! President Trump DESTROYS FAKE NEWS MEDIA, HILLARY, DEMOCRATS in SPEECH - MASSIVE Rally Florida
WOW! President Trump DESTROYS FAKE NEWS MEDIA, HILLARY, DEMOCRATS in SPEECH - MASSIVE Rally Florida
Published: 2017/12/09
Channel: PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP NEWS & LIVE SPEECH 2017
United States committed to the ideal of media freedom and will continue to support
United States committed to the ideal of media freedom and will continue to support
Published: 2014/04/02
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Panel on White House Accuses Media of "PURPOSEFULLY MISLEADING" Americans. #Media
Panel on White House Accuses Media of "PURPOSEFULLY MISLEADING" Americans. #Media
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
CHINES MEDIA REACTION ON UNITED STATES SECRETARY OF DEFENSE INDIA VISIT 2017
CHINES MEDIA REACTION ON UNITED STATES SECRETARY OF DEFENSE INDIA VISIT 2017
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: Unbelievable India
Putin
Putin's Warning: Full Speech 2016
Published: 2016/07/25
Channel: Inessa S
Muslims Countries Buys Weapons From United States Pak Media Crying
Muslims Countries Buys Weapons From United States Pak Media Crying
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Vande Mataram India
NWO and the United States: the Vatican controls the US media
NWO and the United States: the Vatican controls the US media
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: Follower of Christ777
Is The Media Knowingly Covering Up The Greatest Scandal in United States political history?
Is The Media Knowingly Covering Up The Greatest Scandal in United States political history?
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: Sons of Lincoln
Why Journalism Is Important: Christopher Hitchens on Media (1998)
Why Journalism Is Important: Christopher Hitchens on Media (1998)
Published: 2014/02/24
Channel: The Film Archives
United States Zionist media fears competition
United States Zionist media fears competition
Published: 2010/10/07
Channel: iwillspyonyou
THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AN MEDIA  PROTECTS FETO GULEN
THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AN MEDIA PROTECTS FETO GULEN
Published: 2016/12/26
Channel: John Favere
European Union vs The United States (EU vs USA) 2017 - Who Would Win - Army / Military Comparison
European Union vs The United States (EU vs USA) 2017 - Who Would Win - Army / Military Comparison
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: The Infographics Show
President of the United States gives the Media an overdue Reality Check.  You
President of the United States gives the Media an overdue Reality Check. You're not all that
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: TRUMP MAFIA
What the media is not telling you, United states is in danger
What the media is not telling you, United states is in danger
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Tactical Arms, Ammo & Preparation
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Media of the United States consist of several different types of media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites. The U.S. also has a strong music industry. Many of the media are controlled by large for-profit corporations who reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and sale of copyrighted material. American media conglomerates tend to be leading global players, generating large revenues as well as large opposition in many parts of the world. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, further deregulation and convergence are under way, leading to mega-mergers, further concentration of media ownership, and the emergence of multinational media conglomerates. These mergers enable tighter control of information.[1] Currently, five corporations control roughly 90% of the media.[2][3] Critics allege that localism, local news and other content at the community level, media spending and coverage of news, and diversity of ownership and views have suffered as a result of these processes of media concentration.[4]

Theories to explain the success of such companies include reliance on certain policies of the American federal government or a tendency to natural monopolies in the industry. See Media bias in the United States.

The organisation Reporters Without Borders compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organisation's assessment of their press freedom records. In 2013–14 United States was ranked 46th out of 180 countries, a drop of thirteen points from the preceding year.[5][6]

Newspapers[edit]

The Washington Post on Monday, July 21, 1969 stating "'The Eagle Has Landed'—Two Men Walk on the Moon".

Newspapers have declined in their influence and penetration into American households over the years. The U.S. does not have a national paper. The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and USA Today are the most circulated newspapers in the United States and are sold in most U.S. cities.[7]

Although the Times' primary audience has always been the people of New York City, the New York Times has gradually become the dominant national "newspaper of record." Apart from its daily nationwide distribution, the term means that back issues are archived on microfilm by every decent-sized public library in the nation, and the Times' articles are often cited by both historians and judges as evidence that a major historical event occurred on a certain date. The Los Angeles Times and the Wall Street Journal are also newspapers of record to a lesser extent. Although USA Today has tried to establish itself as a national paper, it has been widely derided by the academic world as the "McPaper" and is not subscribed to (let alone archived) by most libraries.[citation needed]

The New York Times cartoon published during the Mars Orbiter Mission

Apart from the newspapers just mentioned, all major metropolitan areas have their own local newspapers. Typically, a metropolitan area will support at most one or two major newspapers, with many smaller publications targeted towards particular audiences. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major news agency wire service, such as the Associated Press, Reuters or Bloomberg News[8] for their national and world coverage.

With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.

Most general-purpose newspapers are either being printed one time a week, usually on Thursday or Friday, or are printed daily. Weekly newspapers tend to have much smaller circulation and are more prevalent in rural communities or small towns. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily paper(s), for example, New York City's Village Voice or Los Angeles' L.A. Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups.

Probably due to competition from other media, the number of daily newspapers in the U.S. has declined over the past half-century, according to Editor & Publisher, the trade journal of American newspapers. In particular, the number of evening newspapers has fallen by almost one-half since 1970, while the number of morning editions and Sunday editions has grown.

For comparison, in 1950, there were 1,772 daily papers (and 1,450 – or about 70 percent – of them were evening papers) while in 2000, there were 1,480 daily papers (and 766—or about half—of them were evening papers.)

Daily newspaper circulation is also slowly declining in America, partly due to the near-demise of two-newspaper towns, as the weaker newspapers in most cities have folded:

Year Circulation
1960 58.8 million
1970 62.1 million
1980 62.2 million
1990 62.3 million
2000 55.8 million

The primary source of newspaper income is advertising – in the form of "classifieds" or inserted advertising circulars – rather than circulation income. However, since the late 1990s, this revenue source has been directly challenged by Web sites like eBay (for sales of secondhand items), Monster.com (jobs), and Craigslist (everything).

Additionally, as investigative journalism declined at major daily newspapers in the 2000s, many reporters formed their own non-profit investigative newsrooms. Examples include ProPublica on the national level, Texas Tribune at the state level and Voice of OC at the local level.

The largest newspapers (by circulation) in the United States are USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

Magazines[edit]

The first issue of Time (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker Joseph G. Cannon.

Thanks to the huge size of the English-speaking North American media market, the United States has a large magazine industry with hundreds of magazines serving almost every interest, as can be determined by glancing at any newsstand in any large American city. Most magazines are owned by one of the large media conglomerates or by one of their smaller regional brethren. The American Society of Magazine Editors sponsors the annual National Magazine Awards recognizing excellence.

The U.S. has three leading weekly news magazines: Time, Newsweek and U.S. News and World Report. Time and Newsweek are center-left while U.S. News and World Report tends to be center-right. Time is well known for naming a "Person of the Year" each year, while U.S. News publishes annual ratings of American colleges and universities.

The U.S. also has over a dozen major political magazines, including The Atlantic and The New Yorker among others.

Finally, besides the hundreds of specialized magazines that serve the diverse interests and hobbies of the American people, there are also dozens of magazines published by professional organizations for their members, such as Communications of the ACM (for computer science specialists) and the ABA Journal (for lawyers).

Books[edit]

Radio[edit]

Fireside chat on government and capitalism (September 30, 1934)

American radio broadcasts in two bands: FM and AM. Some stations are only talk radio – featuring interviews and discussions – while music radio stations broadcast one particular type of music: Top 40, hip-hop, country, etc. Radio broadcast companies have become increasingly consolidated in recent years. National Public Radio is the nation's primary public radio network, but most radio stations are commercial and profit-oriented.

Talk radio as a political medium has also exploded in popularity during the 1990s, due to the 1987 repeal of the Fairness Doctrine, which meant that stations no longer had to "balance" their day by programming alternative points of view.[citation needed]

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970 had limited the number of radio station one person or company could own to 1 AM and 1 FM locally, and 7 AM and 7 FM stations nationally. But due to extensive concentration of media ownership stemming from the Telecommunications Act of 1996, radio companies could own not more than 8 local stations per area market. Most stations are now owned by major radio companies such as iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel Communications), Cumulus Media, Townsquare Media, and CBS Radio. See IBOC and HD Radio.

A new form of radio that is gaining popularity is satellite radio. The two biggest subscriptions based radio services are Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio, which have recently merged to form Sirius XM Radio. Unlike terrestrial radio music channels are commercial free and other channels feature minimal commercials. Satellite radio also is not regulated by the FCC.

During the advent of the internet in the 21st century, internet radio and digital streaming services have been emerged. Among popular brands are Pandora and iHeartRadio. Although, the recording industry also sees Internet radio as a threat and has attempted to impose high royalty rates for the use of recorded music to discourage independent stations from playing popular songs.

Arbitron, a consumer research company, provides ratings (similar to the Nielsen ratings) for national and local radio stations in the United States.

Television[edit]

Press photographers and film crews at Barack Obama rally, February 4, 2008

Ninety-nine percent of American households have at least one television and the majority of households have more than one.[citation needed] The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), CBS (formerly the Columbia Broadcasting System), the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and the Fox Broadcasting Company (Fox).[citation needed]

Several Spanish language broadcast (as well as cable) networks exist, which are the most common form of non-English television broadcasts. These networks are not as widely distributed over-the-air as their English counterparts, available mostly in markets with sizeable Latino and Hispanic populations; several of these over-the-air networks are alternatively fed directly to cable, satellite and IPTV providers in markets without either the availability or the demand for a locally based owned-and-operated or affiliate station.

The largest of these networks, Univision, launched in 1986 as a successor to the Spanish International Network. Its major competition is Telemundo (est. 1986), a sister network of NBC (which acquired Telemundo in 2001).

Public television has a far smaller role than in most other countries. However, a number of states, including West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, and South Carolina, among others, do have state-owned public broadcasting authorities which operate and fund all public television stations in their respective states. The income received from the government is insufficient to cover expenses and stations also rely on corporate sponsorships and viewer contributions.

DirecTV and Dish Network are the major satellite television providers, with 20 and 14 million customers respectively as of February 2014.[9] Meanwhile, the major cable television providers are Comcast with 22 million customers, Time Warner Cable with 11 million, and Cox Communications, Charter Communications, AT&T U-verse and Verizon FiOS with 5–6 million each.

Polarization due to Social Media[edit]

In the late 2010's popular media is in on the rise. Eighty-one percent of Americans get some of their news though websites, apps, or other platforms.[10] The increase consumption of media through media has caused the separation between political views to increase. But a new report from the National Bureau of Economic Research throws that theory into question, as its findings seem to indicate America's trend toward ideological extremism can't be completely explained away by the popularity of outlets like Facebook and Twitter.[11] However,the roots of our current polarization go back almost 40 years to the mid-1970s.  Indices of polarization based on roll call voting in Congress have been nearly monotonical in both chambers of Congress since around 1978[12].  This can be viewed as a social and political boundary found in the United States political world because this polarization can lead to causes in the house and senate as well as in the presidency. Due to the public having a impact upon the legislators in current power in the United states a reasonable conclusion is that the social boundaries found in america could deepen. Perhaps the simplest explanation for an increasingly polarized Congress is one grounded in the relationship between members of Congress and their constituents. If voters are polarized, reelection-motivated legislators would be induced to represent the political ideologies of their constituents, resulting in a polarized Congress. Evidence of voter-induced polarization is elusive, however.[13]

Motion pictures[edit]

In the 20th century, the motion picture industry rose to become one of the most successful and powerful industries in the U.S. Along with other intellectual property industries, its relative importance to the American economy has strengthened as the importance of manufacturing and agriculture have decreased (due to globalization[citation needed]).

Rise of the home video market (1980s–1990s)[edit]

Robert Rodriguez launched his own cable television channel, El Rey.[14]

The 1980s and 1990s saw another significant development. The full acceptance of home video by studios opened a vast new business to exploit. Films such as Showgirls, The Secret of NIMH, and The Shawshank Redemption, which may have performed poorly in their theatrical run, were now able to find success in the video market. It also saw the first generation of filmmakers with access to videotapes emerge. Directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Paul Thomas Anderson had been able to view thousands of films and produced films with vast numbers of references and connections to previous works. Tarantino has had a number of collaborations with director Robert Rodriguez. Rodriguez directed the 1992 action film El Mariachi, which was a commercial success after grossing $2 million against a budget of $7,000. In 2011, El Mariachi was inducted into the Library of Congress to be preserved as part of its National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". The film is further immortalized by Guinness World Records as the lowest-budgeted film ever to gross $1 million at the box office.[15]

This, along with the explosion of independent film and ever-decreasing costs for filmmaking, changed the landscape of American movie-making once again and led a renaissance of filmmaking among Hollywood's lower and middle-classes—those without access to studio financial resources. With the rise of the DVD in the 21st century, DVDs have quickly become even more profitable to studios and have led to an explosion of packaging extra scenes, extended versions, and commentary tracks with the films.[citation needed]

Internet[edit]

Wikipedia blackout protest against SOPA on January 18, 2012

The Internet has provided a means for newspapers and other media organizations to deliver news and keep archives public. Revenue is generated through advertising or subscription payments.

Online Streaming[edit]

The days of having to tune in live or buy expensive discs in order to watch your favorite shows and movies are gone. Online streaming makes it possible to watch everything from live news and sports to classic movies to modern TV favorites on their own time, and on any device they choose. Some of online streaming service providers are Netflix, Hulu Plus, Amazon Video and YouTube. Over-the-top subscription services that mirrored cable and TV Everywhere services began emerging in the mid-2010s. In 2015, Dish Network and Sony respectively launched Sling TV and PlayStation Vue, cable-style online and mobile streaming services priced at lower monthly rates than packages offered by traditional pay television system operators.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. p. 671 ISBN 0060838655
  2. ^ These 6 Corporations Control 90% Of The Media In America. Business Insider. 14 June 2012.
  3. ^ Frances Goldin, Debby Smith, Michael Smith (2014). Imagine: Living in a Socialist USA. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0062305573 p. 189:
    • "Twenty years ago, thirty corporations controlled 90 percent of the media. Today, it is a grand total of six mega-corporations - Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, CBS and Comcast. Besides accumulating their own profits, the media are daily trumpets for the rest of the corporate world's advertising."
  4. ^ Converging Media, Diverging Politics: A Political Economy of News Media in the United States and Canada. Edited by David Skinner, James R. Compton, and Michael Gasher, Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. Robert William Jensen, review essay of "Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times," published in The Texas Observer, September 17, 1999, archived here Archived December 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "World Press Freedom Index 2014". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Stearns, Josh (11 February 2014). U.S. Plummets in Global Press Freedom Rankings. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  7. ^ Stynes, Tess (October 28, 2014). "USA Today Remains Top Newspaper by Circulation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 28, 2016. 
  8. ^ "High wires". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  9. ^ Consumers wary of Comcast, Time Warner Cable merger - USA Today, 13 February 2014
  10. ^ Meyer, Robinson. "How the Average American Gets Their News". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-11-19. 
  11. ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2017-03-20/is-social-media-to-blame-for-political-polarization-in-america.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ McCarty, Nolan (2014-01-08). "What we know and don't know about our polarized politics". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-11-19. 
  13. ^ (PDF) http://www.apsanet.org/portals/54/Files/Task%20Force%20Reports/Chapter2Mansbridge.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ Craig Hunter. "T2's Robert Patrick & More Join 'From Dusk Till Dawn: The Series'". Thehollywoodnews.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  15. ^ Oscars 2015: The Guinness World Records alternative Academy Award

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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